17,320 results match your criteria synthase complex


Inhibitors of FFATP synthase enzymes for the treatment of tuberculosis and cancer.

Authors:
William A Denny

Future Med Chem 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand.

The spectacular success of the mycobacterial FF-ATP synthase inhibitor bedaquiline for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis has generated wide interest in the development of other inhibitors of this enzyme. Work in this realm has included close analogues of bedaquiline with better safety profiles and 'bedaquiline-like' compounds, some of which show potent antibacterial activity although none have yet progressed to clinical trials. The search has lately extended to a range of new scaffolds as potential inhibitors, including squaramides, diaminoquinazolines, chloroquinolines, dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrazin-4-ones, thiazolidinediones, diaminopyrimidines and tetrahydroquinolines. Read More

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Crystal structure and functional implication of a bacterial cyclic AMP-AMP-GMP synthetase.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of New Drug Development, China Medical University, Taichung 406, Taiwan.

Mammalian cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and its homologue dinucleotide cyclase in Vibrio cholerae (VcDncV) produce cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) that participate in the defense against viral infection. Recently, scores of new cGAS/DncV-like nucleotidyltransferases (CD-NTases) were discovered, which produce various CDNs and cyclic trinucleotides (CTNs) as second messengers. Here, we present the crystal structures of EcCdnD, a CD-NTase from Enterobacter cloacae that produces cyclic AMP-AMP-GMP, in its apo-form and in complex with ATP, ADP and AMPcPP, an ATP analogue. Read More

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Caught in Action: X-ray Structure of Thymidylate Synthase with Noncovalent Intermediate Analog.

Biochemistry 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, United States.

Methylation of 2-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (dUMP) at the C5 position by the obligate dimeric thymidylate synthase (TSase) in the sole biosynthetic pathway to thymidine 5'-monophosphate (dTMP) proceeds by forming a covalent ternary complex with dUMP and cosubstrate 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. The crystal structure of an analog of this intermediate gives important mechanistic insights but does not explain the half-of-the-sites activity of the enzyme. Recent experiments showed that the C5 proton and the catalytic Cys are eliminated in a concerted manner from the covalent ternary complex to produce a noncovalent bisubstrate intermediate. Read More

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Anomeric Retention of Carbohydrates in Multistage Cyclic Ion Mobility (IMS): De Novo Structural Elucidation of Enzymatically Produced Mannosides.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

INRAE, UR BIA, F-44316 Nantes, France.

Carbohydrates are complex structures that still challenge analysts today because of their different levels of isomerism, notably the anomerism of the glycosidic bond. It has been shown recently that anomerism is preserved upon gas-phase fragmentation and that high-resolution ion mobility (IMS) can distinguish anomers. However, these concepts have yet to be applied to complex biological products. Read More

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Regulation of Anion Channel LRRC8 Volume-Regulated Anion Channels in Transport of 2'3'-Cyclic GMP-AMP and Cisplatin under Steady State and Inflammation.

J Immunol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

The Center for Microbes, Development and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China;

The recently identified anion channel LRRC8 volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) are heteromeric hexamers constituted with the obligate LRRC8A subunit paired with at least one of the accessory LRRC8B to LRRC8E subunits. In addition to transport chloride, taurine, and glutamate, LRRC8 VRACs also transport the anticancer agent cisplatin and STING agonists 2'3'-cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) and cyclic dinucleotides; hence, they are implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as cell swelling, stroke, cancer, and viral infection. Although the subunit composition largely determines VRAC substrate specificity, the opening of various VRAC pores under physiological and pathological settings remains enigmatic. Read More

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Visualizing Lung Cellular Adaptations during Combined Ozone and LPS Induced Murine Acute Lung Injury.

J Vis Exp 2021 Mar 21(169). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan;

Lungs are continually faced with direct and indirect insults in the form of sterile (particles or reactive toxins) and infectious (bacterial, viral or fungal) inflammatory conditions. An overwhelming host response may result in compromised respiration and acute lung injury, which is characterized by lung neutrophil recruitment as a result of the patho-logical host immune, coagulative and tissue remodeling response. Sensitive microscopic methods to visualize and quantify murine lung cellular adaptations, in response to low-dose (0. Read More

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Inhibition of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) by Andrographolide and Evaluation of Its Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects on Cervical Cancer.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 16;2021:6692628. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Genetics & Biotechnology, University College of Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad, 500 007 Telangana, India.

This work is aimed at investigating the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cervical cancer and identifying a potential iNOS inhibitor. The data mining studies performed advocated iNOS to be a promising biomarker for cancer prognosis, as it is highly overexpressed in several malignant cancers. The elevated iNOS was found to be associated with poor survival and increased tumor aggressiveness in cervical cancer. Read More

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Expression of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2, broad complex-tramtrack-bric a brac and Cap'n'collar homology 1 and γ-glutamic acid cysteine synthase in peripheral blood of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its clinical significance.

Exp Ther Med 2021 May 22;21(5):516. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006, P.R. China.

The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/BTB-CNC allogeneic 1 (Bach1)/γ-glutamic acid cysteine synthase (γ-GCS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The expression of Nrf2, Bach1, γ-GCS mRNA and protein in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 80 COPD patients and 40 healthy volunteers were studied. Then, the correlation between Nrf2, Bach1, γ-GCS and lung function, inflammation and oxidative stress indicators was analyzed. Read More

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Sphingolipids as a Culprit of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 18;12:635175. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Medical Biology, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland.

Insulin resistance is defined as a complex pathological condition of abnormal cellular and metabolic response to insulin. Obesity and consumption of high-fat diet lead to ectopic accumulation of bioactive lipids in insulin-sensitive tissues. Intracellular lipid accumulation is regarded as one of the major factors in the induction of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Read More

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Effects of different standard and special diets on cognition and brain mitochondrial function in mice.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Apr 5:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Laboratory for Nutrition in Prevention and Therapy, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Biomedical Research Center Seltersberg (BFS), Giessen, Germany.

Human nutrition plays an important role in prevention or at least slowing down the progression of age- and diet-related diseases. Thereby, mitochondrial dysfunction represents one common underlying mechanism, which is being investigated in mouse models. However, the influence of the selected diets in preclinical studies on cognition and mitochondrial function has not yet been reported cohesively. Read More

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An Integrative Proteomics and Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Metabolic Phenotype in Mice with Cardiac-specific Deletion of Natriuretic Peptide Receptor A.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 Mar 31:100072. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Clinical Experimental Center, Xi'an International Medical Center Hospital, Xi'an, 710100, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are important biological markers and cardiac function regulators. Natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA) binds to an ANP or BNP ligand and induces transmembrane signal transduction by elevating the intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels. However, the metabolic phenotype and related mechanisms induced by NPRA deletion remain ambiguous. Read More

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The flexibility of metabolic interactions between chloroplasts and mitochondria in Nicotiana tabacum leaf.

Plant J 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Biological Sciences, Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, M1C1A4, Canada.

To examine the effect of mitochondrial function on photosynthesis, wild-type and transgenic Nicotiana tabacum with varying amounts of alternative oxidase (AOX) were treated with different respiratory inhibitors. Initially, each inhibitor increased the reduction state of the chloroplast electron transport chain (cETC), most severely in AOX knockdowns and least severely in AOX overexpressors. This indicated that the mitochondrion was a necessary sink for photo-generated reductant, contributing to the "P700 oxidation capacity" of photosystem I. Read More

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Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Plus Omega-3 Restores the Mitochondrial Complex I and FF-ATP Synthase Activities in PBMCs of Young Children with Down Syndrome: A Pilot Study of Safety and Efficacy.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 16;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Section of Pediatrics, Federico II University, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Down syndrome (DS) is a major genetic cause of intellectual disability. DS pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated, and no specific pharmacological therapy is available. DYRK1A overexpression, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were described in trisomy 21. Read More

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Defects in Cell Wall Differentiation of the Arabidopsis Mutant Is Dependent on Cyclin-Dependent Kinase CDK8.

Cells 2021 Mar 19;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zurich, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland.

Plant cells are encapsulated by cell walls whose properties largely determine cell growth. We have previously identified the mutant, which shows defects in seedling root and shoot development. is affected in the () and shows alterations in the structures of Rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) and RG II, two rhamnose-containing pectins. Read More

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The Role of the Transsulfuration Pathway in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 5;10(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Gastro Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, 2650 Hvidovre, Denmark.

The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing and approximately 25% of the global population may have NAFLD. NAFLD is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome, but its pathophysiology is complex and only partly understood. The transsulfuration pathway (TSP) is a metabolic pathway regulating homocysteine and cysteine metabolism and is vital in controlling sulfur balance in the organism. Read More

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