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Consistency in Motion Event Encoding Across Languages.

Front Psychol 2021 30;12:625153. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Syntactic templates serve as schemas, allowing speakers to describe complex events in a systematic fashion. Motion events have long served as a prime example of how different languages favor different syntactic frames, in turn biasing their speakers toward different event conceptualizations. However, there is also variability in how motion events are syntactically framed within languages. Read More

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Visualizing the Sensitive Lithium with Atomic Precision: Cryogenic Electron Microscopy for Batteries.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, People's Republic of China.

ConspectusLithium (Li)-metal batteries are one of the most promising candidates for the next-generation energy storage devices due to their ultrahigh theoretical capacity. The realistic development of a Li metal battery is greatly impeded by the uncontrollable dendrite proliferation upon the chemically active metallic Li. To visualize the micromorphology or even the atomic structure of Li deposits is undoubtedly crucial, while imaging the sensitive Li still faces a huge challenge technically. Read More

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Temporal oscillations in preference strength provide evidence for an open system model of constructed preference.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 14;11(1):8169. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

University of Kansas, Lawrence, USA.

The decision process is often conceptualized as a constructive process in which a decision maker accumulates information to form preferences about the choice options and ultimately make a response. Here we examine how these constructive processes unfold by tracking dynamic changes in preference strength. Across two experiments, we observed that mean preference strength systematically oscillated over time and found that eliciting a choice early in time strongly affected the pattern of preference oscillation later in time. Read More

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Spectrally Accurate Quantitative Analysis of Isotope Labeled Compounds.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2021 Apr 13:e9103. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

XenoBiotic Laboratories Inc. (part of WuXi AppTec), Plainsboro, NJ, USA.

Calculated profile mode mass spectrometry (MS) data are fitted to lineshape calibrated LC/MS data using a Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model to quantitate the relative concentrations of stable or radio labeled compound mixtures. This alternative approach significantly improves the precision and accuracy over existing MS methods while providing the much-needed statistical diagnostics on the goodness of the fitting model and thus reliability of the quantitative results obtained. Test compound data containing S/Cl atoms have been measured with either stable deuterium labeling or radioisotope uniform C labeling onto an aromatic ring. Read More

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Synthesis of C Chemicals from CO and H via C-C Bond Formation.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Colloid, Interface and Chemical Thermodynamics, CAS Research/Education Center for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

ConspectusThe severity of global warming necessitates urgent CO mitigation strategies. Notably, CO is a cheap, abundant, and renewable carbon resource, and its chemical transformation has attracted great attention from society. Because CO is in the highest oxidation state of the C atom, the hydrogenation of CO is the basic means of converting it to organic chemicals. Read More

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Systematically Defined Informative Priors in Bayesian Estimation: An Empirical Application on the Transmission of Internalizing Symptoms Through Mother-Adolescent Interaction Behavior.

Front Psychol 2021 24;12:620802. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Youth and Family, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Background: Bayesian estimation with informative priors permits updating previous findings with new data, thus generating cumulative knowledge. To reduce subjectivity in the process, the present study emphasizes how to systematically weigh and specify informative priors and highlights the use of different aggregation methods using an empirical example that examined whether observed mother-adolescent positive and negative interaction behavior mediate the associations between maternal and adolescent internalizing symptoms across early to mid-adolescence in a 3-year longitudinal multi-method design.

Methods: The sample consisted of 102 mother-adolescent dyads (39. Read More

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Structural competency and the future of firearm research.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Mar 27;277:113879. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Joint Program in Psychology and Women's Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:

In this critical literature review we develop a five-part agenda for pandemic-era research into mass shootings and multiple-victim homicides that promotes understanding the psychologies of individual shooters within larger structures and systems. We show how the momentous events set in motion by the COVID-19 virus, and the structural drivers of inequity and racism that its spread exposed, challenge mental health research on gun trauma to better account for broader terrains of race and place, as well as the tensions, politics, and assumptions that surround guns in the U.S. Read More

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Machine learning of free energies in chemical compound space using ensemble representations: Reaching experimental uncertainty for solvation.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(13):134113

University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Kolingasse 14-16, AT-1090 Wien, Austria.

Free energies govern the behavior of soft and liquid matter, and improving their predictions could have a large impact on the development of drugs, electrolytes, or homogeneous catalysts. Unfortunately, it is challenging to devise an accurate description of effects governing solvation such as hydrogen-bonding, van der Waals interactions, or conformational sampling. We present a Free energy Machine Learning (FML) model applicable throughout chemical compound space and based on a representation that employs Boltzmann averages to account for an approximated sampling of configurational space. Read More

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Relationships between lognormal distributions of neural properties, activity, criticality, and connectivity.

Biol Cybern 2021 Apr 7;115(2):121-130. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Sydney, Australia.

Relationships between convergence of inputs onto neurons, divergence of outputs from them, synaptic strengths, nonlinear firing response properties, and randomness of axonal ranges are systematically explored by interrelating means and variances of synaptic strengths, firing rates, and soma voltages. When self-consistency is imposed, it is found that broad distributions of synaptic strength are a necessary concomitant of the known massive convergence of inputs to individual neurons, and observed widths of lognormal distributions of synaptic strength and firing rate are explained provided the brain is in a near-critical state, consistent with independent observations. The strongest individual synapses are shown to have an effect on soma voltage comparable to the effect of all others combined, which supports suggestions that they may have a key role in neural communication. Read More

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Midterm results of modern patellofemoral arthroplasty versus total knee arthroplasty for isolated patellofemoral arthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland.

Background: Both Patellofemoral Arthroplasty (PFA) and Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) are accepted surgical options for end-stage isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare outcomes of PFA and TKA by evaluation of the patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs).

Methods: We systematically identified publications reporting on patients that underwent either TKA or modern PFA for isolated PFOA. Read More

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Spatial knowledge and flood preparedness in Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria.

Jamba 2021 5;13(1):825. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Environmental Design and Management, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

There is inadequate flood preparedness in Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria; because when the flood struck on 08 July 2017, several properties were destroyed without any extant means to salvage them. This article investigated the relationship between spatial knowledge and flood preparedness in Victoria Island. The variables employed to measure spatial knowledge include knowledge of: elevation of land, distance between Lagos lagoon and Atlantic Ocean, characteristics of surrounding water bodies and building-plot ratio. Read More

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Brain deficits in prediabetic adults: A systematic review.

J Neurosci Res 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Kinesiology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

Previous findings on the relationship between prediabetes (the precursor stage of type 2 diabetes) and brain health in humans are inconsistent. Thus, this systematic review of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies aimed to summarize what is currently known about brain deficits in prediabetic adults. Following the PRISMA reporting standards for systematic reviews, we conducted a comprehensive review of peer-reviewed journal articles published from 2009 to present, focusing on studies that assessed brain volume, structural connectivity, and cerebrovascular health in prediabetic adults and older adults (i. Read More

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Strategies for intra-amniotic administration of fetal therapy in a rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 Apr 1:15353702211003508. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

BCNatal | Fetal Medicine Research Center (Hospital Clínic and Hospital Sant Joan de Déu), University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain.

Intrauterine growth restriction affects up to 10% of all pregnancies, leading to fetal programming with detrimental consequences for lifelong health. However, no therapeutic strategies have so far been effective to ameliorate these consequences. Our previous study has demonstrated that a single dose of nutrients administered into the amniotic cavity, bypassing the often dysfunctional placenta via intra-amniotic administration, improved survival at birth but not birthweight in an intrauterine growth restriction rabbit model. Read More

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Understanding how and why audits work in improving the quality of hospital care: A systematic realist review.

PLoS One 2021 31;16(3):e0248677. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Several types of audits have been used to promote quality improvement (QI) in hospital care. However, in-depth studies into the mechanisms responsible for the effectiveness of audits in a given context is scarce. We sought to understand the mechanisms and contextual factors that determine why audits might, or might not, lead to improved quality of hospital care. Read More

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Deciphering the Prognostic Implications of the Components and Signatures in the Immune Microenvironment of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

Front Immunol 2021 10;12:648917. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Pancreatic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

The treatment modalities for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are limited and unsatisfactory. Although many novel drugs targeting the tumor microenvironment, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, have shown promising efficacy for some tumors, few of them significantly prolong the survival of patients with PDAC due to insufficient knowledge on the tumor microenvironment. A single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) dataset and seven PDAC cohorts with complete clinical and bulk sequencing data were collected for bioinformatics analysis. Read More

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Phenome-wide investigation of the causal associations between childhood BMI and adult trait outcomes: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study.

Genome Med 2021 Mar 26;13(1):48. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, Biomedical Informatics & Genomics Center, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.

Background: Childhood obesity is reported to be associated with the risk of many diseases in adulthood. However, observational studies cannot fully account for confounding factors. We aimed to systematically assess the causal associations between childhood body mass index (BMI) and various adult traits/diseases using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). Read More

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Research using population-based administration data integrated with longitudinal data in child protection settings: A systematic review.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(3):e0249088. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Allied Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Introduction: Over the past decade there has been a marked growth in the use of linked population administrative data for child protection research. This is the first systematic review of studies to report on research design and statistical methods used where population-based administrative data is integrated with longitudinal data in child protection settings.

Methods: The systematic review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Read More

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[Genitourinary menopause syndrome. CNGOF and GEMVi clinical practice guidelines].

Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Service de chirurgie gynécologique et médecine de la reproduction, centre Aliénor d'Aquitaine, CHU de Bordeaux, place Amélie-Raba-Léon, 33076 Bordeaux cedex, France.

Introduction: Genitourinary menopause syndrome (SGUM) is defined as a set of symptoms associated with a decrease of estrogen and other sexual steroids during menopause. The main symptoms are vulvovaginal (dryness, burning, itching), sexual (dyspareunia), and urinary (urinary infections, pollakiuria, nycturia, pain, urinary incontinence by urgenturia). SGUM leads to an alteration of the quality of life, and affects especially women's sexuality. Read More

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A prediction model of health-related quality of life in young adult patients with stroke.

J Clin Nurs 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

College of Nursing, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.

Aims And Objectives: This study aimed to establish and test a predictive model for explaining the health-related quality of life of young adult patients with stroke.

Background: Individual characteristics, biological and physiological variables, social support, emotional and cognitive symptoms, physical function disability and general health perception may be interrelated and may directly or indirectly affect the health-related quality of life of young adult patients with stroke.

Design: A cross-sectional study. Read More

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The effects of model complexity and size on metabolic flux distribution and control: case study in Escherichia coli.

BMC Bioinformatics 2021 Mar 20;22(1):134. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Laboratory of Computational Systems Biotechnology (LCSB), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Significant efforts have been made in building large-scale kinetic models of cellular metabolism in the past two decades. However, most kinetic models published to date, remain focused around central carbon pathways or are built around ad hoc reduced models without clear justification on their derivation and usage. Systematic algorithms exist for reducing genome-scale metabolic reconstructions to build thermodynamically feasible and consistently reduced stoichiometric models. Read More

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The Phenomenon of Exquisite Motor Control in Tic Disorders and its Pathophysiological Implications.

Mov Disord 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Clinical and Movement Neurosciences, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

The unifying characteristic of movement disorders is the phenotypic presentation of abnormal motor outputs, either as isolated phenomena or in association with further clinical, often neuropsychiatric, features. However, the possibility of a movement disorder also characterized by supranormal or enhanced volitional motor control has not received attention. Based on clinical observations and cases collected over a number of years, we here describe the intriguing clinical phenomenon that people with tic disorders are often able to control specific muscle contractions as part of their tic behaviors to a degree that most humans typically cannot. Read More

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Associating executive dysfunction with behavioral and socioemotional problems in children with epilepsy. A systematic review.

Child Neuropsychol 2021 Mar 17:1-48. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

RijksUniversiteitGroningen, Faculteit Gedrags- & Maatschappijwetenschappen, Klinische & Ontwikkelingsneuropsychologie, Groningen, Netherlands.

As children with epilepsy may have a number of learning and behavioral problems, it is important that insight into the underlying neurocognitive differences in these children, which may underlie these areas of challenge is gained. Executive function (EF) problems particularly are associated with specific learning abilities as well as behavioral problems. We aim to review systematically the current status of empirical studies on the association between EF problems and behavior and socioemotional problems in children with epilepsy. Read More

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The underpinning factors of NBA game-play performance: a systematic review (2001-2020).

Phys Sportsmed 2021 Apr 15:1-29. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Health and Wellbeing, University of Southern Queensland, Ipswich QLD, Australia.

: Recognizing the high stakes associated with winning and losing in the National Basketball Association (NBA), a deep understanding of the underlying mechanisms of NBA game-play performance would provide substantial benefit to all stakeholders involved with preparing NBA players and teams for competitive success. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this systematic review presents the first attempt to systematically amalgamate and appraise the scientific literature published in the XXI Century, following a constraints-led approach (CLA). In particular, two underpinning factors of NBA game-play performance were investigated: (1) NBA player constraints (internal variables) and (2) NBA contextual constraints (external variables). Read More

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Adapting the DeepSARM approach for dual-target ligand design.

J Comput Aided Mol Des 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Life Science Informatics, B-IT, LIMES Program Unit Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Friedrich-Hirzebruch-Allee 6, 53115, Bonn, Germany.

The structure-activity relationship (SAR) matrix (SARM) methodology and data structure was originally developed to extract structurally related compound series from data sets of any composition, organize these series in matrices reminiscent of R-group tables, and visualize SAR patterns. The SARM approach combines the identification of structural relationships between series of active compounds with analog design, which is facilitated by systematically exploring combinations of core structures and substituents that have not been synthesized. The SARM methodology was extended through the introduction of DeepSARM, which added deep learning and generative modeling to target-based analog design by taking compound information from related targets into account to further increase structural novelty. Read More

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Rapid coupling between solid earth and ice volume during the Quaternary.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 11;11(1):5695. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Systems Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan.

The solid earth plays a major role in controlling Earth's surface climate. Volcanic degassing of carbon dioxide (CO) and silicate chemical weathering are known to regulate the evolution of climate on a geologic timescale (> 10 yr), but the relationship between the solid earth and the shorter (< 10 yr) fluctuations of Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles is still under debate. Here we show that the seawater osmium isotope composition (Os/Os), a proxy for the solid earth's response to climate change, has varied during the past 300,000 years in association with glacial-interglacial cycles. Read More

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Towards a better integration of emotional factors in autobiographical memory.

Authors:
Olivier Luminet

Memory 2021 Mar 12:1-6. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Research Institue for Psychological Sciences, UCLouvain and Fund for Scientific Research (FRS-FNRS) Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

While the role of emotion in autobiographical memory (ABM) is acknowledged in some models, its specific effects are blurred by narrow approaches towards emotion that are often limited to a distinction between intensity and valence. After presenting a critical review of the role assigned to emotion for the development of ABM, this paper surveys current perspectives which encourage a broader approach to emotion in the development of ABM. Research on Flashbulb memories provides an important context where the role of emotion has been the most extensively investigated. Read More

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Reproducibility of lung nodule radiomic features: Multivariable and univariable investigations that account for interactions between CT acquisition and reconstruction parameters.

Med Phys 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Purpose: Recent studies have demonstrated a lack of reproducibility of radiomic features in response to variations in CT parameters. In addition, reproducibility of radiomic features has not been well established in clinical datasets. We aimed to investigate the effects of a wide range of CT acquisition and reconstruction parameters on radiomic features in a realistic setting using clinical low dose lung cancer screening cases. Read More

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Halogen Bonding: An Underestimated Player in Membrane-Ligand Interactions.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Mar 9;143(11):4253-4267. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

BioISI - Biosystems & Integrative Sciences Institute, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisboa, Campo Grande, C8 bdg, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal.

Halogen bonds (XBs) are noncovalent interactions where halogen atoms act as electrophilic species interacting with Lewis bases. These interactions are relevant in biochemical systems being increasingly explored in drug discovery, mainly to modulate protein-ligand interactions, but are also found in engineered protein or nucleic acid systems. In this work, we report direct evidence for the existence of XBs in the context of biological membrane systems, thus expanding the scope of application of these interactions. Read More

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The Division of Labor in Communication: Speakers Help Listeners Account for Asymmetries in Visual Perspective.

Cogn Sci 2021 Mar;45(3):e12926

Department of Psychology, Stanford University.

Recent debates over adults' theory of mind use have been fueled by surprising failures of perspective-taking in communication, suggesting that perspective-taking may be relatively effortful. Yet adults routinely engage in effortful processes when needed. How, then, should speakers and listeners allocate their resources to achieve successful communication? We begin with the observation that the shared goal of communication induces a natural division of labor: The resources one agent chooses to allocate toward perspective-taking should depend on their expectations about the other's allocation. Read More

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Efficient Combination of G-C N and CDs for Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance: A Review of Synthesis, Strategies, and Applications.

Small 2021 Mar 8:e2007523. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Green Catalysis Center, College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, P. R. China.

Recently, heterogeneous photocatalysts have achieved much interest on account of their great potential applications in resolving many tough energy and environmental troubles around the world through an ecologically sustainable way. Heterogeneous nanocomposites composed of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C N ) and carbon dots (CDs) possess broad spectrum absorption, appropriate electronic band structures, rapid carrier mobility, abundant reserves, excellent chemical stability, and facile synthesis methods, which make them promising composite photocatalysts for suitable applications such as photocatalytic solar fuels production and contaminant decomposition. With the rapid development in photocatalysis by hybridization of g-C N and CDs, a systematic summary and prospection of performance improvement are urgent and meaningful. Read More

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