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Perioperative Management of the Patient With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Narrative Review.

Anesth Analg 2021 May;132(5):1231-1243

From the Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care Medicine, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.

The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has reached 1 billion people worldwide, implying significant risk for the perioperative setting as patients are vulnerable to cardiopulmonary complications, critical care requirement, and unexpected death. This review summarizes main aspects and considerations for the perioperative management of OSA, a condition of public health concern. Critical determinants of perioperative risk include OSA-related changes in upper airway anatomy with augmented collapsibility, diminished capability of upper airway dilator muscles to respond to airway obstruction, disparities in hypoxemia and hypercarbia arousal thresholds, and instability of ventilatory control. Read More

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USP9X deubiquitinates connexin43 to prevent high glucose-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in NRK-52E cells.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 12:114562. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Laboratory of Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Design and Evaluation, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Ubiquitin-specific protease 9X (USP9X/FAM) is closely linked to TGF-β and fibrosis signaling pathway. However, it remains unknown whether USP9X is involved in the process of EMT in DN. Read More

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3D Printed Bioceramic Scaffolds as a Universal Therapeutic Platform for Synergistic Therapy of Osteosarcoma.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Biomaterials and Translational Medicine, Center for Nanomedicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630, China.

The postoperative tumor recurrence and chemotherapy resistance in clinical osteosarcoma treatment have raised an imperative need to develop local implants for selectively killing residual tumor cells and simultaneously provide a scaffold for effectively filling the tumor resection-induced bone defects. Herein, a multifunctional platform is developed through successively coating TiN microparticles and doxorubicin (DOX) on the surface of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds to achieve synergetic effects of photothermal therapy and chemotherapy for osteosarcoma. The content of TiN and DOX in the scaffolds can be flexibly adjusted by immersing the scaffolds into the solution containing different concentrations of TiN and DOX. Read More

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Patient-Specific Organoid and Organ-on-a-Chip: 3D Cell-Culture Meets 3D Printing and Numerical Simulation.

Adv Biol (Weinh) 2021 Apr 15:e2000024. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

The last few decades have witnessed diversified in vitro models to recapitulate the architecture and function of living organs or tissues and contribute immensely to advances in life science. Two novel 3D cell culture models: 1) Organoid, promoted mainly by the developments of stem cell biology and 2) Organ-on-a-chip, enhanced primarily due to microfluidic technology, have emerged as two promising approaches to advance the understanding of basic biological principles and clinical treatments. This review describes the comparable distinct differences between these two models and provides more insights into their complementarity and integration to recognize their merits and limitations for applicable fields. Read More

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An evaluation of biochemical, structural and volatile changes of dry-cured pork using a combined ion mobility spectrometry, hyperspectral and confocal imaging approach.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Food processing induces various modifications that affect the structure, physical and chemical properties of food products and thus affect the acceptance of the product by the consumer. In this work, the evolution of volatile components, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), moisture content (MC) and microstructural changes of pork was investigated by hyperspectral (HSI) and confocal imaging (CLSM) techniques in synergy with ion mobility spectrometry GC-IMS). Models based on partial least square regression (PLSR) were developed using the full HSI spectrum variables as well as optimum variables selected through a competitive adaptive reweighted sampling algorithm. Read More

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Phase 1b/2 study of ibrutinib and lenalidomide with dose-adjusted EPOCH-R in patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Apr 15:1-16. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Lymphoid Malignancies Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is difficult to cure; non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) and activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL have worse outcomes than GCB DLBCL. Ibrutinib and lenalidomide are synergistic in vitro in ABC DLBCL and may augment salvage chemotherapy. In part 1 of this phase 1b/2 study (NCT02142049), patients with relapsed/refractory DLBCL received ibrutinib 560 mg and escalating doses of lenalidomide on Days 1-7 with DA-EPOCH-R (Days 1-5) in 21-day cycles. Read More

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Dual antiplatelet therapy (PEGASUS) vs. dual pathway (COMPASS): a head-to-head in vitro comparison.

Platelets 2021 Apr 15:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor is prescribed for 1-year after myocardial infarction. Two clinical strategies are considered at 1-year: continuation of DAPT or "Dual Pathway" (DP), using aspirin and rivaroxaban. No head-to-head comparative studies exist. Read More

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Rough Carbon-Iron Oxide Nanohybrids for Near-Infrared-II Light-Responsive Synergistic Antibacterial Therapy.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Key Lab of Biomedical Materials of Natural Macromolecules (Beijing University of Chemical Technology), Ministry of Education, Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China.

Infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria are still a serious threat to human health. It is of great significance to explore effective alternative antibacterial strategies. Herein, carbon-iron oxide nanohybrids with rough surfaces (RCF) are developed for NIR-II light-responsive synergistic antibacterial therapy. Read More

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COVID-19 neuropathology at Columbia University Irving Medical Center/New York Presbyterian Hospital.

Brain 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Division of Neuropathology, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, and the New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Many patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection develop neurological signs and symptoms, though, to date, little evidence exists that primary infection of the brain is a significant contributing factor. We present the clinical, neuropathological, and molecular findings of 41 consecutive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections who died and underwent autopsy in our medical center. The mean age was 74 years (38-97 years), 27 patients (66%) were male and 34 (83%) were of Hispanic/Latinx ethnicity. Read More

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Cerebrovascular Pathology and Responsiveness to Treatment in Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review.

Curr Alzheimer Res 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Responsiveness to treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) is difficult to predict in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the current review, vascular burden is considered as a potential moderator of treatment responsiveness. Cerebrovascular burden co-occurs in at least 30% of AD brains, although it is debated if vascular pathology plays a causal or synergistic role in AD pathogenesis. Read More

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Virtual Study-Abroad Through Web Conferencing: Sharing Knowledge and Building Cultural Appreciation in Nursing Education and Practice.

J Transcult Nurs 2021 Apr 15:10436596211009583. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: With a focus on building global citizens, a U.S. and Norwegian academic collaborative partnership fostered clinical learning experiences addressing cultural and health care comparisons. Read More

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Synergistic Recognition-Triggered Charge Transfer Enables Rapid Visual Colorimetric Detection of Fentanyl.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

National Collaborative Innovation Center for Nuclear Waste and Environmental Safety, School of National Defence Science & Technology, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, P. R. China.

As a new psychoactive substance, abuse of fentanyl (FTN) is currently spreading around the world, resulting in an urgent need of on-site and rapid analytical methods for detection of FTN. Here, we present a synergistic recognition strategy for rapid, cost-effective, selective, sensitive, and visual colorimetric detection of FTN by taking advantage of Rose Bengal (RB) as the specific probe. This assay is based on the halogen- and hydrogen-bonding interactions between them, generating a charge transfer and accompanying a red shift in the RB absorption band as well as color change from red to purple. Read More

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Pyridine grafted on SnO2-loaded carbon nanotubes acting as cocatalyst for highly efficient electroreduction of CO2.

ChemSusChem 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

East China University of Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, CHINA.

Sn-based electrocatalysts have shown great potential in the future industrial application of CO 2 electroreduction (CO 2 ER) to C1 products due to their non-toxic and low price. However, it is a great challenge to fabricate a Sn-based electrocatalytic system with high performance and stability. Herein, the grafted pyridine is innovatively coupled with SnO 2 to construct an organic-inorganic composite (SnO 2 /Py-CNTO) for highly efficient CO 2 ER. Read More

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Biocompatible Nanoparticles as a Platform for Enhancing Antitumor Efficacy of Cisplatin-Tetradrine Combination.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 Apr 14;16(1):61. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

The Comprehensive Cancer Centre of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Combination therapy has been a standard strategy in the clinical tumor treatment. We have demonstrated that combination of Tetradrine (Tet) and Cisplatin (CDDP) presented a marked synergistic anticancer activity, but inevitable side effects limit their therapeutic concentration. Considering the different physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of the two drugs, we loaded them into a nanovehicle together by the improved double emulsion method. Read More

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A Novel Environmentally Friendly Synergistic Mixture for Steel Corrosion Inhibition in 0.51 M NaCl.

Acta Chim Slov 2019 Feb;66(1):112-122

The ubiquitous use of plain and low-alloy steels in neutral, chloride bearing environments presents an everyday challenge for corrosion protection professionals. This paper explores the possibility of developing a non-toxic and environmentally friendly synergistic inhibitor mixture made of propolis, tannin, sodium benzoate, PEG400 and starch that could be applied into the solution to induce the formation of a persistent protective layer on steel. Components of the mixture were chosen based on the references giving their characteristics relevant to their possible action in the solution and/or at the surface of the steel. Read More

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February 2019

Synergistic Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 Replication Using Disulfiram/Ebselen and Remdesivir.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021 Apr 26;4(2):898-907. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan.

The SARS-CoV-2 replication and transcription complex (RTC) comprising nonstructural protein (nsp) 2-16 plays crucial roles in viral replication, reducing the efficacy of broad-spectrum nucleoside analog drugs such as remdesivir and evading innate immune responses. Most studies target a specific viral component of the RTC such as the main protease or the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In contrast, our strategy is to target conserved domains of the RTC to prevent SARS-CoV-2 genome replication and to create a high barrier to viral resistance and/or evasion of antiviral drugs. Read More

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Effect of Whole-Body Vibration Training on Muscle Activation for Individuals with Knee Osteoarthritis.

Biomed Res Int 2021 26;2021:6671390. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Shanghai Shangti Orthopaedic Hospital, 200438 Shanghai, China.

Whole-body vibration (WBV) training may improve the strength of lower extremity muscles in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), but the inconsistency in vibration parameters leads to differences in findings. This cross-sectional study is aimed at observing the effects of different vibration frequencies and knee flexion angles on the activation of lower extremity muscles in patients with KOA. Enrolled participants received WBV training at 0, 30, and 60° knee flexion angles with vibration frequencies of 0, 5, 10, and 20 Hz. Read More

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Cognitive improvement effect of gintonin might be associated with blood-brain barrier permeability enhancement: dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI pilot study.

Transl Clin Pharmacol 2021 Mar 10;29(1):21-32. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

Along with the multiple neuroprotective effect, recent studies suggest that gintonin might increase the blood brain barrier permeability. We evaluated the effect of gintonin on the vascular permeability changes in different brain segments, using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this 8-week, randomized, open label pilot study, ten participants with subjective memory impairment but preserved cognitive function assigned to gintonin-enriched fraction (GEF) 300 mg/day or placebo groups. Read More

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Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins play the roles of radioprotection on Normal Lung and radiosensitization on Lung Cancer via differential regulation of the MAPK Signaling Pathway.

J Cancer 2021 15;12(10):2844-2854. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Radiation Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Naval Medical University, 800 Xiangyin Road, Shanghai, China, 200433.

Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common serious complication and dose-limiting factor caused by radiotherapy for lung cancer. This study was to investigate radioprotective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) on normal lung as well as radiosensitizing effects on lung cancer. , we demonstrated radioprotective effects of GSP on normal alveolar epithelial cells (MLE-12 and BEAS/2B) and radiosensitizing effects on lung cancer cells (LLC and A549). Read More

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Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Combination against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Skin Ulcer.

Int J Microbiol 2021 26;2021:6680668. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pharmacy, Health Science College, Madda Walabu University, Bale Robe, Ethiopia.

Background: Emerging of multidrug-resistant bacteria can compromise the effectiveness of antibiotics used to treat skin infections. Those bacteria imposed public health problems and questioning medical care in the 21 century. In this circumstance, essential oils of medicinal plants origin are supreme sources of structural and functionally divergent compounds, which inhibited the growth of common wound colonizing MRSA and ESBL producing The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from and against multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates of skin ulcers. Read More

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A Swollenin From JCM12802 Enhances Cellulase Hydrolysis Toward Various Substrates.

Front Microbiol 2021 29;12:658096. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Swollenins exist within some fungal species and are candidate accessory proteins for the biodegradation of cellulosic substrates. Here, we describe the identification of a swollenin gene, , in JCM12802. was successfully expressed in both and . Read More

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AIF3 splicing switch triggers neurodegeneration.

Mol Neurodegener 2021 Apr 14;16(1):25. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA.

Background: Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), as a mitochondrial flavoprotein, plays a fundamental role in mitochondrial bioenergetics that is critical for cell survival and also mediates caspase-independent cell death once it is released from mitochondria and translocated to the nucleus under ischemic stroke or neurodegenerative diseases. Although alternative splicing regulation of AIF has been implicated, it remains unknown which AIF splicing isoform will be induced under pathological conditions and how it impacts mitochondrial functions and neurodegeneration in adult brain.

Methods: AIF splicing induction in brain was determined by multiple approaches including 5' RACE, Sanger sequencing, splicing-specific PCR assay and bottom-up proteomic analysis. Read More

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Self-Doping Surface Oxygen Vacancy-Induced Lattice Strains for Enhancing Visible Light-Driven Photocatalytic H Evolution over Black TiO.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024, P.R. China.

The synergistic effect of surface oxygen vacancy with induced lattice strains on visible light-driven photocatalytic H evolution over black TiO was investigated. Experimental measurements and theoretical calculations on the lattice parameters of black TiO show that surface oxygen vacancies induce internal lattice strain during two-step aluminothermic reduction, which regulates the band structure and optimizes the photoinduced charge behavior of black TiO. The hydrogen evolution rate of black TiO with strain modification shows a 12-fold increase to 1. Read More

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Can spatial filtering separate voluntary and involuntary components in children with dyskinetic cerebral palsy?

PLoS One 2021 14;16(4):e0250001. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California, United States of America.

The design of myocontrolled devices faces particular challenges in children with dyskinetic cerebral palsy because the electromyographic signal for control contains both voluntary and involuntary components. We hypothesized that voluntary and involuntary components of movements would be uncorrelated and thus detectable as different synergistic patterns of muscle activity, and that removal of the involuntary components would improve online EMG-based control. Therefore, we performed a synergy-based decomposition of EMG-guided movements, and evaluated which components were most controllable using a Fitts' Law task. Read More

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Differential contributions of synaptic and intrinsic inhibitory currents to speech segmentation via flexible phase-locking in neural oscillators.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Apr 14;17(4):e1008783. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Mathematics & Statistics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Current hypotheses suggest that speech segmentation-the initial division and grouping of the speech stream into candidate phrases, syllables, and phonemes for further linguistic processing-is executed by a hierarchy of oscillators in auditory cortex. Theta (∼3-12 Hz) rhythms play a key role by phase-locking to recurring acoustic features marking syllable boundaries. Reliable synchronization to quasi-rhythmic inputs, whose variable frequency can dip below cortical theta frequencies (down to ∼1 Hz), requires "flexible" theta oscillators whose underlying neuronal mechanisms remain unknown. Read More

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MXenes for Cancer Therapy and Diagnosis: Recent Advances and Current Challenges.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacký University in Olomouc, Šlechtitelů 27, 783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

MXenes endowed with several attractive physicochemical attributes, namely, specific large surface area, significant electrical conductivity, magnetism, low toxicity, luminescence, and high biocompatibility, have been considered as promising candidates for cancer therapy and theranostics. These two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures endowed with photothermal, chemotherapeutic synergistic, and photodynamic effects have shown promising potential for decidedly effectual and noninvasive anticancer treatments. They have been explored for photothermal/chemo-photothermal therapy (PTT) and for targeted anticancer drug delivery. Read More

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The impact of hypoxia exposure on glucose homeostasis in metabolically compromised humans: A systematic review.

Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Humans living at a higher altitude are less prone to suffer from impaired glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which might at least partly be explained by lower oxygen availability at higher altitudes. The present systematic review aimed to provide an overview of the current literature on the effects of hypoxia exposure on glucose homeostasis in metabolically compromised humans. Several databases were searched up to August 10, 2020. Read More

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Nanobody Repertoires for Exposing Vulnerabilities of SARS-CoV-2.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Despite the great promise of vaccines, the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing and future serious outbreaks are highly likely, so that multi-pronged containment strategies will be required for many years. Nanobodies are the smallest naturally occurring single domain antigen binding proteins identified to date, possessing numerous properties advantageous to their production and use. We present a large repertoire of high affinity nanobodies against SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein with excellent kinetic and viral neutralization properties, which can be strongly enhanced with oligomerization. Read More

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Optimal diuretic strategies in heart failure.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(6):517

Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Heart failure (HF) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. According to a 2019 American Heart Association report, about 6.2 million American adults had HF between 2013 and 2016, being responsible for almost 1 million admissions. Read More

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Novel double beta-lactam therapy for infective endocarditis.

IDCases 2021 24;24:e01082. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

The Dr. James J. Rahal, Jr. Division of Infectious Diseases, NewYork-Presbyterian Queens, 56-45 Main Street, Flushing, NY, 11355, USA.

, a nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS) is a well described organism associated with endocarditis. Previously communicated cases have documented the use of double beta-lactam therapy with ampicillin and ceftriaxone to treat patients with infective endocarditis due to and . We describe the first case of infective endocarditis in a patient successfully treated with the combination of intravenous ampicillin and ceftriaxone and document their synergistic activity. Read More

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