Front Genet 2021 3;12:717535. Epub 2021 Sep 3.
Department of Pathobiochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan.
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) including chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and heparan sulfate are covalently attached to specific core proteins to form proteoglycans, which are distributed at the cell surface as well as in the extracellular matrix. Proteoglycans and GAGs have been demonstrated to exhibit a variety of physiological functions such as construction of the extracellular matrix, tissue development, and cell signaling through interactions with extracellular matrix components, morphogens, cytokines, and growth factors. Not only connective tissue disorders including skeletal dysplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple exostoses, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, but also heart and kidney defects, immune deficiencies, and neurological abnormalities have been shown to be caused by defects in GAGs as well as core proteins of proteoglycans. Read More