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Continuous Quantitative Electroencephalogram (EEG) Monitoring for Early Detection of Brain Herniation in Large Hemispheric Infarction (LHI): A Case Report.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Oct 20;31(1):106158. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Neurocritical care unit, Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 215 Heping West Road, Xinhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050000, China. Electronic address:

Background: Computer-assisted electroencephalography (EEG) systems may improve the likelihood of detecting abnormal EEGs in adult patients with severe disease.

Case Presentation: We implemented long-range EEG monitoring in a patient with large hemispheric infarction (LHI) and explored its real-time changes in reflecting the patient's brain function. The bands of Alpha, Beta, Delta, Theta, DAR (Delta/Alpha), DTABR (Delta+Theta/Alpha+Beta), and brain symmetry index (BSI) were calculated as a ratio of total power. Read More

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October 2021

Activation of CDC48 and acetyltransferase encoding genes contributes to enhanced abiotic stress tolerance and improved productivity traits in rice.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Oct 16;168:329-339. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Centre for Plant Molecular Biology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, 500 007, India. Electronic address:

World-wide crop productivity is highly impacted by various extreme environmental conditions. In the present investigation, activation tagged (AT) line A10-Ds-RFP6 of rice endowed with improved agronomic attributes was tested for its tolerance ability against drought and salinity stress conditions as well as identification of genes associated with these traits. Under both drought and salinity stress conditions, A10-Ds-RFP6 line exhibited increased seed germination rates and improved plant growth characteristics at seedling, vegetative and reproductive stages as compared to wild-type (WT) plants. Read More

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October 2021

Thermal and physical damage in skull base drilling using gas cooling modes: FEM simulation and experimental evaluation.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Oct 12;212:106463. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave, Chicago, IL 60637, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Skull base drilling, as a high-risk process, is one of the most important techniques of skull base surgeries.

Methods: The temperature, thrust force, and torque were calculated using finite element method (FEM) simulation under two conventional cooling models, and internal and external CO cooling modes at four rotational speeds (1000-4000 rpm). The temperatures at the bottom and on the surface of the drilling site were measured experimentally using a thermometer and a thermographic camera, respectively. Read More

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October 2021

MIcro-surgical anastomose workflow recognition challenge report.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Oct 10;212:106452. Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Univ Rennes,INSERM, LTSI - UMR 1099, Rennes, F35000, France. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Automatic surgical workflow recognition is an essential step in developing context-aware computer-assisted surgical systems. Video recordings of surgeries are becoming widely accessible, as the operational field view is captured during laparoscopic surgeries. Head and ceiling mounted cameras are also increasingly being used to record videos in open surgeries. Read More

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October 2021

A large margin piecewise linear classifier with fusion of deep features in the diagnosis of COVID-19.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Oct 11;139:104927. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Business Information Systems University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland, Sierre (HES SO), Switzerland. Electronic address:

The world has experienced epidemics of coronavirus infections several times over the last two decades. Recent studies have shown that using medical imaging techniques can be useful in developing an automatic computer-aided diagnosis system to detect pandemic diseases with high accuracy at an early stage. In this study, a large margin piecewise linear classifier was developed to diagnose COVID-19 compared to a wide range of viral pneumonia, including SARS and MERS, using chest x-ray images. Read More

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October 2021

Modelling and experimental investigation of small-scale gasification CHP units for enhancing the use of local biowaste.

Waste Manag 2021 Oct 20;136:174-183. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Jordanstown BT37 0QB, UK.

Small-scale gasification Combined Heat and Power systems, fed by biowaste resources, have the potential to enhance local renewable energy production, reduce carbon emissions and address the challenges of waste disposal. However, there is a lack of understanding on the influence of challenging feedstocks, such as, for example, digestate, poultry litter and municipal solid waste, on the syngas quality and the incidence of the drying stage in the overall process. This paper addresses this gap by analysing and comparing 40 samples of the most common biowaste feedstocks. Read More

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October 2021

Multiple-brain systems dynamically interact during tonic and phasic states to support language integrity in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Oct 18;32:102861. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Neurology, Comprehensive Epilepsy Centre, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

An epileptogenic focus in the dominant temporal lobe can result in the reorganization of language systems in order to compensate for compromised functions. We studied the compensatory reorganization of language in the setting of left temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), taking into account the interaction of language (L) with key non-language (NL) networks such as dorsal attention (DAN), fronto-parietal (FPN) and cingulo-opercular (COpN), with these systems providing cognitive resources helpful for successful language performance. We applied tools from dynamic network neuroscience to functional MRI data collected from 23 TLE patients and 23 matched healthy controls during the resting state (RS) and a sentence completion (SC) task to capture how the functional architecture of a language network dynamically changes and interacts with NL systems in these two contexts. Read More

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October 2021

The combination of ultrasound and chlorogenic acid to inactivate Staphylococcus aureus under planktonic, biofilm, and food systems.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Oct 18;80:105801. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Food Quality and Safety-State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base, Ministry of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210014, China; Institute of Agricultural Products Processing, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China.

This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of different treatments, namely, ultrasound (US), chlorogenic acid (CA), and ultrasound combined with chlorogenic acid (US plus CA) on the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus planktonic and biofilm cells. Results showed that the combined treatment of US and CA exhibited remarkable synergistic antibacterial and antibiofilm effects. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated that the combined treatment of US and CA caused the most serious damage to the cell morphology. Read More

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October 2021

The utility of jellyfish as marine biomonitors.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Oct 20;173(Pt B):113056. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

College Science & Engineering, James Cook University, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Australia.

Jellyfish are abundant in coastal waters across broad latitudinal ranges and are often considered pests and a group that can cause phase shifts in marine ecosystems. Recent studies have highlighted their potential as biomonitors of contaminants including metals, herbicides and nutrients. Traditionally, sedentary organisms like molluscs and annelid worms have been used, but some jellyfish have similar characteristics of localised distributions and in some cases sedentary behaviour. Read More

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October 2021

Acute and longer-term cardiovascular conditions in the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Coast Guard Cohort.

Environ Int 2021 Oct 20;158:106937. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: In 2010, the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) led a clean-up response to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Read More

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October 2021

Neural optimization: Understanding trade-offs with Pareto theory.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2021 Oct 20;71:84-91. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Institute for Theoretical Biology, Department of Biology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Nervous systems, like any organismal structure, have been shaped by evolutionary processes to increase fitness. The resulting neural 'bauplan' has to account for multiple objectives simultaneously, including computational function, as well as additional factors such as robustness to environmental changes and energetic limitations. Oftentimes these objectives compete, and quantification of the relative impact of individual optimization targets is non-trivial. Read More

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October 2021

Antibacterial particles and predatory bacteria as alternatives to antibacterial chemicals in the era of antibiotic resistance.

Authors:
Richard P Novick

Curr Opin Microbiol 2021 Oct 20;64:109-116. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:

This review is focused on the subset of antibacterial agents whose action involves one-on-one targeting of infecting bacteria. These agents target individual bacteria and their efficacy is based on particle numbers in contrast to chemical agents such as antibiotics, whose efficacy is based on minimal inhibitory concentrations. Four extant members of this class are predatory bacteria, functional (plaque-forming) phages, and engineered particulate systems, phagemids (plasmids that contain a phage packaging signal) and antibacterial drones (ABDs) that package chromosomal island DNA carrying antibacterial genes. Read More

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October 2021

Contextualizing adolescent structural brain development: Environmental determinants and mental health outcomes.

Curr Opin Psychol 2021 Sep 28;44:170-176. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

PROMENTA Research Center, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway; NORMENT, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway; Department of Psychiatric Research, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

The spatiotemporal group-level patterns of brain macrostructural development are relatively well-documented. Current research emphasizes individual variability in brain development, including its causes and consequences. Although genetic factors and prenatal and perinatal events play critical roles, calls are now made to also study brain development in transactional interplay with the different aspects of an individual's physical and social environment. Read More

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September 2021

The conservation and diversity of ascidian cells and molecules involved in the inflammatory reaction: The Ciona robusta model.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Earth and Marine Science, University of Palermo, Italy.

Ascidians are marine invertebrate chordates belonging to the earliest branch (Tunicata) in the chordate phylum, therefore, they are of interest for studying the evolution of immune systems. Due to the known genome, the non-colonial Ciona robusta, previously considered to be C. intestinalis type A, is a model species for the study of inflammatory response. Read More

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October 2021

A New Methodological Framework for Hazard Detection Models in Health Information Technology Systems.

J Biomed Inform 2021 Oct 20:103937. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC, USA.

The adoption of health information technology (HIT) has facilitated efforts to increase the quality and efficiency of health care services and decrease health care overhead while simultaneously generating massive amounts of digital information stored in electronic health records (EHRs). However, due to patient safety issues resulting from the use of HIT systems, there is an emerging need to develop and implement hazard detection tools to identify and mitigate risks to patients. This paper presents a new methodological framework to develop hazard detection models and to demonstrate its capability by using the US Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) Corporate Data Warehouse, the data repository for the VA's EHR. Read More

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October 2021

Culture independent detection systems for bloodstream infection.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, RBWH Campus, Brisbane, Australia; Infectious Diseases Unit, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Sepsis and bloodstream infection are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and early effective antimicrobial therapy has been demonstrated to improve patient outcomes. Traditional culture-based methods, however, have several limitations which hamper a prompt diagnosis in bloodstream infection, including long turnaround times and limited sensitivity. In the last years, advances have been made in the development of several technologies which allow the identification of pathogens and their resistance markers directly from whole blood, possibly representing promising alternatives to conventional culture methods. Read More

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October 2021

Multiple two-dimensional active shape model framework for right ventricular segmentation.

Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 W Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA. Electronic address:

Segmentation of the right ventricle (RV) in MRI short axis images is very challenging due to its complex shape and various appearance among the different subjects and cross-sections. Active shape models (ASM) have shown potential for segmenting the complex structures, including the RV, through two formulations: two- and three-dimensional modeling with a reported trade-off between accuracy and complexity of each formulation. In this work, we propose a new framework for modeling the RV surface using multiple 2D contours, where information from multiple cross-sectional images are incorporated into the same model. Read More

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October 2021

Homoploid hybrids, allopolyploids, and high ploidy levels characterize the evolutionary history of a western North American quillwort complex (Isoëtes).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Oct 20:107332. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.

Polyploidy and hybridization are important processes in seed-free plant evolution. However, a major gap lies in our understanding of how these processes affect the evolutionary history of high-ploidy systems. The heterosporous lycophyte genus Isoëtes is a lineage with many putative hybrids and high-level polyploid taxa (ranging from tetraploid to dodecaploid). Read More

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October 2021

Proteins from the core genome of Corynebacterium ulcerans respond for pathogenicity and reveal promising vaccine targets for diphtheria.

Microb Pathog 2021 Oct 20:105263. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Laboratory of Genomics and Bioinformatics, Center of Genomics and Systems Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil. Electronic address:

Corynebacterium ulcerans is an emerging pathogen able to transmit the acute infection diphtheria to humans. Although there is a well-established vaccine based on the toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, another species of this genus known to cause the disease, there is still no vaccine formulations described for C. ulcerans; this fact contributes to the increase in cases of infection that has been observed. Read More

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October 2021

Innovative vaccine platforms against infectious diseases: under the scope of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Int J Pharm 2021 Oct 20:121212. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Section of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis Zografou, 15771 Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

While classic vaccines have proved greatly efficacious in eliminating serious infectious diseases, innovative vaccine platforms open a new pathway to overcome dangerous pandemics via the development of safe and effective formulations. Such platforms play a key role either as antigen delivery systems or as immune-stimulators that induce both innate and adaptive immune responses. Liposomes or lipid nanoparticles, virus-like particles, nano-emulsions, polymeric or inorganic nanoparticles, as well as viral vectors, all belong in the nanoscale and are the main categories of innovative vaccines that are currently on the market or in clinical and pre-clinical phases. Read More

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October 2021

Effects of intraspecific chemical cues on the behaviour of the bloodfin tetra Aphyocharax anisitsi (Ostariophysi: Characidae).

Behav Processes 2021 Oct 20:104533. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Laboratorio de Neuroendocrinología y Comportamiento en Peces y Anfibios, Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires; Instituto de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental y Aplicada-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Chemical communication can induce a multitude of behaviours when detected by fish olfactory systems, from parental care, predation and alarm signalling, to foraging, schooling, reproduction, and migration. Chemical cues provide information that visual traits cannot and fish can respond to chemical cues without any additional sensory cue. In this way, pheromones play an essential role in the fitness of fishes. Read More

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October 2021

Optimization of magnetic bead-based nucleic acid extraction for SARS-CoV-2 testing using readily available reagents.

J Virol Methods 2021 Oct 20:114339. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, BC Cancer, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for generic reagents and flexible systems in diagnostic testing. Magnetic bead-based nucleic acid extraction protocols using 96-well plates on open liquid handlers are readily amenable to meet this need. Here, one such approach is rigorously optimized to minimize cross-well contamination while maintaining sensitivity. Read More

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October 2021

Prefrontal Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Depression in US Military Veterans - A Naturalistic Cohort Study in the Veterans Health Administration.

J Affect Disord 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

National Center for PTSD, White River Junction, VT, USA; Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, USA; VA RR&D Center for Neurorestoration and Neurotechnology, Providence VA Healthcare System, Providence, RI, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an evidence-based treatment for pharmacoresistant major depressive disorder (MDD), however, the evidence in veterans has been mixed. To this end, VA implemented a nationwide TMS program that included evaluating clinical outcomes within a naturalistic design. TMS was hypothesized to be safe and provide clinically meaningful reductions in MDD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Read More

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October 2021

Prolonged sub-lethal exposure to galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) promotes the metastatic potential of glioblastoma tumor spheroids.

Neurotoxicology 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, 22030, Edirne, Turkey.

Galaxolide and tonalide are well-known polycyclic musks whose intensive use without limitations in numerous cleaning, hygiene, and personal care products has resulted in widespread direct human exposure via absorption, inhalation, and oral ingestion. Latest data shows that long-term, low-dose exposure to toxic chemicals can induce unpredictable harmful effects in a variety of living systems, however, interactions between synthetic musks and brain tumours remain largely unexplored. Glioblastoma (GB) accounts for nearly half of all tumours of the central nervous system and is characterized by very poor prognosis. Read More

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October 2021

Pediatric reference intervals for 32 routine biochemical markers using the siemens healthineers atellica® CH assays in healthy children and adolescents.

Clin Biochem 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

CALIPER Program, Department of Pediatric Laboratory Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Pediatric reference intervals are essential for test interpretation. With development of newer analytical systems, de novo reference interval establishment is of necessary importance. In the current study, pediatric reference intervals were determined for 32 analytes using Siemens Healthineers Atellica® CH assays in the CALIPER cohort of healthy children and adolescents. Read More

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October 2021

Fitting thermodynamic-based models: Incorporating parameter sensitivity improves the performance of an evolutionary algorithm.

Math Biosci 2021 Oct 20:108716. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Biology Department, Clark University, 950 Main St. Worcester, MA, USA. Electronic address:

A detailed comprehension of transcriptional regulation is critical to understanding the genetic control of development and disease across many different organisms. To more fully investigate the complex molecular interactions controlling the precise expression of genes, many groups have constructed mathematical models to complement their experimental approaches. A critical step in such studies is choosing the most appropriate parameter estimation algorithm to enable detailed analysis of the parameters that contribute to the models. Read More

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October 2021

Optimizing microtubule arrangements for rapid cargo capture.

Biophys J 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Cellular functions such as autophagy, cell signaling and vesicular trafficking involve the retrograde transport of motor-driven cargo along microtubules. Typically, newly formed cargo engages in slow undirected movement from its point of origin before attaching to a microtubule. In some cell types, cargo destined for delivery to the perinuclear region relies on capture at dynein-enriched loading zones located near microtubule plus-ends. Read More

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October 2021

Mass Spectrometry-Based Phosphoproteomics and Systems Biology. Approaches to Study T Lymphocyte Activation and Exhaustion.

J Mol Biol 2021 Oct 20:167318. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Center for Network Systems Biology, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

T lymphocytes respond to extracellular cues and recognize and clear foreign bodies. These functions are tightly regulated by receptor-mediated intracellular signal transduction pathways and phosphorylation cascades resulting in rewiring of transcription, cell adhesion, and metabolic pathways, resulting in changes in downstream effector functions including cytokine secretion and target-cell killing. Given that these pathways become dysregulated in chronic diseases such as cancer, auto-immunity, diabetes, and persistent infections, mapping T cell signaling dynamics in normal and pathological states is central to understanding and modulating immune system behavior. Read More

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October 2021

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic environments and their removal by algae-based systems.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 20:132580. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

School of Pharmacy, University of 17 August 1945, Jakarta, 14350, Indonesia.

The consumption of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has been widely increasing, yet up to 90-95% of PPCPs consumed by human are excreted unmetabolized. Moreover, the most of PPCPs cannot be fully removed by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which release PPCPs to natural water bodies, affecting aquatic ecosystems and potentially humans. This study sought to review the occurrence of PPCPs in natural water bodies globally, and assess the effects of important factors on the fluxes of pollutants into receiving waterways. Read More

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October 2021

Mathematical Models of Retinitis Pigmentosa: The Trophic Factor Hypothesis.

Authors:
Paul A Roberts

J Theor Biol 2021 Oct 20:110938. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, John Maynard Smith Building, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK. Electronic address:

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the term used to denote a group of inherited retinal-degenerative conditions that cause progressive sight loss. Individuals with this condition lose their light-sensitive photoreceptor cells, known as rods and cones, over a period of years to decades; degeneration starting in the retinal periphery, and spreading peripherally and centrally over time. RP is a rod-cone dystrophy, meaning that rod health and function are affected earlier and more severely than that of cones. Read More

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October 2021