357 results match your criteria synthase-like enzyme

Constitutive nitric oxide synthase-like enzyme in two species involved in cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

Parasitol Int 2021 Aug 19;83:102347. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Federal University of Para, Institute of Biological Sciences, Laboratory of Structural Biology, Belém 66095-110, Pará, Brazil; National Institute of Science and Technology in Structural Biology and Bioimaging, Rio de Janeiro, 21.941-902 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Leishmania is an obligate intracellular parasite that primarily inhabits macrophages. The destruction of the parasite in the host cell is a fundamental mechanism for infection control. In addition, inhibition of the leishmanicidal activity of macrophages seems to be related to the ability of some species to inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO) by depleting arginine. Read More

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Role of the chicken oligoadenylate synthase-like gene during in vitro Newcastle disease virus infection.

Poult Sci 2021 May 18;100(5):101067. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, 50011-3150 Ames, USA. Electronic address:

The enzyme 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthase (OAS) is one of the key interferon-induced antiviral factors that act through inhibition of viral replication. In chickens, there is a single well-characterized OAS gene, oligoadenylate synthase-like (OASL) that has been shown to be upregulated after infection with various viruses. However, a deeper understanding of how chicken OASL acts against viral infection is still necessary. Read More

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Deciphering a Cyclodipeptide Synthase Pathway Encoding Prenylated Indole Alkaloids in Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 05 11;87(11). Epub 2021 May 11.

Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs, Ministry of Education of China, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China

Cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) catalyze the formation of cyclodipeptides using aminoacylated tRNAs as the substrates and have great potential in the production of diverse 2,5-diketopiperazines (2,5-DKPs). Genome mining of NRRL B-24963 revealed a two-gene locus, , encoding CDPS SazA and a unique fused enzyme (SazB) harboring two domains: phytoene synthase-like prenyltransferase (PT) and methyltransferase (MT). Heterologous expression of the gene(s) in J1074 led to the production of four prenylated indole alkaloids, among which streptoazines A to C (compounds 3 to 5) are new compounds. Read More

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Biosynthesis of 6-Hydroxymellein Requires a Collaborating Polyketide Synthase-like Enzyme.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 05 8;60(20):11423-11429. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute for Organic Chemistry and BMWZ, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Schneiderberg 38, 30167, Hannover, Germany.

The polyketide synthase (PKS)-like protein TerB, consisting of inactive dehydratase, inactive C-methyltransferase, and functional ketoreductase domains collaborates with the iterative non reducing PKS TerA to produce 6-hydroxymellein, a key pathway intermediate during the biosynthesis of various fungal natural products. The catalytically inactive dehydratase domain of TerB appears to mediate productive interactions with TerA, demonstrating a new mode of trans-interaction between iterative PKS components. Read More

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Tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus in transgenic tomato overexpressing a cellulose synthase-like gene.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 04 19;19(4):657-659. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of International Agricultural Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang, Korea.

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Nitric Oxide Signaling in Plants.

John T Hancock

Plants (Basel) 2020 Nov 12;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK.

Nitric oxide (NO) is an integral part of cell signaling mechanisms in animals and plants. In plants, its enzymatic generation is still controversial. Evidence points to nitrate reductase being important, but the presence of a nitric oxide synthase-like enzyme is still contested. Read More

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November 2020

Methyl salicylate is the most effective natural salicylic acid ester to close stomata while raising reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in Arabidopsis guard cells.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Dec 29;157:276-283. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Plant Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, 500046, India. Electronic address:

Modulation by salicylic acid (SA) and its six esters of stomatal closure was evaluated in Arabidopsis thaliana. The seven compounds tested are salicylic acid (SA), acetylsalicylate (ASA), methyl salicylate (MeSA), propyl salicylate (PrSA), amyl salicylate, benzyl salicylate, and salicin. Among these, MeSA was the most effective to induce stomatal closure, followed by salicin and SA, while ASA was the least effective. Read More

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December 2020

Proteome-wide modulation of S-nitrosylation in Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes upon interaction with the host extracellular matrix.

J Proteomics 2021 01 20;231:104020. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes adhere to extracellular matrix (ECM) to invade mammalian host cells regulating intracellular signaling pathways. Herein, resin-assisted enrichment of thiols combined with mass spectrometry were employed to map site-specific S-nitrosylated (SNO) proteins from T. cruzi trypomastigotes incubated (MTy) or not (Ty) with ECM. Read More

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January 2021

Heterologous Expression of an Unusual Ketosynthase, SxtA, Leads to Production of Saxitoxin Intermediates in Escherichia coli.

Chembiochem 2021 Mar 16;22(5):845-849. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are neurotoxic alkaloids produced by freshwater cyanobacteria and marine dinoflagellates. Due to their antagonism of voltage-gated sodium channels in excitable cells, certain analogues are of significant pharmacological interest. The biosynthesis of the parent compound, saxitoxin, is initiated with the formation of 4-amino-3-oxo-guanidinoheptane (ethyl ketone) by an unusual polyketide synthase-like enzyme, SxtA. Read More

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Evolution of isoprenyl diphosphate synthase-like terpene synthases in fungi.

Sci Rep 2020 09 10;10(1):14944. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA.

Terpene synthases (TPSs) and trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthases (IDSs) are among the core enzymes for creating the enormous diversity of terpenoids. Despite having no sequence homology, TPSs and IDSs share a conserved "α terpenoid synthase fold" and a trinuclear metal cluster for catalysis, implying a common ancestry with TPSs hypothesized to evolve from IDSs anciently. Here we report on the identification and functional characterization of novel IDS-like TPSs (ILTPSs) in fungi that evolved from IDS relatively recently, indicating recurrent evolution of TPSs from IDSs. Read More

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September 2020

Targeted mutation of barley (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan synthases reveals complex relationships between the storage and cell wall polysaccharide content.

Plant J 2020 11 29;104(4):1009-1022. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, Scotland, DD2 5DA, UK.

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L) grain is comparatively rich in (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, a source of fermentable dietary fibre that protects against various human health conditions. However, low grain (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan content is preferred for brewing and distilling. We took a reverse genetics approach, using CRISPR/Cas9 to generate mutations in members of the Cellulose synthase-like (Csl) gene superfamily that encode known (HvCslF6 and HvCslH1) and putative (HvCslF3 and HvCslF9) (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan synthases. Read More

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November 2020

Isolation and functional characterization of four microbial type terpene synthases from ferns.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Oct 20;155:716-724. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Natural Products, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, China. Electronic address:

Typical plant terpene synthases (TPSs) are responsible for the production of terpenes, a major class of plant secondary metabolites. However, various nonseed plants also harbor genes encoding microbial terpene synthase-like (MTPSL) enzymes. Here, a scan of 31 ferns transcriptomes revealed 40 sequences putatively encoding MTPSLs. Read More

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October 2020

A Cyclic di-GMP Network Is Present in Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Species.

ACS Infect Dis 2020 10 2;6(10):2672-2687. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Pharmacological & Technological Chemistry, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, 119146, Russia.

The ubiquitous cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) network is highly redundant with numerous GGDEF domain proteins as diguanylate cyclases and EAL domain proteins as c-di-GMP specific phosphodiesterases comprising those domains as two of the most abundant bacterial domain superfamilies. One hallmark of the c-di-GMP network is its exalted plasticity as c-di-GMP turnover proteins can rapidly vanish from species within a genus and possess an above average transmissibility. To address the evolutionary forces of c-di-GMP turnover protein maintenance, conservation, and diversity, we investigated a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative species, which preserved only one single clearly identifiable GGDEF domain protein. Read More

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October 2020

Full sunlight acclimation mechanisms in Riccia discolor thalli: Assessment at morphological, anatomical, and biochemical levels.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Sep 31;210:111983. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, C.M.P. Degree College, A Constituent Post Graduate College of University of Allahabad, Prayagraj 211002, India. Electronic address:

Light occupies a central position in regulating development of plants. Either little or excess of light could be harmful for plants. Since bryophytes are shade loving organisms, they must adapt to function in fluctuating light regimes. Read More

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September 2020

Genome-wide characterization of the cellulose synthase gene superfamily in Pyrus bretschneideri and reveal its potential role in stone cell formation.

Funct Integr Genomics 2020 Sep 8;20(5):723-738. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, No. 130, Changjiang West, Road, Hefei, 230036, China.

Members of the cellulose synthase (CesA) and cellulose synthase-like (Csl) families from the cellulose synthase gene superfamily participate in cellulose and hemicellulose synthesis in the plasma membrane. The members of this superfamily are vital for cell wall construction during plant growth and development. However, little is known about their function in pear fruit, a model for Rosaceae species and for fleshy fruit development. Read More

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September 2020

The synthesis of xyloglucan, an abundant plant cell wall polysaccharide, requires CSLC function.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 08 31;117(33):20316-20324. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824;

Xyloglucan (XyG) is an abundant component of the primary cell walls of most plants. While the structure of XyG has been well studied, much remains to be learned about its biosynthesis. Here we employed reverse genetics to investigate the role of cellulose synthase like-C (CSLC) proteins in XyG biosynthesis. Read More

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Modulation of Nuclearity in Cu -Mn Complexes of a N O Donor Ligand Depending upon Carboxylate Anions: Structures, Magnetic Properties and Catalytic Oxidase Activities.

Chem Asian J 2020 Dec 28;15(23):4055-4069. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Chemistry, University College of Science, University of Calcutta, 92, A. P. C. Road, Kolkata, 700 009, India.

Three new hetero-metallic copper(II)-manganese(II) complexes, [(CuL) Mn (C H CO ) ] (1), [(CuL) Mn(CH CO ) ] (2), and {[(CuL) Mn(C H CH CO ) ] ⋅ 2CH CN} (3), have been synthesized using [CuL] as ''metalloligand'' (where H L=N,N'-bis(2-hydroxynaphthyl-methylidene)-1,3-propanediamine). Single-crystal structural analyses show an almost linear penta-nuclear structure for complex 1 where a square planar [CuL] unit is connected to each of the two terminal Mn ions of a linear, centrosymmetric [Mn (benzoate) ] unit through the double phenoxido bridges. Both complexes 2 and 3 possess a linear tri-nuclear structure where two terminal square-pyramidal [CuL] units are bonded to the central Mn ion through double phenoxido oxygen atoms along with a syn-syn bridging acetate (for 2)/phenyl acetate (for 3). Read More

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December 2020

Priming of tomato seedlings with 2-oxoglutarate induces arsenic toxicity alleviatory responses by involving endogenous nitric oxide.

Physiol Plant 2020 Jul 12. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Metal toxicity in crop plants is a matter of scientific concern. Therefore, in recent years efforts have been made to minimize metal toxicity in crop plants. Out of various strategies, priming of seedlings with certain chemicals, like e. Read More

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Sources of Resistance to and Associated Genomic Regions in Common Bean Diversity Panels.

Front Genet 2020 16;11:475. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, United States.

Common bean ( L.) production worldwide is hampered by Fusarium root rot (FRR), which is caused by . Screening for FRR resistance on a large scale is notoriously difficult and often yields inconsistent results due to variability within the environment and pathogen biology. Read More

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A Transmembrane Crenarchaeal Mannosyltransferase Is Involved in N-Glycan Biosynthesis and Displays an Unexpected Minimal Cellulose-Synthase-like Fold.

J Mol Biol 2020 07 19;432(16):4658-4672. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology, and Health (CBH), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Protein glycosylation constitutes a critical post-translational modification that supports a vast number of biological functions in living organisms across all domains of life. A seemingly boundless number of enzymes, glycosyltransferases, are involved in the biosynthesis of these protein-linked glycans. Few glycan-biosynthetic glycosyltransferases have been characterized in vitro, mainly due to the majority being integral membrane proteins and the paucity of relevant acceptor substrates. Read More

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STARCH SYNTHASE5, a Noncanonical Starch Synthase-Like Protein, Promotes Starch Granule Initiation in Arabidopsis.

Plant Cell 2020 08 29;32(8):2543-2565. Epub 2020 May 29.

Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland

What determines the number of starch granules in plastids is an enigmatic aspect of starch metabolism. Several structurally and functionally diverse proteins have been implicated in the granule initiation process in Arabidopsis (), with each protein exerting a varying degree of influence. Here, we show that a conserved starch synthase-like protein, STARCH SYNTHASE5 (SS5), regulates the number of starch granules that form in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. Read More

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Plant terpenoid metabolism co-opts a component of the cell wall biosynthesis machinery.

Nat Chem Biol 2020 07 18;16(7):740-748. Epub 2020 May 18.

Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Glycosylation is one of the most prevalent molecular modifications in nature. Single or multiple sugars can decorate a wide range of acceptors from proteins to lipids, cell wall glycans and small molecules, dramatically affecting their activity. Here, we discovered that by 'hijacking' an enzyme of the cellulose synthesis machinery involved in cell wall assembly, plants evolved cellulose synthase-like enzymes (Csls) and acquired the capacity to glucuronidate specialized metabolites, that is, triterpenoid saponins. Read More

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Biochemical and Genetic Analysis Identify CSLD3 as a beta-1,4-Glucan Synthase That Functions during Plant Cell Wall Synthesis.

Plant Cell 2020 05 13;32(5):1749-1767. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109

In plants, changes in cell size and shape during development fundamentally depend on the ability to synthesize and modify cell wall polysaccharides. The main classes of cell wall polysaccharides produced by terrestrial plants are cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins. Members of the cellulose synthase (CESA) and cellulose synthase-like (CSL) families encode glycosyltransferases that synthesize the β-1,4-linked glycan backbones of cellulose and most hemicellulosic polysaccharides that comprise plant cell walls. Read More

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Facile synthesis of a new Cu(ii) complex with an unsymmetrical ligand and its use as an O donor metalloligand in the synthesis of Cu(ii)-Mn(ii) complexes: structures, magnetic properties, and catalytic oxidase activities.

Dalton Trans 2020 Jan 7;49(4):1276-1291. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Chemistry, University College of Science, University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700 009, India.

A new, facile Cu(ii) template method has been employed for the unsymmetrical dicondensation of 1,2-ethylenediamine with salicylaldehyde and o-vanillin. The mononuclear complex, [CuL] (1), thus obtained, has been used as an O donor metalloligand for the synthesis of four new Cu(ii)-Mn(ii) complexes, [(CuL)MnCl] (2), [(CuL)Mn(NO)(CHOH)] (3), {[(CuL)Mn(benz)(HO)]·(CuL)(ClO)} (4) and [(CuL)Mn(benz)Cl] (5) (where benz = benzoate). Single-crystal structural analyses reveal that 2 is a dinuclear complex while complex 3 is polymeric with a repeating dinuclear [(CuL)Mn(NO)(CHOH)] unit, linked via the nitrate ion. Read More

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January 2020

Antibacterial Isoquinoline Alkaloids from the Fungus Em19.

Molecules 2019 Dec 17;24(24). Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Molecular Sciences, Uppsala BioCentrum, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7015, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.

In the search for new microbial antibacterial secondary metabolites, two new compounds ( and ) were isolated from culture broths of Em19. Structure determination by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry identified the compounds as 6,7-dihydroxy-5,10-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-]isoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (, spathullin A) and 5,10-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-]isoquinoline-6,7-diol (, spathullin B). The two compounds displayed activity against both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, including , , , , , and . Read More

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December 2019

Barley grain (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan content: effects of transcript and sequence variation in genes encoding the corresponding synthase and endohydrolase enzymes.

Sci Rep 2019 11 21;9(1):17250. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, DD2 5DA, Scotland, UK.

The composition of plant cell walls is important in determining cereal end uses. Unlike other widely consumed cereal grains barley is comparatively rich in (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, a source of dietary fibre. Previous work showed Cellulose synthase-like genes synthesise (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in several tissues. Read More

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November 2019

Comparative Investigation into Formycin A and Pyrazofurin A Biosynthesis Reveals Branch Pathways for the Construction of -Nucleoside Scaffolds.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2020 01 7;86(2). Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Key Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery, Ministry of Education, and School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China

Formycin A (FOR-A) and pyrazofurin A (PRF-A) are purine-related -nucleoside antibiotics in which ribose and a pyrazole-derived base are linked by a -glycosidic bond. However, the logic underlying the biosynthesis of these molecules has remained largely unexplored. Here, we report the discovery of the pathways for FOR-A and PRF-A biosynthesis from diverse actinobacteria and propose that their biosynthesis is likely initiated by a lysine -monooxygenase. Read More

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January 2020

Production of a complete set of wheat-barley group-7 chromosome recombinants with increased grain β-glucan content.

Theor Appl Genet 2019 Nov 18;132(11):3129-3141. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Department of Plant Pathology, Wheat Genetics Resource Center, Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 66506-5502, USA.

Key Message: Wheat-barley group-7 recombinant chromosomes were selected using molecular cytogenetics and SNP markers; increased grain β-glucan content was observed in wheat plants with two and four copies of HvCslF6. The soluble dietary fiber (1-3)(1-4) mixed linked β-D-glucan from cereal grains is a valuable component of a healthy diet, which reduces risks of coronary disease and diabetes. Although wheat is an important cereal crop providing a substantial portion of daily calories and protein intake in the human diet, it has a low level of β-glucan. Read More

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November 2019

Polyunsaturated fatty acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica employing designed myxobacterial PUFA synthases.

Nat Commun 2019 09 6;10(1):4055. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Department of Microbial Natural Products, Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland and Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Saarbrücken, Germany.

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), particularly the omega-3 LC-PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been associated with beneficial health effects. Consequently, sustainable sources have to be developed to meet the increasing demand for these PUFAs. Here, we demonstrate the design and construction of artificial PUFA biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) encoding polyketide synthase-like PUFA synthases from myxobacteria adapted for the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Read More

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September 2019

Co-evolution of Enzymes Involved in Plant Cell Wall Metabolism in the Grasses.

Front Plant Sci 2019 9;10:1009. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Cell Walls, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaid, Glen Osmond, SA, Australia.

There has been a dramatic evolutionary shift in the polysaccharide composition of cell walls in the grasses, with increases in arabinoxylans and (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans and decreases in pectic polysaccharides, mannans, and xyloglucans, compared with other angiosperms. Several enzymes are involved in the biosynthesis of arabinoxylans, but the overall process is not yet defined and whether their increased abundance in grasses results from active or reactive evolutionary forces is not clear. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that multiple independent evolution of genes encoding (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan synthases has probably occurred within the large cellulose synthase/cellulose synthase-like (CesA/Csl) gene family of angiosperms. Read More

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