1,565 results match your criteria synthesizing pathway


Comparative analysis of ketone body metabolism in BALB/c mice infected with Trypanosoma evansi and Toxoplasma gondii.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Dec 20;143:134-141. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Key Laboratory of Livestock Infectious Diseases, Ministry of Education, China; College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China. Electronic address:

KBs (ketone bodies), i.e., acetoacetate, acetone, and (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoate, constitute the intermediate products of the incomplete oxidative degradation of fatty acids. Read More

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December 2021

Interplay between Asters/GRAMD1s and phosphatidylserine in intermembrane transport of LDL cholesterol.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Jan;119(2)

Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390.

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) delivers cholesterol to mammalian cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The LDL cholesterol is liberated in lysosomes and transported to the plasma membrane (PM) and from there to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Excess ER cholesterol is esterified with a fatty acid for storage as cholesteryl esters. Read More

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January 2022

Cell-Free Protein Synthesis for High-Throughput Biosynthetic Pathway Prototyping.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2433:199-215

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, and Center for Synthetic Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.

Biological systems provide a sustainable and complimentary approach to synthesizing useful chemical products. Metabolic engineers seeking to establish economically viable biosynthesis platforms strive to increase product titers, rates, and yields. Despite continued advances in genetic tools and metabolic engineering techniques, cellular workflows remain limited in throughput. Read More

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January 2022

A Multifaceted Hit-Finding Approach Reveals Novel LC3 Family Ligands.

Biochemistry 2022 Jan 5. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Early Discovery Biochemistry, Genentech, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, United States.

Autophagy-related proteins (Atgs) drive the lysosome-mediated degradation pathway, autophagy, to enable the clearance of dysfunctional cellular components and maintain homeostasis. In humans, this process is driven by the mammalian Atg8 (mAtg8) family of proteins comprising the LC3 and GABARAP subfamilies. The mAtg8 proteins play essential roles in the formation and maturation of autophagosomes and the capture of specific cargo through binding to the conserved LC3-interacting region (LIR) sequence within target proteins. Read More

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January 2022

Endothelin-1 mediated glycosaminoglycan synthesizing gene expression involves NOX-dependent transactivation of the transforming growth factor-β receptor.

Mol Cell Biochem 2022 Jan 4. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Hyperlipidemia Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonist endothelin-1 (ET-1) through transactivation of the transforming growth factor (TGF) β receptor (TGFBR1) stimulates glycosaminoglycan (GAG) elongation on proteoglycans. GPCR agonists thrombin and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) via respective receptors transactivate the TGFBR1 via Rho/ROCK dependent pathways however mechanistic insight for ET-1 transactivation of the TGFBR1 remains unknown. NADPH oxidase (NOX) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is a signalling entity implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including atherosclerosis. Read More

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January 2022

Qingluotongbi formula regulates the LXRα-ERS-SREBP-1c pathway in hepatocytes to alleviate the liver injury caused by Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Dec 27;287:114952. Epub 2021 Dec 27.

The First Clinical Medical College, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210023, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (TW) is widely used to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases; however, its development and application is limited by its significant association with liver injury. Read More

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December 2021

Sequential combination of photocatalysis and microalgae technology for promoting the degradation and detoxification of typical antibiotics.

Water Res 2021 Dec 19;210:117985. Epub 2021 Dec 19.

Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Coastal Environmental Pollution Control, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China; College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China; Marine Ecology and Environmental Science Laboratory, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

Antibiotic contamination has become the primary environmental concern due to its potential to induce the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). To obtain the efficient antibiotic removal approach, the combination of photocatalysis and microalgae technology for the efficient removal and reducing environmental risk of three typical antibiotics (norfloxacin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole) was demonstrated in this study. The g-CN material, with advantages of low cost, simple synthesizing, nontoxic, and wider spectral absorption, was selected and synthesized by an easy thermal polymerization process of urea. Read More

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December 2021

BF·OEt catalyzed chemoselective CC bond cleavage of α,β-enones: an unexpected synthesis of 3-alkylated oxindoles and spiro-indolooxiranes.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Dec 23. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

School of Chemistry, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli-620 024, India.

A BF·OEt catalyzed highly chemoselective formal CC double bond cleavage reaction of α,β-enones with diazoamides for the synthesis of 3-alkylated oxindoles is developed. Boron trifluoride etherate is found to be an effective catalyst for the chemoselective C-C cleavage of enones to obtain 3-alkylated oxindoles. The product formation indicates a selective β-carbon elimination pathway of α,β-enones using the inexpensive BF·OEt as a catalyst, transition metal-free conditions, an open-air environment, good functional tolerance and broad substrate scope. Read More

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December 2021

Proteomic analysis reveals the metabolic versatility of Amycolatopsis sp. BX17: A strain native from milpa agroecosystem soil.

J Proteomics 2022 Feb 16;253:104461. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Conacyt-Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C., Unidad Regional Hidalgo, Pachuca Ciudad del Conocimiento y la Cultura, Blvd. Santa Catarina, C.P. 42163 San Agustin Tlaxiaca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Electronic address:

Amycolatopsis sp. BX17 is an actinobacterium isolated from milpa soils, which antagonizes the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. Metabolites secreted by the actinobacterium cultured in glucose-free medium inhibited 100% of the mycelial growth of F. Read More

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February 2022

Contributory Role of BLT2 in the Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Cecal Ligation and Puncture-Induced Sepsis.

Mol Cells 2021 Dec;44(12):893-899

Division of Life Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

BLT2 is a low-affinity receptor for leukotriene B, a potent lipid mediator of inflammation generated from arachidonic acid via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BLT2 plays any role in sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection. A murine model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis was used to evaluate the role of BLT2 in septic inflammation. Read More

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December 2021

Expression Patterns of the Neuropeptide Urocortin 3 and Its Receptor CRFR2 in the Mouse Central Auditory System.

Front Neural Circuits 2021 12;15:747472. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Division of Neurobiology, Faculty of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Sensory systems have to be malleable to context-dependent modulations occurring over different time scales, in order to serve their evolutionary function of informing about the external world while also eliciting survival-promoting behaviors. Stress is a major context-dependent signal that can have fast and delayed effects on sensory systems, especially on the auditory system. Urocortin 3 (UCN3) is a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor family. Read More

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November 2021

Jujube metabolome selection determined the edible properties acquired during domestication.

Plant J 2021 Dec 4. Epub 2021 Dec 4.

College of Forestry, Research Centre for Jujube Engineering and Technology of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Key Comprehensive Laboratory of Forestry of Shaanxi Province, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China.

Plants supply both food and medicinal compounds, which are ascribed to diverse metabolites produced by plants. However, studies on domestication-driven changes in the metabolome and genetic basis of bioactive molecules in perennial fruit trees are generally lacking. Here, we conducted multidimensional analyses revealing a singular domestication event involving the genomic and metabolomic selection of jujube trees (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Read More

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December 2021

Metabolic syndrome and male lower urinary tract symptoms.

Panminerva Med 2021 Dec 3. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Urology, Inselspital University Hospital Berne, Berne, Switzerland.

Historically, urologists regarded prostate enlargement as the sole cause for male bladder problems. Nocturia, hesitancy, weak stream, and post void dribbling are classical symptoms that seemed to correlate solely to an enlarged prostate (benign prostate enlargement BPE resulting from benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH leading to bladder outlet obstruction BOO due to benign prostatic obstruction BPO). Over time, subdivision of symptoms into storage, voiding and post-voiding symptoms raised awareness of the urinary tract fine-tuning associated with urine storage and voiding, and led to the umbrella term "lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)", which respects bladder and prostate function. Read More

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December 2021

Metabolism of key atmospheric volatile organic compounds by the marine heterotrophic bacterium Pelagibacter HTCC1062 (SAR11).

Environ Microbiol 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, 226 Nash Hall, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA.

Plants and phytoplankton are natural sources of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) acetone and isoprene, which are reactive and can alter atmospheric chemistry. In earlier research we reported that, when co-cultured with a diatom, the marine bacterium Pelagibacter (strain HTCC1062; 'SAR11 clade') reduced the concentration of compounds tentatively identified as acetone and isoprene. In this study, experiments with Pelagibacter monocultures confirmed that these cells are capable of metabolizing acetone and isoprene at rates similar to bacterial communities in seawater and high enough to consume substantial fractions of the total marine acetone and isoprene budgets if extrapolated to global SAR11 populations. Read More

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November 2021

Characterization of Isolate Reveals New Prospects in Waste Stream Valorization for Bacterial Cellulose Production.

Microorganisms 2021 Oct 26;9(11). Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, 33720 Tampere, Finland.

spp. has been used for the bioconversion of industrial wastes and lignocellulosic hydrolysates to bacterial cellulose (BC). Recently, studies have demonstrated the capacity of spp. Read More

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October 2021

CTI-2 Inhibits Metastasis and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Breast Cancer Cells by Modulating MAPK Signaling Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Nov 12;22(22). Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China.

Although some breast cancer patients die due to tumor metastasis rather than from the primary tumor, the molecular mechanism of metastasis remains unclear. Therefore, it is necessary to inhibit breast cancer metastasis during cancer treatment. In this case, after designing and synthesizing CTI-2, we found that CTI-2 treatment significantly reduced breast cancer cell metastasis in vivo and in vitro. Read More

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November 2021

Water-Dispersible Nanocatalysts with Engineered Structures: The New Generation of Nanomaterials for Energy-Efficient CO Capture.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Dec 23;13(48):57294-57305. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.

The high energy demand of CO absorption-desorption technologies has significantly inhibited their industrial utilization and implementation of the Paris Climate Accord. Catalytic solvent regeneration is of considerable interest due to its low operating temperature and high energy efficiency. Of the catalysts available, heterogeneous catalysts have exhibited relatively poor performances and are hindered by other challenges, which have slowed their large-scale deployment. Read More

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December 2021

An assimilatory sulfite reductase, CysI, negatively regulates the dormancy of Microbulbifer aggregans CCB-MM1.

J Basic Microbiol 2021 Dec 19;61(12):1124-1132. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Centre for Chemical Biology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

Sulfur is one of the common and essential elements of all life. Sulfate, which is a major source of sulfur, plays an important role in synthesizing sulfur-containing amino acids, such as cysteine and methionine, organic compounds essential to all living organisms. Some investigations reported that the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway (ASRP) involved in cysteine synthesis is crucial to entering bacterial dormancy in pathogens. Read More

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December 2021

Comprehensive Comparative Genomics and Phenotyping of Species.

Front Microbiol 2021 6;12:740610. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.

The pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFMs), a major bacterial group found in the plant phyllosphere, comprise two genera: and They have been separated into three major clades: A, B (), and C. Within these genera, however, some species lack either pigmentation or methylotrophy, which raises the question of what actually defines the PPFMs. The present study employed a comprehensive comparative genomics approach to reveal the phylogenetic relationship among the PPFMs and to explain the genotypic differences that confer their different phenotypes. Read More

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October 2021

Synaptic dysfunction of Aldh1a1 neurons in the ventral tegmental area causes impulsive behaviors.

Mol Neurodegener 2021 10 26;16(1):73. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medicine and Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 4030030, China.

Background: Aldh1a1 neurons are a subtype of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory neurons that use Aldh1a1 rather than glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) as an enzyme for synthesizing GABA transmitters. However, the behaviors and circuits of this newly identified subtype of inhibitory interneurons remain unknown.

Methods: We generated a mutant mouse line in which cyclization recombination enzyme (CRE) was expressed under the control of the Aldh1a1 promotor (Aldh1a1-CRE mice). Read More

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October 2021

Fabrication of nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets anchored with carbon nanotubes for the degradation of tetracycline in saline water.

Environ Res 2021 Oct 22:112242. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Biological Colloids, Ministry of Education, School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, 214122, PR China. Electronic address:

The treatment of wastewater with high salinity is still a challenge because of the quenching effect of various anions on radical processes. The nonradical process may be a more promising pathway. Herein, a 3D structured nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheet anchored with carbon nanotubes (N-GS-CNTs) was prepared by direct pyrolysis of KFe(CN). Read More

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October 2021

CWI pathway participated in vegetative growth and pathogenicity through a downstream effector AflRlm1 in .

iScience 2021 Oct 23;24(10):103159. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Fungi and Mycotoxins of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology of Education Ministry, and School of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.

The cell wall is an essential dynamic structure for shielding fungus from environmental stress, and its synthesizing and remodeling are regulated by the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. Here, we explored the roles of a putative downstream effector AflRlm1 of CWI pathway in . The results showed that AflRlm1 played a positive role in conidia production, sclerotium formation, aflatoxin biosynthesis, and pathogenicity. Read More

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October 2021

Synthesis of Ferulenol by Engineered : Structural Elucidation by Using the In Silico Tools.

Molecules 2021 Oct 16;26(20). Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

4-Hydroxycoumarin (4HC) has been used as a lead compound for the chemical synthesis of various bioactive substances and drugs. Its prenylated derivatives exhibit potent antibacterial, antitubercular, anticoagulant, and anti-cancer activities. In doing this, BL21(DE3)pLysS strain was engineered as the in vivo prenylation system to produce the farnesyl derivatives of 4HC by coexpressing the genes encoding aromatic prenyltransferase (AtaPT) and truncated 1-deoxy-D-xylose 5-phosphate synthase of (CstDXS), where 4HC was the fed precursor. Read More

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October 2021

A role for PchHI as the ABC transporter in iron acquisition by the siderophore pyochelin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

CNRS, UMR7242, ESBS, Bld Sébastien Brant, Illkirch, F-67412, France.

Iron is an essential nutrient for bacterial growth but poorly bioavailable. Bacteria scavenge ferric iron by synthesizing and secreting siderophores, small compounds with a high affinity for iron. Pyochelin (PCH) is one of the two siderophores produced by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Read More

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October 2021

Novel Homologs of Isopentenyl Phosphate Kinase Reveal Class-Wide Substrate Flexibility.

ChemCatChem 2021 Sep 23;13(17):3781-3788. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Institute for Natural Products Applications and Research Technologies, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma, 101 Stephenson Parkway, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (USA).

The widespread utility of isoprenoids has recently sparked interest in efficient synthesis of isoprene-diphosphate precursors. Current efforts have focused on evaluating two-step "isoprenol pathways," which phosphorylate prenyl alcohols using promiscuous kinases/phosphatases. The convergence on isopentenyl phosphate kinases (IPKs) in these schemes has prompted further speculation about the class's utility in synthesizing non-natural isoprenoids. Read More

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September 2021

Retinoic acid signaling is directly activated in cardiomyocytes and protects mouse hearts from apoptosis after myocardial infarction.

Elife 2021 10 8;10. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Université Côte d'Azur, Inserm, CNRS, iBV, Nice, France.

Retinoic acid (RA) is an essential signaling molecule for cardiac development and plays a protective role in the heart after myocardial infarction (MI). In both cases, the effect of RA signaling on cardiomyocytes, the principle cell type of the heart, has been reported to be indirect. Here we have developed an inducible murine transgenic RA-reporter line using CreER technology that permits lineage tracing of RA-responsive cells and faithfully recapitulates endogenous RA activity in multiple organs during embryonic development. Read More

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October 2021

Facile fabrication of urchin-like carbon nanotube-modified CuNiCoO/CuO with high optical-infrared-microwave attenuation.

Opt Express 2021 Aug;29(16):26004-26013

Developing high-performance absorbers with a broad absorption band is a considerable challenge. Herein, carbon nanotube-modified CuNiCoO/CuO (C-CuNiCoO) composites were prepared using the one-pot hydrothermal method. The composites show good light scattering ability and longer light path due to their urchin-like structures, and lead to perfect absorption above 90% in optical ranges. Read More

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Loss of Dihydroxyacid Dehydratase Induces Auxotrophy in Bacillus anthracis.

J Bacteriol 2021 11 27;203(24):e0041521. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicinegrid.39382.33, Houston, Texas, USA.

Anthrax disease is caused by infection with the bacteria Bacillus anthracis which, if left untreated, can result in fatal bacteremia and toxemia. Current treatment for infection requires prolonged administration of antibiotics. Despite this, inhalational and gastrointestinal anthrax still result in lethal disease. Read More

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November 2021

RNA Solutions: Synthesizing Information to Support Transcriptomics (RNASSIST).

Bioinformatics 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Netrias, LLC, Annapolis, MD, 21409, USA.

Motivation: Transcriptomics is a common approach to identify changes in gene expression induced by a disease state. Standard transcriptomic analyses consider differentially expressed genes (DEGs) as indicative of disease states so only a few genes would be treated as signals when the effect size is small, such as in brain tissue. For tissue with small effect sizes, if the DEGs do not belong to a pathway known to be involved in the disease, there would be little left in the transcriptome for researchers to follow up with. Read More

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September 2021

Expression Analysis of Lanosterol synthase Gene in Dynamic Accumulation of Triterpenoids in Sanghuangporus baumii.

Protein Pept Lett 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

College of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040. China.

Background: Sanghuangporus baumii is a traditional Chinese medicine with anti-cancer, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory effects. Triterpenoids are one of the main medicinal ingredients found in S. baumii. Read More

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September 2021