516,943 results match your criteria synthesis pathway

Vitamin B12 status is a risk factor for bone fractures among vegans.

Roman Pawlak

Med Hypotheses 2021 Jun 5;153:110625. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Nutrition Science, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, United States. Electronic address:

Several studies consistently showed vegans having a higher risk of bone fractures compared to individuals from other diet groups. While researchers have focused on several factors as possible explanation of these findings, both dietary (e.g. Read More

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High fat induces activation of the tryptophan-ERK-CREB pathway and promotes bone absorption in cage layers.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 22;100(7):101149. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, PR China.

Cage layer fatigue is a common metabolic disease associated with a calcium and phosphorus imbalance, but recently we found this disease can be led by high fat diet. In order to elucidate the pathogenesis induced by a high fat diet, we randomly divided 88 White Shell Roman layers into 2 groups. There were 44 layers in each group. Read More

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Optimization of the clofazimine structure leads to a highly water-soluble C3-aminopyridinyl riminophenazine endowed with improved anti-Wnt and anti-cancer activity in vitro and in vivo.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 May 30;222:113562. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, Translational Research Centre in Oncohaematology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1206, Geneva, Switzerland; School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, 690922, Vladivostok, Russia. Electronic address:

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a cancer subtype critically dependent upon excessive activation of Wnt pathway. The anti-mycobacterial drug clofazimine is an efficient inhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling in TNBC, reducing tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in animal models. These properties make clofazimine a candidate to become first targeted therapy against TNBC. Read More

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Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of 1-methyl-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridine derivatives as novel small-molecule inhibitors targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction.

Bioorg Chem 2021 May 30;114:105034. Epub 2021 May 30.

Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Active Substance Discovery and Druggability Evaluation, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address:

Blockade of the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) signalling pathway is a promising tumour immunotherapeutic approach, and small molecule drugs have more advantages than monoclonal antibody macromolecules in clinical applications. Therefore, a series of 1-methyl-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridine derivatives as PD-1/PD-L1 interaction novel small-molecule inhibitors were designed employing a ring fusion strategy. The inhibitory activity of compounds was evaluated by the HTRF assay, among which D38 was identified as the most potent PD-1/PD-L1 interaction inhibitor with an IC value of 9. Read More

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DGAT2 Stability is Increased in Response to DGAT1 Inhibition in Gene Edited HepG2 Cells.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Jun 8:158991. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E5, Canada. Electronic address:

In eukaryotic organisms, two unrelated acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, catalyze the final step of the triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway. Both enzymes are highly expressed in lipogenic tissues, such as adipose tissue, small intestine and the liver. DGAT2 has a prominent role in hepatocyte lipid metabolism synthesizing triacylglycerols that are utilized for very low-density lipoprotein assembly. Read More

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Danning tablets alleviate high fat diet-induced obesity and fatty liver in mice via modulating SREBP pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 8:114320. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

The Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines, The State Administration of TCM (SATCM) Key Laboratory for New Resources and Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Complex Prescriptions, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China; Shanghai R&D Center for Standardization of Traditional Chinese Medicines, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The traditional Chinese formula Danningtablets exhibit wide clinical applications in liver and gallbladder diseases, and currently it is reported to be effective on fatty liver disease in clinical trials. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive.

Aim Of The Study: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects and potential pharmacological mechanisms of Danning tablet against high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, fatty liver, and related metabolic disorders in mice. Read More

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Dynamic transcriptome analysis and Methoprene-tolerant gene knockdown reveal that juvenile hormone regulates oogenesis and vitellogenin synthesis in Propylea Japonica.

Genomics 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Institute of Cotton Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Anyang, Henan 455000, China; Zhengzhou Research Base, State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

Propylea japonica has been regarded as one of the most remarkable natural enemies against aphid in China. However, the mechanism of juvenile hormone (JH) regulation of reproduction in P. japonica is still unclear. Read More

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Cloning and characterization of tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) from Litopenaeus vannamei, and its roles in biogenic amines synthesis, immune regulation, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus by RNA interference.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jun 8:104167. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Aquaculture, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, 91201, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

The biogenic amines, tyramine and octopamine, in the octopaminergic synthesis pathway play critical roles in regulating physiological and immunological homeostasis in Litopenaeus vannamei. Tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) is an enzyme catalyzing the first decarboxylation step in the biosynthesis of tyramine and octopamine. The full-length gene sequence of TDC cloned from the brain of L. Read More

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The novel AKT inhibitor Afuresertib suppresses human Merkel cell carcinoma MKL-1 cell growth.

Clin Exp Dermatol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Dermatology, McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive neuroendocrine neoplasm of the skin that is associated with exceedingly poor prognosis. The AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, which plays a pivotal role in the modulation of protein synthesis and cell survival, has been shown to be highly important for Merkel cell carcinogenesis. In the current study, our data indicate that AKT has important regulatory functions in MCC cells and that inhibition of AKT with the novel ATP-competitive AKT inhibitor, Afuresertib, has widespread effects on proliferative pathways. Read More

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DYF-4 regulates patched-related/DAF-6-mediated sensory compartment formation in C. elegans.

PLoS Genet 2021 Jun 11;17(6):e1009618. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Energy Metabolism and Reproduction, Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shenzhen, China.

Coordination of neurite extension with surrounding glia development is critical for neuronal function, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Through a genome-wide mutagenesis screen in C. elegans, we identified dyf-4 and daf-6 as two mutants sharing similar defects in dendrite extension. Read More

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The anoxic electrode-driven fructose catabolism of Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Solar Materials, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.

Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) is a microorganism of interest for various industrial processes, yet its strictly aerobic nature limits application. Despite previous attempts to adapt P. Read More

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Dynamic control of the distribution of carbon flux between cell growth and butyrate biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, 214122, China.

Microbial cell factories offer an economic and environmentally friendly method for the biosynthesis of acetyl-CoA-derived chemicals. However, the static control of carbon flux can cause direct and indirect competition for acetyl-CoA between cell growth and chemical biosynthesis, limiting the efficiency of microbial cell factories. Herein, recombinase-based genetic circuits were developed to achieve the optimal distribution of acetyl-CoA between cell growth and butyrate biosynthesis. Read More

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Wavelike propagation of quorum activation through a spatially distributed bacterial population under natural regulation.

Phys Biol 2021 Jun 11;18(4). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Physics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440, United States of America.

Many bacteria communicate using diffusible pheromone signals known as autoinducers. When the autoinducer concentration reaches a threshold, which requires a minimum population density or 'quorum', the bacteria activate specific gene regulatory pathways. Simple diffusion of autoinducer can activate quorum-dependent pathways in cells that are located at substantial distances from the secreting source. Read More

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An in vivo reporter for tracking lipid droplet dynamics in transparent zebrafish.

Elife 2021 Jun 11;10. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, United States.

Lipid droplets are lipid storage organelles found in nearly all cell types from adipocytes to cancer cells. Although increasingly implicated in disease, current methods to study lipid droplets in vertebrate models rely on static imaging or the use of fluorescent dyes, limiting investigation of their rapid in vivo dynamics. To address this, we created a lipid droplet transgenic reporter in whole animals and cell culture by fusing tdTOMATO to Perilipin-2 (PLIN2), a lipid droplet structural protein. Read More

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Bulk Crystalline 4H-Silicon through a Metastable Allotropic Transition.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 May;126(21):215701

Earth and Planets Laboratory, Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, DC 20015, USA.

We report the synthesis of bulk, highly oriented, crystalline 4H hexagonal silicon (4H-Si), through a metastable phase transformation upon heating the single-crystalline Si_{24} allotrope. Remarkably, the resulting 4H-Si crystallites exhibit an orientation relationship with the Si_{24} crystals, indicating a structural relationship between the two phases. Optical absorption measurements reveal that 4H-Si exhibits an indirect band gap near 1. Read More

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The effect of lipid metabolism regulator anthocyanins from on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and C57BL/6 mice activating AMPK signaling and gut microbiota.

Food Funct 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Food Science and Engineering, College of Agriculture, Yanbian University, Yanji 133000, Jilin, China. and Department of Food Science and Engineering, College of Integration Science, Yanbian University, Yanji 133000, Jilin, China.

This study investigated lipid metabolism regulation by anthocyanins from Aronia melanocarpa (AAM) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and high fat diet (HFD) mice. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis identified the constituents of AAM, which decreased lipid content and inflammation in 3T3-L1 cells without cytotoxicity. Meanwhile, taking normal diet and orlistat mice as references, AAM supplementation improved blood lipid levels and adipocyte degeneration, promoted beneficial gut microbial growth, and maintained lipid metabolism in HFD mice. Read More

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Metal- and Base-Free C(sp)-H Arylsulfonylation of Enamides for Synthesis of ()-β-Amidovinyl Sulfones via the Insertion of Sulfur Dioxide.

Org Lett 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Dermatology, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, and West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, P.R. China.

A metal- and base-free C(sp)-H direct arylsulfonylation of secondary and tertiary enamides with aryldiazonium salts and ex situ generated SO (from SOgen) is presented. This method runs smoothly to produce β-amidovinyl sulfones with excellent stereoselectivities in moderate to excellent yields. Moreover, this strategy features good functional group tolerance and environmentally benign reaction conditions. Read More

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Effect of compound Sophorae decoction in the treatment of ulcerative colitis by tissue extract metabolomics approach.

J Tradit Chin Med 2021 Jun;41(3):414-423

Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China.

Objective: To investigate how compound Sophorae decoction (CSD) works on rats' models of ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid solution (TNBS) by metabolomics studies of colon, liver, and kidney tissue extracts.

Methods: Rats with UC induced by TNBS enema were used as models in this study. Metabolic profiles of the three tissues were analyzed and pathway analysis of biomarkers was performed after CSD administration and further integration of metabolic networks. Read More

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Plant-Based Diet Index and Metabolic Risk in Men: Exploring the Role of the Gut Microbiome.

J Nutr 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Healthy plant-based diet index (hPDI) is associated with a lower risk of cardiometabolic conditions, but its association as well as interactions with microbiome have not been elucidated.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the interrelations between hPDI, gut microbiome, and cardiometabolic risk markers.

Methods: hPDI was derived from dietary assessments by a validated FFQ and was examined in relation to metagenomic profiles of 911 fecal samples collected from 303 men aged 71 ± 4 y with an average BMI (in kg/m2) of 25. Read More

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Systemic administration of monovalent follistatin-like 3-Fc-fusion protein increases muscle mass in mice.

iScience 2021 May 14;24(5):102488. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

Targeting the signaling pathway of growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), also known as myostatin, has been regarded as a promising strategy to increase muscle mass in the elderly and in patients. Accumulating evidence in animal models and clinical trials has indicated that a rational approach is to inhibit a limited number of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family ligands, including GDF8 and activin A, without affecting other members. Here, we focused on one of the endogenous antagonists against TGF-β family ligands, follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3), which mainly binds and neutralizes activins, GDF8, and GDF11. Read More

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Diverse meibum lipids produced by Awat1 and Awat2 are important for stabilizing tear film and protecting the ocular surface.

iScience 2021 May 26;24(5):102478. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Kita 12-jo, Nishi 6-chome, Kita-ku 060-0812, Japan.

A lipid layer consisting of meibum lipids exists in the tear film and functions in preventing dry eye disease. Although the meibum lipids include diverse lipid classes, the synthesis pathway and role of each class remain largely unknown. Here, we created single and double knockout (KO and DKO, respectively) mice for the two acyl-CoA wax alcohol acyltransferases ( and ) and investigated their dry eye phenotypes and meibum lipid composition. Read More

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Tandem Mass Tag-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Chicken Bursa of Fabricius Infected With Reticuloendotheliosis Virus.

Front Vet Sci 2021 25;8:666512. Epub 2021 May 25.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is a type C avian retrovirus that causes immunosuppression, dwarf syndrome, and lymphoma in infected hosts. In this study, we used tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to characterize protein alterations in chicken bursa of Fabricius, before and after REV infection at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Our data showed that 1,127, 999, 910, and 1,138 differentially expressed proteins were significantly altered at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after REV infection, respectively. Read More

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Role of HOXC10 in Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:684021. Epub 2021 May 25.

Central Laboratory, Affiliated Jinhua Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Jinhua, China.

The HOXC10 gene, a member of the HOX genes family, plays crucial roles in mammalian physiological processes, such as limb morphological development, limb regeneration, and lumbar motor neuron differentiation. HOXC10 is also associated with angiogenesis, fat metabolism, and sex regulation. Additional evidence suggests that HOXC10 dysregulation is closely associated with various tumors. Read More

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Gene Expression Profile of the Human Colorectal Carcinoma LoVo Cells Treated With Sporamin and Thapsigargin.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:621462. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Public Health, Capital Medical University (CMU), Beijing, China.

Sporamin, a proteinase inhibitor isolated from the sweet potato (), has shown promising anticancer effect against colorectal cancer (CRC) and but its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. In the present study, high throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology was applied to explore the transcriptomic changes induced by sporamin in the presence of thapsigargin (TG), a non-12-O-tetradecanolphorbol-13-acetate type cancer promoter, in the LoVo human CRC cells. Cellular total RNA was extracted from the cells after they were treated with vehicle (CTL), 1 μM of thapsigargin (TG), or 1 μM of TG plus 30 μM of sporamin (TGSP) for 24 h. Read More

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Mind the replication gap.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Jun 9;8(6):201932. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Chromosome Dynamics and Stability Group, Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 7BG, UK.

Unlike bacteria, mammalian cells need to complete DNA replication before segregating their chromosomes for the maintenance of genome integrity. Thus, cells have evolved efficient pathways to restore stalled and/or collapsed replication forks during S-phase, and when necessary, also to delay cell cycle progression to ensure replication completion. However, strong evidence shows that cells can proceed to mitosis with incompletely replicated DNA when under mild replication stress (RS) conditions. Read More

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Transcriptome Profile Analysis of Reveals the Drought Stress-Induced Long Non-coding RNAs Associated With Photosynthesis, Chlorophyll Synthesis, Fatty Acid Synthesis and Degradation.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:643182. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in the response of plants to drought stress. The previous studies have reported that overexpression of and could enhance drought tolerance and improve the oil content in and , and most of the efforts have been invested in the gene function analysis, there is little understanding of how genes that involved in these important pathways are regulated. In the present study, the transcriptomic results of and over-expressed (OE) lines were compared with the RNAi lines, mutant lines and control lines under long-term and short-term drought treatment, a series of differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified, and their regulation patterns in mRNA were also investigated in above mentioned materials. Read More

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Berberine Ameliorates Hepatic Insulin Resistance by Regulating microRNA-146b/SIRT1 Pathway.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 4;14:2525-2537. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Endocrine and Diabetes Center, Affiliated Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Hepatic insulin resistance is a major initiating factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In previous study, Gegen Qinlian Decoction containing berberine could enhance hepatic insulin sensitivity by SIRT1-dependent deacetylation of FOXO1. However, it is not clear whether berberine also can improve hepatic insulin sensitivity by SIRT1/FOXO1 pathway. Read More

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Macropinocytosis requires Gal-3 in a subset of patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 10;4(1):718. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Laboratory of Tumor Immunology, Department of Oncology, Center for Translational Research in Onco-Hematology, Swiss Cancer Center Léman (SCCL), Geneva University Hospitals, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Recently, we involved the carbohydrate-binding protein Galectin-3 (Gal-3) as a druggable target for KRAS-mutant-addicted lung and pancreatic cancers. Here, using glioblastoma patient-derived stem cells (GSCs), we identify and characterize a subset of Gal-3 glioblastoma (GBM) tumors mainly within the mesenchymal subtype that are addicted to Gal-3-mediated macropinocytosis. Using both genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of Gal-3, we showed a significant decrease of GSC macropinocytosis activity, cell survival and invasion, in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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Host specific endophytic microbiome diversity and associated functions in three varieties of scented black rice are dependent on growth stage.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12259. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Microbiology, Assam University, Silchar, 788011, India.

The compositional and functional role of the endophytic bacterial community, associated with black scented rice, in correlation with its antioxidant property has been elucidated. Community dissimilarity analysis confirmed the overlapping of community in shoot and root tissues at the young stage, but not in mature plants. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, in which Agrobacterium, Pleomorphomonas, Bradyrhizobium, Novasphingobium, Caulobacter were the most abundant genera, followed by Cyanobacteria and Planctomycetes in all three different varieties of the black rice. Read More

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Deciphering an AgRP-serotoninergic neural circuit in distinct control of energy metabolism from feeding.

Nat Commun 2021 06 10;12(1):3525. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Contrasting to the established role of the hypothalamic agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons in feeding regulation, the neural circuit and signaling mechanisms by which they control energy expenditure remains unclear. Here, we report that energy expenditure is regulated by a subgroup of AgRP neurons that send non-collateral projections to neurons within the dorsal lateral part of dorsal raphe nucleus (dlDRN) expressing the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), which in turn innervate nearby serotonergic (5-HT) neurons. Genetic manipulations reveal a bi-directional control of energy expenditure by this circuit without affecting food intake. Read More

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