23,408 results match your criteria systematic insights

Making Waves: Joining forces for better doctoral education in water research.

Water Res 2021 Sep 9;204:117650. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Majakka Doctoral Education Project, Water and Environmental Engineering Research Group, Aalto University, P.O. Box 15200 FI-00076, Finland. Electronic address:

We argue that doctoral education in water needs an elevated focus towards educating game changers who can drive innovation and change towards more sustainable futures across academic and non-academic settings. Today's doctoral graduates in water are increasingly employed outside academia, and challenged to understand complex and interconnected systems, to integrate and synthesize information from different disciplines and to lead the way toward increasingly creative, resilient, robust, and socially sustainable solutions. Supervisors are challenged by interdisciplinary research topics and by growing diversity of objectives, too often at the cost of their wellbeing. Read More

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September 2021

Insights Into Walnut Lipid Metabolism From Metabolome and Transcriptome Analysis.

Front Genet 2021 3;12:715731. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

State Key Laboratory of Sustainable Dryland Agriculture, Institute of Wheat Research, Shanxi Agricultural University, Linfen, China.

Walnut oil is an excellent source of essential fatty acids. Systematic evaluation of walnut lipids has significance for the development of the nutritional and functional value of walnut. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap HRMS) was used to characterize the lipids of walnut. Read More

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September 2021

What is the importance of sperm subpopulations?

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Sep 11:106844. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

INDEGSAL, Universidad de León, 24071 León, Spain; Department of Molecular Biology (Cell Biology), Universidad de León, Spain. Electronic address:

The study of sperm subpopulations spans three decades. The origin, meaning, and practical significance, however, are less clear. Current technology for assessing sperm morphology (CASA-Morph) and motility (CASA-Mot) has enabled the accurate evaluation of these features, and there are many options for data classification. Read More

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September 2021

New insights into the accumulation of vitamin B in Torreya grandis nuts via ethylene induced key gene expression.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 3;371:131050. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311300, China. Electronic address:

Vitamin B, derived primarily from plant sources, is an essential nutrient for humans. Torreya grandis is rich in vitamin B, however, the mechanism underlying the biosynthesis and regulation of vitamin B in T. grandis remains unclear. Read More

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September 2021

Structural insight into the mechanism of energy transfer in cyanobacterial phycobilisomes.

Nat Commun 2021 Sep 17;12(1):5497. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, National Biomedical Imaging Center, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, 100871, Beijing, China.

Phycobilisomes (PBS) are the major light-harvesting machineries for photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and red algae and they have a hierarchical structure of a core and peripheral rods, with both consisting of phycobiliproteins and linker proteins. Here we report the cryo-EM structures of PBS from two cyanobacterial species, Anabaena 7120 and Synechococcus 7002. Both PBS are hemidiscoidal in shape and share a common triangular core structure. Read More

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September 2021

Interpreting convolutional neural network for real-time volatile organic compounds detection and classification using optical emission spectroscopy of plasma.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Sep 3;1179:338822. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

This study presents the investigation of optical emission spectroscopy of plasma using interpretable convolutional neural network (CNN) for real-time volatile organic compounds (VOCs) classification. A microplasma-generation platform was developed to efficiently collect 64 k spectra from various types of VOCs at different concentrations, as training and testing sets for machine learning. A CNN model was trained to classify VOCs with accuracy of 99. Read More

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September 2021

HIV continuum of care: expanding scope beyond a cross-sectional view to include time analysis: a systematic review.

BMC Public Health 2021 Sep 17;21(1):1699. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology & Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, M. Asias 75, 115 27, Athens, Greece.

Introduction: The continuum of care (CoC) model has been used to describe the main pillars of HIV care. This study aims to systematically review methods and elucidate gaps in the CoC analyses, especially in terms of the timing of the progression through steps, recognized nowadays as a critical parameter for an effective response to the epidemic.

Methods: A PubMed and EMBASE databases search up to December 2019 resulted in 1918 articles, of which 209 were included in this review; 84 studies presented in major HIV conferences were also included. Read More

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September 2021

General population perspectives of dementia risk reduction and the implications for intervention: A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative evidence.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(9):e0257540. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of General Practice, Melbourne Medical School, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Evidence for the potential prevention of dementia through lifestyle risk factor modification is growing and has prompted examination of implementation approaches. Understanding the general population's perspectives regarding dementia risk reduction is key to implementation. This may provide useful insights into more effective and efficient ways to help people change relevant beliefs, motivations and behaviour patterns. Read More

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September 2021

Optical Coherence Tomography of Coronary Plaque Progression and Destabilization: JACC Focus Seminar Part 3/3.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Sep;78(12):1275-1287

Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Cardiology Division, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

The development of optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized our understanding of coronary artery disease. In vivo OCT research has paralleled with advances in computational fluid dynamics, providing additional insights in the various hemodynamic factors influencing plaque growth and stability. Recent OCT studies introduced a new concept of plaque healing in relation to clinical presentation. Read More

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September 2021

Identification of tissue-specific and common methylation quantitative trait loci in healthy individuals using MAGAR.

Epigenetics Chromatin 2021 Sep 16;14(1):44. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Genetics/Epigenetics, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.

Background: Understanding the influence of genetic variants on DNA methylation is fundamental for the interpretation of epigenomic data in the context of disease. There is a need for systematic approaches not only for determining methylation quantitative trait loci (methQTL), but also for discriminating general from cell type-specific effects.

Results: Here, we present a two-step computational framework MAGAR ( https://bioconductor. Read More

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September 2021

Ensemble modeling with machine learning and deep learning to provide interpretable generalized rules for classifying CNS drugs with high prediction power.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering and School of Pharmacy at National Taiwan University, No.1 Sec.4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, Taiwan 106.

The trade-off between a machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) model's predictability and its interpretability has been a rising concern in central nervous system-related quantitative structure-activity relationship (CNS-QSAR) analysis. Many state-of-the-art predictive modeling failed to provide structural insights due to their black box-like nature. Lack of interpretability and further to provide easy simple rules would be challenging for CNS-QSAR models. Read More

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September 2021

Metabolomics and Transcriptomics Provide Insights into Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in the Developing Grains of Purple Wheat ( L.).

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China.

Purple wheat is thought to have beneficial effects on humans owing to its high anthocyanin content. However, a systematic understanding of the anthocyanin biosynthesis process in developing wheat grain is lacking. Here, the dynamic changes in anthocyanin components and transcripts in the grain of purple wheat ZNM168 at five developmental stages (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 DAF) were characterized. Read More

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September 2021

Insights into High-Efficiency Ag-Alloyed CZTSSe Solar Cells Fabricated through Aqueous Spray Deposition.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Physics, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, Republic of Korea.

Kesterite CuZnSnSe (CZTSe), CuZnSn(S,Se) (CZTSSe), and CuZnSnS (CZTS) solar cells show considerably lower open-circuit voltages than their theoretical values. The large open-circuit voltage deficiency () hinders the improvement of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and the development of the pathway to mass production of kesterite solar cells. The main reason behind the is considered to be the low formation energy of Cu/Zn disorders and their highly distributed defect complexes. Read More

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September 2021

Electronic structure of the dicationic first row transition metal oxides.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5312, USA.

Multi-reference electronic structure calculations combined with large basis sets are performed to investigate the electronic structure of the ground and low-lying electronic states of the MO diatomic species with M = Ti-Cu. These systems have shown high efficiency in the activation of the C-H of saturated hydrocarbons. This study is the first systematic and accurate work for these systems and our results and discussion provides insights into the reactivity and stability of MO units. Read More

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September 2021

Sensing the lightness: a narrative analysis of an integrative medicine program for healthcare providers in the COVID-19 department.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Ruth and Bruch Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Objectives: The research addressing physical and emotional exhaustion among healthcare providers (HCPs) in COVID-19 departments is limited. We examined the impact of integrative medicine (IM) intervention for HCPs working in isolated COVID-19 in-patient departments, addressing concerns and well-being.

Methods: HCPs working in 3 isolated COVID-19 in-patient departments underwent 40-min IM treatment sessions (including acupuncture, manual movement, and/or mind-body modalities) provided by integrative oncology practitioners. Read More

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September 2021

Identifying COPD in routinely collected electronic health records: a systematic scoping review.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Jul 13;7(3). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Population Data Science, Swansea University Medical School, Swansea, UK.

Although routinely collected electronic health records (EHRs) are widely used to examine outcomes related to COPD, consensus regarding the identification of cases from electronic healthcare databases is lacking. We systematically examine and summarise approaches from the recent literature. MEDLINE EBSCOhost was searched for COPD-related studies using EHRs published from January 1, 2018 to November 30, 2019. Read More

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The Impact of Machine Learning on 2D/3D Registration for Image-Guided Interventions: A Systematic Review and Perspective.

Front Robot AI 2021 30;8:716007. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Advanced Robotics and Computationally Augmented Environments (ARCADE) Lab, Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Image-based navigation is widely considered the next frontier of minimally invasive surgery. It is believed that image-based navigation will increase the access to reproducible, safe, and high-precision surgery as it may then be performed at acceptable costs and effort. This is because image-based techniques avoid the need of specialized equipment and seamlessly integrate with contemporary workflows. Read More

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Identification of Methamphetamine Abstainers by Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Front Psychol 2021 30;12:717519. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

School of Computer Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Methamphetamine (MA) can cause brain structural and functional impairment, but there are few studies on whether this difference will sustain on MA abstainers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation of brain networks in MA abstainers. In this study, 47 people detoxified for at least 14 months and 44 normal people took a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) scan. Read More

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A Comprehensive Qualitative Review of Studies Evaluating the Impact of Local US Laws Restricting the Sale of Flavored and Menthol Tobacco Products.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Truth Initiative Schroeder Institute, Washington, DC USA.

Objectives: To assess the quality of evidence on the effectiveness of local US laws restricting the sale of flavored tobacco products.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search and qualitative scoping review of English-language papers published through May 2020 that evaluated flavored tobacco sales policies implemented by US jurisdictions during 2010-2019. We constructed a conceptual model for flavored and menthol tobacco sales restriction outcomes, assigned GRADE quality of evidence ratings to policy outcomes evaluated through the included studies, and summarized factors that might explain weak or inconsistent findings. Read More

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September 2021

A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Animal Studies Investigating the Relationship Between Serum Antibody, T Lymphocytes, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease.

J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Oxford Vaccine Group, Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections occur in human populations around the globe, causing disease of variable severity, disproportionately affecting infants and older adults (>65 years of age). Immune responses can be protective but also contribute to disease. Experimental studies in animals enable detailed investigation of immune responses, provide insights into clinical questions, and accelerate the development of passive and active vaccination. Read More

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September 2021

Comprehensive analysis of angiogenesis subtype of squamous cell carcinoma.

World J Surg Oncol 2021 Sep 14;19(1):275. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530021, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.

Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a disease with distinct management complexities as it displays a remarkably heterogeneous molecular subtype. However, the landscape of angiogenesis for SCC is not fully investigated.

Method And Materials: The angiogenesis-related subtypes of SCC were established by using the ConsensusClusterPlus package based on angiogenesis-related genes and TCGA data. Read More

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September 2021

Clinical and genetic spectra of autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Central Parkway, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD) is a clinical entity defined by interstitial fibrosis with tubular damage, bland urinalysis, and progressive kidney disease. Mutations in UMOD and MUC1 are the most common causes of ADTKD but other rarer (REN, SEC61A1), atypical (DNAJB11) or heterogenous (HNF1B) subtypes have been described. Raised awareness as well as the implementation of next generation sequencing (NGS) approaches have led to a sharp increase in reported cases. Read More

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September 2021

Safety and efficacy of different prophylactic anticoagulation dosing regimens in critically and non-critically ill patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Division of Cardiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Background: The clinical impact of different prophylactic anticoagulation regimens among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 remains unclear. We pooled evidence from available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to provide insights on this topic.

Methods And Results: We searched for RCTs comparing treatment with an escalated-dose (intermediate-dose or therapeutic-dose) versus a standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation regimen in critically and non-critically-ill COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization and without a formal indication for anticoagulation. Read More

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September 2021

Investigating the consequences of mRNA modifications on protein synthesis using in vitro translation assays.

Methods Enzymol 2021 29;658:379-406. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States. Electronic address:

The ribosome translates the information stored in the genetic code into functional proteins. In this process messenger RNAs (mRNAs) serve as templates for the ribosome, ensuring that amino acids are linked together in the correct order. Chemical modifications to mRNA nucleosides have the potential to influence the rate and accuracy of protein synthesis. Read More

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Person centred care provision and care planning in chronic kidney disease: which outcomes matter? A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies : Care planning in CKD: which outcomes matter?

BMC Nephrol 2021 Sep 13;22(1):309. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Albinusdreef 2, 2333, ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Rationale & Objective: Explore priorities related to outcomes and barriers of adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) regarding person centred care and care planning.

Study Design: Systematic review of qualitative studies.

Search Strategy & Sources: In July 2018 six bibliographic databases, and reference lists of included articles were searched for qualitative studies that included adults with CKD stages 1-5, not on dialysis or conservative management, without a previous kidney transplantation. Read More

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September 2021

Convolutional neural network with group theory and random selection particle swarm optimizer for enhancing cancer image classification.

Math Biosci Eng 2021 06;18(5):5573-5591

Department of Computer and Information Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau 999078, China.

As an epitome of deep learning, convolutional neural network (CNN) has shown its advantages in solving many real-world problems. Successful CNN applications on medical prognosis and diagnosis have been achieved in recent years. Their common goal is to recognize the insights from the subtle details from medical images by building a suitable CNN model with maximum accuracy and minimum error. Read More

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Tracking self-reported symptoms and medical conditions on social media during the COVID-19 pandemic.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale New Haven Hospital, 1 Church Street, Suite 200, New Haven, US.

Background: Harnessing health-related data posted on social media in real-time has the potential to offer insights into how the pandemic impacts the mental health and general well-being of individuals and populations over time.

Objective: The aim of this study was to obtain information on symptoms and medical conditions self-reported by non-Twitter social media users during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic; to determine how discussion of these symptoms and medical conditions changed over time; and to identify correlations between frequency of the top 5 commonly mentioned symptoms post and daily COVID-19 statistics (new cases, new deaths, new active cases, new recovered cases) in U.S. Read More

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A cognitive category-learning model of rule abstraction, attention learning, and contextual modulation.

Psychol Rev 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of General Psychology.

We introduce the Category Abstraction Learning (CAL) model, a cognitive framework formally describing category learning built on similarity-based generalization, dissimilarity-based abstraction, two attention learning mechanisms, error-driven knowledge structuring, and stimulus memorization. Our hypotheses draw on an array of empirical and theoretical insights connecting reinforcement and category learning. The key novelty of the model is its explanation of how rules are learned from scratch based on three central assumptions. Read More

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September 2021

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Relationship among mRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs of Slow Transit Constipation.

Biomed Res Int 2021 23;2021:6672899. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Anorectal Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029, China.

Background: Slow transit constipation (STC) is characterized by persistent, infrequent, or incomplete defecation. Systematic analyses of mRNA, lncRNA, and circRNA expression profiling in STC provide insights to understand the molecular mechanisms of STC pathogenesis. The present study is aimed at observing the interaction of mRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs by RNA sequencing of STC. Read More

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The Effect of Individual Musculoskeletal Conditions on Depression: Updated Insights From an Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 26;8:697649. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Orthopedics, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Few longitudinal studies have systematically investigated whether or how individual musculoskeletal conditions (IMCs) convey risks for negative psychological health outcomes, and approaches to assess such risk in the older population are lacking. In this Irish nationally representative longitudinal prospective study of 6,715 individuals aged 50 and above, machine learning algorithms and various models, including mediation models, were employed to elaborate the underlying mechanisms of IMCs leading to depression and to develop an IMC-induced negative psychological risk (IMCPR) classification approach. Resultantly, arthritis [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2. Read More

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