46,577 results match your criteria system fungus


Meta-analysis shows non-uniform responses of above- and belowground productivity to drought.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 5;782:146901. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Ecology, Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Terrestrial productivity underpins ecosystem carbon (C) cycling and multi-trophic diversity. Despite the negative impacts of drought on terrestrial C cycling, our understanding of the responses of above- and belowground productivity to drought remains incomplete. Here, we synthesized the responses of terrestrial productivity and soil factors (e. Read More

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Pulmonary mucormycosis in immunocompetent hosts diagnosed by bronchioalveolar lavage.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 12;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Pathology, KS Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore, India

Mucormycosis is a rare infection caused by Mucorales fungi belonging to Zygomycetes class. It can present with spectrum of symptoms and signs based of organ involvement. Common forms of mucormycosis includes rhinocerebral, cutaneous, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, disseminated and miscellaneous forms involving bones, breast, kidney and central nervous system. Read More

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A green decontamination technology through selective biomineralization of algicidal microorganisms for enhanced astaxanthin production from Haematococcus pluvialis at commercial scale.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Apr 6;332:125121. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, South Korea. Electronic address:

Currently, there is a lack of an efficient, environmentally-benign and sustainable industrial decontamination strategy to steadily achieve improved astaxanthin production from Haematococcus pluvialis under large-scale outdoor conditions. Here, this study demonstrates for the first time that a CaCO biomineralization-based decontamination strategy (CBDS) is highly efficient in selectively eliminating algicidal microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, during large-scale H. pluvialis cultivation under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions, thereby augmenting the astaxanthin productivity. Read More

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From Flies to Men: ROS and the NADPH Oxidase in Phagocytes.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 26;9:628991. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute for Immunodeficiency, Center for Chronic Immunodeficiency (CCI), Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

The cellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) represents an evolutionary ancient antimicrobial defense system against microorganisms. The NADPH oxidases (NOX), which are predominantly localized to endosomes, and the electron transport chain in mitochondria are the major sources of ROS. Like any powerful immunological process, ROS formation has costs, in particular collateral tissue damage of the host. Read More

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Immune System, Microbiota, and Microbial Metabolites: The Unresolved Triad in Colorectal Cancer Microenvironment.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:612826. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Research Core, Academic Department, Clínica Las Condes, Santiago, Chile.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. As with other cancers, CRC is a multifactorial disease due to the combined effect of genetic and environmental factors. Most cases are sporadic, but a small proportion is hereditary, estimated at around 5-10%. Read More

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Transcriptome analysis reveals changes in silkworm energy metabolism during Nosema bombycis infection.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 May 27;174:104809. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China; Key Laboratory of Sericultural Biology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Chongqing 400716, China. Electronic address:

Energy metabolism is important for the proliferation of microsporidia in infected host cells, but there is limited information on the host response. The energy metabolism response of silkworm (Bombyx mori) to microsporidia may help manage Nosema bombycis infections. We analyzed differentially expressed genes in the B. Read More

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Multicenter evaluation of the VITEK MS matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry system for identification of bacteria, including Brucella, and yeasts.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

R&D Microbiology, bioMérieux, Inc., St. Louis, MO, USA.

The use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry has proven to be rapid and accurate for the majority of clinical isolates. Some gaps remain concerning rare, emerging, or highly pathogenic species, showing the need to continuously expand the databases. In this multicenter study, we evaluated the accuracy of the VITEK MS v3. Read More

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Fungal mutualisms and pathosystems: life and death in the ambrosia beetle mycangia.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA.

Ambrosia beetles and their microbial communities, housed in specialized structures termed mycangia, represent one of the oldest and most diverse systems of mutualism and parasitism described thus far. Comprised of core filamentous fungal members, but also including bacteria and yeasts, the mycangia represent a unique adaptation that allows beetles to store and transport their source of nutrition. Although perhaps the most ancient of "farmers," the nature of these interactions remains largely understudied, with the exception of a handful of emerging pathosystems, where the fungal partner acts as a potentially devastating tree pathogen. Read More

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First Report of Causing Garlic clove Rot in Russian Federation.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

FSI Federal Research Centre Fundamentals of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 442108, Laboratory of plant system biology , Moscow, Moscow, Russian Federation;

Garlic () is a widely consumed bulbous crop both worldwide and in Russia. About 200,000 tons of garlic is produced in Russia annually (https://rosstat.gov. Read More

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CcPmk1 is a regulator of pathogenicity in Cytospora chrysosperma and can be used as a potential target for disease control.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

The Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.

Fus3/Kss1, also known as Pmk1 in several pathogenic fungi, is a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway that functions as a regulator in fungal development, stress response, mating, and pathogenicity. Cytospora chrysosperma, a notorious woody plant-pathogenic fungus, causes canker disease in many species, and its Pmk1 homolog, CcPmk1, is required for fungal development and pathogenicity. However, the global regulation network of CcPmk1 is still unclear. Read More

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First Report of Wilt of European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) Caused by in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Nanjing Forestry University, 74584, College of Forestry, No.159, Longpan Road, Xuanwu District, Nanjing, China, 210037.

European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) has been used as an important ornamental species for urban landscaping since the Italian Renaissance (Rocchi et al. 2010). Read More

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Candidemia in pediatric burn patients: Risk factors and outcomes in a retrospective cohort study.

Curr Med Mycol 2020 Sep;6(3):33-41

Department of Plastic Surgery, Burn Research Center, Motahari Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Purpose: Despite advances in burn care and management, infections are still a major contributor to morbidity and mortality rates in patients with burn injuries. Regarding this, the present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and importance of candidemia in pediatric burn patients.

Materials And Methods: Blood samples were collected from the patients and cultured in an automated blood culture system. Read More

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September 2020

Interactive Effects of Mycorrhizae, Soil Phosphorus, and Light on Growth and Induction and Priming of Defense in .

Front Plant Sci 2021 23;12:647372. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, Netherlands.

Increasing demands to reduce fertilizer and pesticide input in agriculture has triggered interest in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that can enhance plant growth and confer mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR). MIR can be based on a variety of mechanisms, including induction of defense compounds, and sensitization of the plant's immune system (priming) for enhanced defense against later arriving pests or pathogens signaled through jasmonic acid (JA). However, growth and resistance benefits of AMF highly depend on environmental conditions. Read More

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Opportunities to improve China's biodiversity protection laws.

Nat Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Halle, Germany.

Since 1989, China has established a system of powerful laws and regulations aimed to preserve its rich natural flora and fauna. However, this legislative framework still has shortcomings, in terms of sentencing standards across related crimes and the extent of scientific basis for sentences. Here, we review Chinese biodiversity protection laws and some example cases with the goal of suggesting ways to increase law compliance and thus better protect biodiversity. Read More

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Rational engineering of xylanase hyper-producing system in Trichoderma reesei for efficient biomass degradation.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 Apr 8;14(1):90. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, People's Republic of China.

Background: Filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has been widely used as a workhorse for cellulase and xylanase productions. Xylanase has been reported as the crucial accessory enzyme in the degradation of lignocellulose for higher accessibility of cellulase. In addition, the efficient hydrolysis of xylan needs the co-work of multiple xylanolytic enzymes, which rise an increasing demand for the high yield of xylanase for efficient biomass degradation. Read More

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First Report of Grammothele lineata Causing Stem Rot of Areca catechu in Hainan Province, China.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Haikou, China;

Areca catechu L. (areca) belongs to the Arecaceae family, which is composed of 181 genera and 2,600 species (Christenhusz and Byng 2016), is cultivated extensively in Southern and Southeastern Asia (Peng et al. 2015). Read More

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Limited Evidence for Accumulation of Latent Infections of Canker-Causing Pathogens in Shoots of Stone Fruit and Nut Crops in California.

Phytopathology 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

University of California -Davis, Department of Plant Pathology/Kearney Agric. Res. & Ext. Center, 9240 South Riverbend Ave., Parlier, California, United States, 93648;

Prevalence of latent infections of the canker-causing fungi and species of , and in young shoots of almond, prune and walnut trees in California was studied to test the hypotheses that 1) latent infections accumulate from current-season shoots to 1-year-old shoots in the orchard and 2) there are distinct associations among pathogen taxa present as latent infections in the same shoot. Samples of newly-emerged and 1-year-old shoots were periodically collected in each almond, prune, and walnut orchard for two growing seasons. A real-time quantitative PCR assay was used to quantify latent infection with three parameters: incidence, molecular severity and latent infection index. Read More

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Trehalose alleviates high-temperature stress in Pleurotus ostreatus by affecting central carbon metabolism.

Microb Cell Fact 2021 Apr 7;20(1):82. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China.

Background: Trehalose, an intracellular protective agent reported to mediate defense against many stresses, can alleviate high-temperature-induced damage in Pleurotus ostreatus. In this study, the mechanism by which trehalose relieves heat stress was explored by the addition of exogenous trehalose and the use of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 1 (tps1) overexpression transformants.

Results: The results suggested that treatment with exogenous trehalose or overexpression of tps1 alleviated the accumulation of lactic acid under heat stress and downregulated the expression of the phosphofructokinase (pfk) and pyruvate kinase (pk) genes, suggesting an ameliorative effect of trehalose on the enhanced glycolysis in P. Read More

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CRISPR/Cas Genome Editing in Filamentous Fungi.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Jan;86(Suppl 1):S120-S139

Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Federal Research Centre "Fundamentals of Biotechnology", Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119071, Russia.

The review describes the CRISPR/CAS system and its adaptation for the genome editing in filamentous fungi commonly used for production of enzyme complexes, enzymes, secondary metabolites, and other compounds used in industrial biotechnology and agriculture. In the second part of this review, examples of the CRISPR/CAS technology application for improving properties of the industrial strains of fungi from the Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and other genera are presented. Particular attention is given to the efficiency of genome editing, as well as system optimization for specific industrial producers. Read More

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January 2021

MYCOTIC PNEUMONIA AND ENCEPHALITIS IN SOUTHERN PUDU ().

J Zoo Wildl Med 2021 Apr;52(1):379-388

Oklahoma City Zoo, Oklahoma City, OK 73111, USA,

This case series describes six confirmed cases of mycotic encephalitis and/or mycotic pneumonia in southern pudu (). One case involved a 10.5-yr-old intact female that presented with an inability to stand, eventually progressing to grand mal seizures. Read More

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Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao, interferes with cytokinin metabolism during infection of Micro-Tom tomato and promotes symptom development.

New Phytol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, 13400-970, Brazil.

Moniliophthora perniciosa causes witches' broom disease of cacao and inflicts symptoms suggestive of hormonal imbalance. We investigated whether infection of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) model system Micro-Tom (MT) by the Solanaceae (S)-biotype of M. perniciosa, which causes stem swelling and hypertrophic growth of axillary shoots, results from changes in host cytokinin metabolism. Read More

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Rapid, simultaneous detection of mycotoxins with smartphone recognition-based immune microspheres.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.

How to achieve simultaneous and rapid detection of various mycotoxins in food has important practical significance in the field of food processing and safety. In this paper, a smartphone immunoassay system based on hydrogel microspheres has been constructed to quickly detect two mycotoxins at the same time. The rapid detection system was reflected in the following three processes: (1) rapid separation of free matter after direct competition reaction based on hydrogel solid-phase carrier particles; (2) rapid detection process based on efficient catalytic function of enzymes; (3) fast capture and analysis of images based on smartphone software. Read More

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Formation of filamentous fungal pellets in aerobic granular sludge via reducing temperature and dissolved oxygen: Characteristics of filamentous fungi and denitrification performance.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Mar 26;332:125056. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China. Electronic address:

A lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using glucose as carbon source was operated for 500 days to investigate the formation of filamentous organisms and their function on stability of AGS system. After 250 days' stable operation under conditions of 25 ± 2 °C and dissolved oxygen (DO) of 4-5 mg/L (stage I), the temperature and DO were reduced to 10 ± 2 °C and DO of 1-2 mg/L until 280 days (stage II), to induce the growth of filamentous microorganisms. After that until 500 days (stage III), overgrowth of filamentous microorganisms with relative abundances of up to 19. Read More

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Manipulating fatty-acid profile at unit chain-length resolution in the model industrial oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis.

Metab Eng 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Single-Cell Center, CAS Key Laboratory of Biofuels and Shandong Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of BioEnergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong, China; Laboratory of Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory of Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The chain length (CL) of fatty acids (FAs) is pivotal to oil property, yet to what extent it can be customized in industrial oleaginous microalgae is unknown. In Nannochloropsis oceanica, to modulate long-chain FAs (LCFAs), we first discovered a fungi/bacteria-originated polyketide synthase (PKS) system which involves a cytoplasmic acyl-ACP thioesterase (NoTE1). NoTE1 hydrolyzes C16:0-, C16:1- and C18:1-ACP in vitro and thus intercepts the specific acyl-ACPs elongated by PKS for polyunsaturated FA biosynthesis, resulting in elevation of C16/C18 monounsaturated FAs when overproduced and increase of C20 when knocked out. Read More

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The Ocular Microbiome and Microbiota and their Effects on Ocular Surface Pathophysiology and Disorders.

Surv Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Ophthalmology Départment, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud, APHP, Université Paris-Saclay; IDMIT infrastructure, CEA, Inserm U1184, 18 route du Panorama, 92265, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex, France.

The ocular surface flora performs an important role in the defense mechanisms of the ocular surface system. Its regulation of the immunological activity and the barrier effect against pathogen invasion are remarkable. Composition of the flora differs according to the methods of investigation, because the microbiome, composed of the genetic material of bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, and eukaryotes on the ocular surface, differs from the microbiota, which is the community of microorganisms that colonize the ocular surface. Read More

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Impact of Early Life Nutrition on Children's Immune System and Noncommunicable Diseases Through Its Effects on the Bacterial Microbiome, Virome and Mycobiome.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:644269. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC), Philipps University Marburg, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Marburg, Germany.

The first 1000 days of life, including the intrauterine period, are regarded as a fundamental stepping stone for the development of a human. Unequivocally, nutrition during this period plays a key role on the proper development of a child, both directly through the intake of essential nutrients and indirectly by affecting the composition of the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists and other microorganisms, is a highly modifiable and adaptive system that is influenced by diet, lifestyle, medicinal products and the environment. Read More

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The Phylogenetic Relationship Revealed Three New Wood-Inhabiting Fungal Species From Genus .

Front Microbiol 2021 17;12:650195. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Key Laboratory for Forest Resources Conservation and Utilization in the Southwest Mountains of China, Ministry of Education, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, China.

Wood-inhabiting fungi play a significant role in wood degradation and the cycle of matter in the ecological system. In the present study, three new wood-inhabiting fungal species, , , and spp. nov. Read More

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Comparative Analysis of Jakovlev (Hemiptera: Miridae) Immune Responses to Fungal and Bacterial Pathogens.

Front Physiol 2021 18;12:646721. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

State Key Laboratory of Biocatalysis and Enzyme Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan, China.

The wide-spread culture of transgenic Bt cotton resisting the infamous cotton bollworms has reduced the adoption of broad-spectrum insecticides to a large extent. Consequently, the non-targeted insect Jakovlev has become a major cotton pest in China. Entomopathogenic microbes show promising results for controlling this pest in the future, but innate immune responses to these pathogens are poorly understood. Read More

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Comparison of Deep-Sea Picoeukaryotic Composition Estimated from the V4 and V9 Regions of 18S rRNA Gene with a Focus on the Hadal Zone of the Mariana Trench.

Microb Ecol 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

College of Marine Life Sciences, Frontiers Science Center for Deep Ocean Multispheres and Earth System, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

Diversity of microbial eukaryotes is estimated largely based on sequencing analysis of the hypervariable regions of 18S rRNA genes. But the use of different regions of 18S rRNA genes as molecular markers may generate bias in diversity estimation. Here, we compared the differences between the two most widely used markers, V4 and V9 regions of the 18S rRNA gene, in describing the diversity of epipelagic, bathypelagic, and hadal picoeukaryotes in the Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench, which is a unique and little explored environment. Read More

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Repeated exposure of spores to the antifungal bacterium Ter331 selects for delayed spore germination.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of California Davis, Davis, California, USA.

The bacterial strain Ter331 (CfTer331) inhibits mycelial growth and spore germination in N402 (AnN402). The mechanisms underlying this antagonistic bacterial-fungal interaction have been extensively studied, but knowledge on the long-term outcome of this interaction is currently lacking. Here, we used experimental evolution to explore the dynamics of fungal adaptation to recurrent exposure to CfTer331. Read More

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