224,996 results match your criteria system activation


Impact of ozone exposure on heart rate variability and stress hormones: A randomized-crossover study.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 26;421:126750. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Key Lab of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education and NHC Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment, Fudan University, P.O. Box 249,130 Dong-An Road, Shanghai 200032, China; Children's Hospital of Fudan University, National Center for Children's Health, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The biological mechanisms underlying the associations between atmospheric ozone exposure and adverse cardiometabolic outcomes are yet to be identified. Imbalanced autonomic nervous system (ANS) as well as activations of the sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes are among possible early biological responses triggered by ozone, and may eventually lead to cardiometabolic abnormalities. To determine whether acute ozone exposure causes ANS imbalance and increases the secretion of neuroendocrine stress hormones, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, under controlled 2-hour exposure to either ozone (200 ppb) or clean air with intermittent exercise among 22 healthy young adults. Read More

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Porous gelatin microspheres for controlled drug delivery with high hemostatic efficacy.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jul 28;207:112013. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Orthopaedic Oncology Center, Department of Orthopedics, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Effective hemostasis and antibacterial efficacy for extensive trauma in a warzone and civilian accidents are important for reducing mortalities and serious complications. Gelatin has been widely used as a hemostatic agent and has the potential for use in drug delivery systems. To enhance its hemostatic efficiency and create conducive conditions for sustained drug release, we developed Vancomycin-impregnated porous gelatin microspheres (Van-MS) by introducing the porous structure into gelatin. Read More

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Magnetically-stimulated transformations in the nanostructure of PEGylated phytantriol-based nanoparticles for on-demand drug release.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jul 26;207:112005. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics and ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University (Parkville Campus), 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, VIC, 3052, Australia. Electronic address:

Lipid-based liquid crystalline (LLC) systems are formed by the self-assembly of lipid materials in aqueous environments. The internal nanostructures of LLC systems can be manipulated using remote stimuli and have the potential to serve as 'on-demand' drug delivery systems. In this study, a magnetically-responsive system that displayed a transition in nanostructure from liposomes to cubosomes/hexasomes under external alternating magnetic field (AMF) was established by the incorporation of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) into a PEGylated phytantriol (PHYT)-based LLC system. Read More

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Ameliorative effects of miR-423-5p against polarization of microglial cells of the M1 phenotype by targeting a NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jul 30;99:108006. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Orthopedics, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province 226001, China. Electronic address:

Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes sensation and motion dysfunction. Activation of microglial cells (MCs) in the central nervous system (CNS) is heterogeneous. Heterogeneous types of MCs can produce cytotoxic or neuroprotective effects, secrete proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory factors. Read More

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Sequential activation of heterogeneous macrophage phenotypes is essential for biomaterials-induced bone regeneration.

Biomaterials 2021 Jul 28;276:121038. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, 999077, China; Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Innovative Technology in Orthopaedic Trauma, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, 518053, China; Cixi Center of Biomaterials Surface Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, PR China. Electronic address:

Macrophage has been gradually recognized as a central regulator in tissue regeneration, and the study of how macrophage mediates biomaterials-induced bone regeneration through immunomodulatory pathway becomes popular. However, the current understanding on the roles of different macrophage phenotypes in regulating bone tissue regeneration remains controversial. In this study, we demonstrate that sequential infiltration of heterogeneous phenotypes of macrophages triggered by bio-metal ions effectively facilitates bone healing in bone defect. Read More

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Long-term cognitive deficits after traumatic brain injury associated with microglia activation.

Clin Immunol 2021 Jul 30:108815. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Experimental Pathology, Immunology, and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Lebanon; Nehme and Therese Tohme Multiple Sclerosis Center, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the most prevalent of all head injuries. Microglia play an essential role in homeostasis and diseases of the central nervous system. We hypothesize that microglia may play a beneficial or detrimental role in TBI depending on their state of activation and duration. Read More

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Frequency specific co-activation pattern analysis via sparse nonnegative tensor decomposition.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Jul 30:109299. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China; School of Artificial Intelligence, Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China; Key Laboratory of Integrated Circuit and Biomedical Electronic System, Liaoning Province. Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China; Faculty of Information Technology, University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland.

Background: Traditionally, the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been made based on symptoms. Extensive studies have demonstrated that PD may lead to variation of brain activity in different frequency bands. However, frequency specific dynamic alterations of PD have not yet been explored. Read More

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Insights into agonist-elicited activation of the human glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Jul 30:114715. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Drug Discovery Biology Theme, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia; ARC Centre for Cryo-electron Microscopy of Membrane Proteins, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. Electronic address:

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and its receptor (GIPR) are part of the incretin system that regulates glucose homeostasis. A series of GIPR residues putatively important for ligand binding and receptor activation were mutated and pharmacologically evaluated using GIPR selective agonists in cAMP accumulation, ERK1/2 phosphorylation (pERK1/2) and β-arrestin 2 recruitment assays. The impact of mutation on ligand efficacy was determined by operational modelling of experimental data for each mutant, with results mapped onto the full-length, active-state GIPR structure. Read More

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De-ubiquitination of p300 by USP12 Critically Enhances METTL3 Expression and Ang II-induced Cardiac Hypertrophy.

Exp Cell Res 2021 Jul 30:112761. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, Jiangxi Province, China. Electronic address:

Stresses, such as neurohumoral activation, induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy is the main risk factor for heart failure. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a key role in maintaining protein homeostasis and cardiac function. However, research on the role and mechanism of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) in cardiac hypertrophy is limited. Read More

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Therapeutic targeting of membrane-associated proteins in central nervous system tumors.

Exp Cell Res 2021 Jul 30:112760. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India. Electronic address:

The activity of the most complex system, the central nervous system (CNS) is profoundly regulated by a huge number of membrane-associated proteins (MAP). A minor change stimulates immense chemical changes and the elicited response is organized by MAP, which acts as a receptor of that chemical or channel enabling the flow of ions. Slight changes in the activity or expression of these MAPs lead to severe consequences such as cognitive disorders, memory loss, or cancer. Read More

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NCBSI/KI: A Reagent System for Iodination of Aromatics through Generation of I-Cl.

J Org Chem 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India.

iodine monochloride (I-Cl) generation followed by iodination of aromatics using NCBSI/KI system has been developed. The NCBSI reagent requires no activation due to longer bond length, lower bond dissociation energy, and higher absolute charge density on nitrogen. The system is adequate for mono- and diiodination of a wide range of moderate to highly activated arenes with good yield and purity. Read More

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The network map of Elabela signaling pathway in physiological and pathological conditions.

J Cell Commun Signal 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Center for Systems Biology and Molecular Medicine, Yenepoya Research Centre, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, 575018, India.

Elabela (ELA; also called Apela and Toddler) is one of the recently discovered ligand among the two endogenous peptide ligands (Apelin and Elabela) of the apelin receptor (APLNR, also known as APJ). Elabela-induced signaling plays a crucial role in diverse biological processes, including formation of the embryonic cardiovascular system and early placental development by reducing the chances of occurrence of preeclampsia during pregnancy. It also plays the major role in the renoprotection by reducing kidney injury and the inflammatory response and regulation of gene expression associated with heart failure and fibrosis. Read More

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Increased neuronal activation in sympathoregulatory regions of the brain and spinal cord in type 2 diabetic rats.

J Neuroendocrinol 2021 Jul 15:e13016. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Increased cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) suggests impaired autonomic control of the heart. However, the central regions that contribute to the autonomic cardiac pathologies in type 2 DM are unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that neuronal activation would be increased in central sympathoregulatory areas in a pre-clinical type 2 DM animal model. Read More

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Key factors in the synthesis of polycyclic iridaaromatics the methoxyalkenylcarbene pathway.

Dalton Trans 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Campus Universitario, 36310, Vigo, Spain.

Polycyclic iridaaromatic compounds are of great interest not only because of the contributions made in "aromatic chemistry", but also because of the possibility of improving the results of the applications of the corresponding organic analogues in different fields. Therefore, understanding the requirements necessary to build on demand this type of compound with specific properties is of great importance. In this work, the keys to successfully synthesize iridaaromatic complexes via methoxyalkenylcarbenes are established. Read More

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Immune delineation of laryngeal papilloma reveals enhanced neutrophil associated gene profile.

Eur J Immunol 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Laryngeal papilloma (LP) is a rare benign disease, caused by recurrent multisite papillomas that are referred to as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). RRP is caused primarily by two types of human papillomavirus (HPV): HPV6 and HPV11. The immune dysregulation within the microenvironment of the lesions has been shown to likely play a role in the development of RRP. Read More

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Mechanism of iron complexes catalyzed in the -formylation of amines with CO and H: the superior performance of N-H ligand methylated complexes.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Collaborative Innovation Center of Functionalized Probes for Chemical Imaging in Universities of Shandong, Key Laboratory of Molecular and Nano Probes, Ministry of Education, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Clean Production of Fine Chemicals, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, P. R. China.

CO2 hydrogenation into value-added chemicals not only offer an economically beneficial outlet but also help reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Herein, the density functional theory (DFT) studies have been carried out on CO2 hydrogenation reaction for formamide production catalyzed by two different N-H ligand types of PNP iron catalysts. The results suggest that the whole mechanistic pathway has three parts: (i) precatalyst activation, (ii) hydrogenation of CO2 to generate formic acid (HCOOH), and (iii) amine thermal condensation to formamide with HCOOH. Read More

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Study of the Hydrogen Storage Properties and Catalytic Mechanism of a MgH-NaAlH System Incorporating FeCl.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 15;6(29):18948-18956. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Energy Storage Research Group, Faculty of Ocean Engineering Technology and Informatics, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Malaysia.

In this work, the catalytic effects of FeCl toward the hydrogen storage properties of the MgH-NaAlH composite were investigated for the first time. The temperature-programed desorption results indicated that the onset temperature of the hydrogen release of a 10 wt % FeCl-doped MgH-NaAlH composite was ∼30 °C lower than that of the undoped MgH-NaAlH composite. The addition of FeCl into the MgH-NaAlH composite resulted in improved absorption and desorption kinetics performance. Read More

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Sodium/Lithium-Ion Transfer Reaction at the Interface between Low-Crystallized Carbon Nanosphere Electrodes and Organic Electrolytes.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 13;6(29):18737-18744. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, 615-8510 Kyoto, Japan.

Carbon nanosphere (CNS) electrodes are the candidate of sodium-ion battery (SIB) negative electrodes with small internal resistances due to their small particle sizes. Electrochemical properties of low-crystallized CNS electrodes in dilute and concentrated sodium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) amide/ethylene carbonate + dimethyl carbonate (NaTFSA/EC + DMC) were first investigated. From the cyclic voltammograms, both lithium ion and sodium ion can reversibly insert into/from CNSs in all of the electrolytes used here. Read More

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MAPK and Notch-Mediated Effects of Meso-Xanthin F199 Compounds on Proliferative Activity and Apoptosis of Human Melanocytes in Three-Dimensional Culture.

Biomed Res Int 2021 20;2021:8463161. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, 8 Baltiyskaya Str., 125315 Moscow, Russia.

Meso-Xanthin (Meso-Xanthin F199™) is a highly active antiaging injection drug of the latest generation. The main acting compound is fucoxanthin, supplemented with several growth factors, vitamins, and hyaluronic acid. Previous examination of fucoxanthin on melanocytes showed its ability to inhibit skin pigmentation through different signaling pathways focused on suppression of melanogenic-stimulating receptors. Read More

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Impact of Weaning and Maternal Immune Activation on the Metabolism of Pigs.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 15;8:660764. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States.

Weaning wields environmental, social, and nutritional stresses that are detectable in the blood metabolite levels of the offspring. Prenatal stress in the form of maternal immune activation (MIA) in response to infection, which is associated with health and behavior disorders, also elicits prolonged changes in blood and brain cytokine and metabolite levels of the offspring. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of weaning and MIA on the offspring's liver function to advance the understanding of the impact of stressors on peripheral and central nervous systems, physiology, and health. Read More

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Is RAS the Link Between COVID-19 and Increased Stress in Head and Neck Cancer Patients?

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 15;9:714999. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Unit of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Dental School, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom.

The COVID-19 pandemic emerged as a largely unexplained outbreak of pneumonia cases, in Wuhan City, China and rapidly spread across the world. By 11th March 2020, WHO declared it as a global pandemic. The resulting restrictions, to contain its spread, demanded a momentous change in the lifestyle of the general population as well as cancer patients. Read More

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SUMO and SUMOylation Pathway at the Forefront of Host Immune Response.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 14;9:681057. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Nups and SUMO Biology Group, Department of Biological Sciences, IISER Bhopal, Bhopal, India.

Pathogens pose a continuous challenge for the survival of the host species. In response to the pathogens, the host immune system mounts orchestrated defense responses initiating various mechanisms both at the cellular and molecular levels, including multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs) leading to the initiation of signaling pathways. The network of such pathways results in the recruitment of various innate immune components and cells at the site of infection and activation of the adaptive immune cells, which work in synergy to combat the pathogens. Read More

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Absence of Desmin Results in Impaired Adaptive Response to Mechanical Overloading of Skeletal Muscle.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 15;9:662133. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Sorbonne Université, Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine (IBPS), CNRS UMR 8256, Inserm ERL U1164, Biological Adaptation and Ageing, Paris, France.

Desmin is a muscle-specific protein belonging to the intermediate filament family. Desmin mutations are linked to skeletal muscle defects, including inherited myopathies with severe clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to examine the role of desmin in skeletal muscle remodeling and performance gain induced by muscle mechanical overloading which mimics resistance training. Read More

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Genetic Imaging of Neuroinflammation in Parkinson's Disease: Recent Advancements.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 15;9:655819. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative aging disorders characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms due to the selective loss of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. The decreased viability of DA neurons slowly results in the appearance of motor symptoms such as rigidity, bradykinesia, resting tremor, and postural instability. These symptoms largely depend on DA nigrostriatal denervation. Read More

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Current Strategies for Microbubble-Based Thrombus Targeting: Activation-Specific Epitopes and Small Molecular Ligands.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 16;9:699450. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.

Microbubbles with enhanced ultrasound represent a potentially potent evolution to the administration of a free drug in the treatment of thrombotic diseases. Conformational and expressional changes of several thrombotic biological components during active coagulation provide epitopes that allow site-specific delivery of microbubble-based agents to the thrombus for theranostic purpose. Through the interaction with these epitopes, emerging high-affinity small molecular ligands are able to selectively target the thrombi with tremendous advantages over traditional antibody-based strategy. Read More

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RCAN1.4 suppresses the osteosarcoma growth and metastasis via interfering with the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway.

J Bone Oncol 2021 Oct 14;30:100383. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, PR China.

Calcipressin-1, also known as a regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1), is one of the families of endogenous regulators of calcineurin activation and can specifically constrain the activity of calcineurin, but its function in osteosarcoma is still unknown. Firstly, we examined the protein level of RCAN1 in osteosarcoma specimens was lower than that of chondroma specimens. RCAN1. Read More

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October 2021

Successful Use of Immunotherapy in a Patient with Metastatic Squamous Cell Lung Cancer and Underlying Autoimmune Disease.

Cureus 2021 Jun 25;13(6):e15918. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Hematology and Oncology, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, USA.

The immune system removes abnormal and cancerous cells by way of T-cell detection at immune checkpoints. Cancerous cells, due to their expression of proteins such as T-cell inactivating programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), may evade the immune system resulting in replication and ultimately metastases. Immunotherapy in the form of checkpoint blockade, such as anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody pembrolizumab, targets and interferes with this interaction, thereby restoring T-cell ability to remove cancer cells. Read More

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A Review on Expression, Pathological Roles, and Inhibition of TMPRSS2, the Serine Protease Responsible for SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Activation.

Scientifica (Cairo) 2021 24;2021:2706789. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Pharmacy, Jagannath University, Dhaka 1100, Bangladesh.

SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, uses the host cell membrane receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for anchoring its spike protein, and the subsequent membrane fusion process is facilitated by host membrane proteases. Recent studies have shown that transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), a protease known for similar role in previous coronavirus infections, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), is responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, enabling host cell fusion of the virus. TMPRSS2 is known to be expressed in the epithelial cells of different sites including gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary system. Read More

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Oxidative Stress Markers among Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 19;2021:9681595. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Chair and Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Lublin, Staszica 16 St., 20-081 Lublin, Poland.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic respiratory disorder, which can be present in up to 50% of the population, depending on the country. OSA is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airways with consistent movement of the respiratory musculature during sleep. Apneas and hypopneas can lead to a decrease in oxygen saturation, an increase in carbon dioxide in the blood, and subsequent arousals and sleep fragmentation caused by repetitive activation of the central nervous system. Read More

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Endothelial cell infection and dysfunction, immune activation in severe COVID-19.

Theranostics 2021 6;11(16):8076-8091. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA 70433, USA.

: Pulmonary vascular endotheliitis, perivascular inflammation, and immune activation are observed in COVID-19 patients. While the initial SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly infects lung epithelial cells, whether it also infects endothelial cells (ECs) and to what extent SARS-CoV-2-mediated pulmonary vascular endotheliitis is associated with immune activation remain to be determined. : To address these questions, we studied SARS-CoV-2-infected () mice, a severe COVID-19 mouse model, as well as lung samples from SARS-CoV-2-infected nonhuman primates (NHP) and patient deceased from COVID-19. Read More

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