Expert Opin Biol Ther 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.
Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Introduction: In the past few years, administrating monoclonal humanized antibodies, namely checkpoint inhibitors, against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), and its ligand (PD-L1), has yielded reassuring tumor regression rates. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors disrupt the engagement of PD-1 on T-cells and their ligands on tumor or other target cells and reactivate the tumor-specific T infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), which are mostly in a state of anergy before the PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. However, a limited number of patients initially respond, and the others show a primary (innate) resistance. Read More