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Tryptanthrin Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypic Switching in Atherosclerosis by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase/Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Signaling Pathway.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2021 May;77(5):642-649

Departments of Pharmacy; and.

Abstract: Atherosclerosis (AS) is one of the most severe cardiovascular diseases involved in the phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Tryptanthrin is a natural product with broad biological activities. However, the effect of tryptanthrin on atherosclerotic progression is unclear. Read More

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Rapid adjustments of migration and life history in hemisphere-switching cliff swallows.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA.

Many aspects of bird migration are necessarily innate. However, the extent of deterministic genetic control, environmental influence, and individual decision making in the control of migration remains unclear. Globally, few cases of rapid and dramatic life-history changes resulting in novel migration strategies are known. Read More

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Degradation in order: simple and versatile one-pot combination of two macromolecular concepts to encode diverse and spatially regulated degradability functions.

Authors:
Tiziana Fuoco

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Kungliga Tekniska Hogskolan, Fibre and Polymer Technology, Teknikringen 56-58, 10044, Stockholm, SWEDEN.

The clever one-pot combination of two macromolecular concepts, ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and step-growth polymerization (SGP), is demonstrated to be a simple yet, powerful tool to design a library of sequence-controlled polymers with diverse and spatially regulated degradability functions. ROP and SGP, sequentially, occur at room temperature by switching the organo-catalytic conditions from basic to acidic, each allowing the encoding of specific degradable bonds. The ROP controls the sequence length and position of the degradability functions, while the SGP between the complementary vinyl ether and hydroxyl chain-end, enables the formation of acetal bonds and high molar mass copolymers. Read More

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The effects of audits and fines on upcoding in neonatology.

Health Econ 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Business Administration and Healthcare Management, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Upcoding is a common type of fraud in healthcare. However, how audit policies need to be designed to cope with upcoding is not well understood. We provide causal evidence on the effect of random audits with different probabilities and financial consequences. Read More

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Validation of Oxford Cognitive Screen: Executive Function (OCS-EF), a tablet-based executive function assessment tool amongst adolescent females in rural South Africa.

Int J Psychol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Short, reliable, easily administered executive function (EF) assessment tools are needed to measure EF in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa given the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder. We administered Oxford Cognitive Screen-Executive Function (OCS-EF) to 932 rural South African females (mean age 19.7 years). Read More

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Generally rare but occasionally severe weight gain after switching to an integrase inhibitor in virally suppressed AGEhIV cohort participants.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0251205. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute and Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Recent studies have reported disproportionate weight gain associated with integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) initiation in antiretroviral therapy(ART)-naive people with HIV (PWH), particularly among black women. We investigated if HIV-positive AGEhIV participants with suppressed viremia switching to INSTI-containing ART experienced more weight gain compared to HIV-positive virally-suppressed non-switching and HIV-negative controls.

Methods: In the AGEhIV cohort, standardized weight measurements were performed biennially. Read More

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The time-resolved hard X-ray diffraction endstation KMC-3 XPP at BESSY II.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2021 May 19;28(Pt 3):948-960. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Wilhelm-Conrad-Röntgen Campus, BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin, Germany.

The time-resolved hard X-ray diffraction endstation KMC-3 XPP for optical pump/X-ray probe experiments at the electron storage ring BESSY II is dedicated to investigating the structural response of thin film samples and heterostructures after their excitation with ultrashort laser pulses and/or electric field pulses. It enables experiments with access to symmetric and asymmetric Bragg reflections via a four-circle diffractometer and it is possible to keep the sample in high vacuum and vary the sample temperature between ∼15 K and 350 K. The femtosecond laser system permanently installed at the beamline allows for optical excitation of the sample at 1028 nm. Read More

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Unexpected formal [4 + 2]-cycloaddition of chalcone imines and homophthalic anhydrides: preparation of dihydropyridin-2(1)-ones.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 May;19(17):3829-3833

Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, 199034 Russian Federation.

A series of medicinally important dihydropyridin-2(1H)-ones have been prepared via a novel [4 + 2]-formal cycloaddition reaction of chalcone imines and homophthalic anhydrides, which is a rare example of lactam construction from an imine acting as a four-atom building block. In contrast to previous studies on the reactivity of homophthalic anhydrides towards similar substrates, N-tosyl chalcone imines, we found the possibility of switching chemoselectivity by changing substituents at the nitrogen atom, which leads to the formation of heterocycles instead of the expected carbocycles. This reaction is very similar in appearance to the classic 1,2-addition of cyclic anhydrides to imines, often referred to as the Castagnoli-Cushman reaction, but differs in mechanistic details (representing a 1,4-reaction of imine). Read More

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Enhancing the magnetic performance of pyrazine--oxide bridged dysprosium chains through controlled variation of ligand coordination modes.

Dalton Trans 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, P. R. China.

While assembling superparamagnetic units in a controlled manner is crucial for future applications of molecular nanomagnets, optimizing their magnetic properties while achieving directional assembly of these units still remains a formidable challenge. Herein, we demonstrate how the assembly of two dysprosium chain complexes, namely, [Dy2(L)2Cl2(CH3OH)3]n·nCH3OH (1) and [Dy(L)Cl(DMF)]n (2) (H2L = N'-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene)pyrazine-N-oxide-carbohydrazide), can be successfully manipulated using an appropriate bridging ligand design. Both complexes contain similar dimeric units bridged by two alkoxido oxygens from an L2- ligand, but extended by its pyrazine-N-oxide group exhibiting two distinct coordination modes, namely, single and double pyrazine-N-oxide bridges, respectively. Read More

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Nonvolatile resistive switching and synaptic characteristics of lead-free all-inorganic perovskite-based flexible memristive devices for neuromorphic systems.

Nanoscale 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Applied Science and Humanities, Assam University, Silchar 788011, India.

Recently, several types of lead halide perovskites have been actively researched for resistive switching (RS) memory or artificial synaptic devices due to their current-voltage hysteresis along with the feasibility of fabrication, low-temperature processability and superior charge mobility. However, the toxicity and environmental pollution potential of lead halide perovskites severely restrict their large-scale commercial prospects. In the present work, the environmentally friendly and uniform CsSnCl3 perovskite films are introduced to act as an active layer in the flexible memristors. Read More

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Life history traits are poor predictors of species responses to flow-regime change in headwater streams.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Harry Butler Institute & Environmental Science & Conservation, Murdoch University, Western Australia, 6150, Australia.

Recent climate change is altering the timing, duration and volume of river and stream flows globally, and in many regions perennially flowing rivers and streams are drying and switching to intermittent flows. Profound impacts on aquatic biota are becoming apparent, due in part to the strong influence of flow regime on the evolution of life history. We made predictions of life history responses for thirteen common aquatic invertebrate species (four caddisflies, five mayflies, two stoneflies, a dragonfly and an amphipod), to recent flow regime change in Australian mediterranean climate streams, based on historic studies in the same streams. Read More

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Recombination patterns in coronaviruses.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

As shown during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, phylogenetic and phylodynamic methods are essential tools to study the spread and evolution of pathogens. One of the central assumptions of these methods is that the shared history of pathogens isolated from different hosts can be described by a branching phylogenetic tree. Recombination breaks this assumption. Read More

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Occipitofrontal switch for correction of anterior plagiocephaly planned through virtual mock surgery.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 8;12:148. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Science, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

Background: Unilateral coronal synostosis causing anterior plagiocephaly can result in restricted brain development and severe facial deformities. Various surgical procedures have been described for the correction of this deformity. Cranial vault remodeling, however, is associated with several complications. Read More

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Dose accuracy improvement on head and neck VMAT treatments by using the Acuros algorithm and accurate FFF beam calibration.

Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2021 25;26(1):73-85. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Medical Physics Group, Department of Radiology, University Complutense of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess dose accuracy improvement and dosimetric impact of switching from the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AA) to the Acuros XB algorithm (AXB) when performing an accurate beam calibration in head and neck (H&N) FFF-VMAT treatments.

Materials And Methods: Twenty H&N cancer patients treated with FFF-VMAT techniques were included. Calculations were performed with the AA and AXB algorithm (dose-to-water - AXB- and dose-to-medium - AXB-). Read More

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February 2021

Anti-VEGF-Resistant Retinal Diseases: A Review of the Latest Treatment Options.

Cells 2021 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Retina Macula Institute, Torrance, CA 90503, USA.

Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy currently plays a central role in the treatment of numerous retinal diseases, most notably exudative age-related macular degeneration (eAMD), diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusions. While offering significant functional and anatomic benefits in most patients, there exists a subset of 15-40% of eyes that fail to respond or only partially respond. For these cases, various treatment options have been explored with a range of outcomes. Read More

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Controlling Nanostructure in Inkjet Printed Organic Transistors for Pressure Sensing Applications.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.

This work reports the development of a highly sensitive pressure detector prepared by inkjet printing of electroactive organic semiconducting materials. The pressure sensing is achieved by incorporating a quantum tunnelling composite material composed of graphite nanoparticles in a rubber matrix into the multilayer nanostructure of a printed organic thin film transistor. This printed device was able to convert shock wave inputs rapidly and reproducibly into an inherently amplified electronic output signal. Read More

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[Medical education in psychosocial disciplines in times of the COVID-19 pandemic - first experiences].

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Medizinische Fakultät, Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie.

Aim: In specialties that heavily rely on communication skills such as psychiatry, psychotherapy and psychosomatic medicine, teaching in times of the COVID-19 pandemic is especially challenging. In this overview, educators and course directors report their experiences in eteaching and share their innovative solutions.

Methods: We present a collection of methods that relate to teaching and assessment as well as student activation. Read More

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Through the looking glass: On trauma and unreality.

Authors:
Ignês Sodré

Int J Psychoanal 2019 Dec;100(6):1171-1183

British Psychoanalytical Society, London, UK.

In 1938, when discussing disavowal, Freud said: "This behaviour strikes us forcibly as being a turning away from reality - ." (author's italics). The fascinating ambiguity of "we should prefer" informs the thinking in this paper, about a patient who was simultaneously attached to reality, and addicted to switching into a world of unreality which protected her from delusional beliefs originating from traumatic experiences in early childhood. Read More

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December 2019

Salt-Resistant Switchable Pickering Emulsions Stabilized by Mesoporous Nanosilica Hydrophobized In Situ by pH-Insensitive Surfactants.

Langmuir 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Biological Colloids, Ministry of Education, School of Chemical & Materials Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China.

Novel oil-in-water (O/W) Pickering emulsions (PEs) were prepared using mesoporous nanosilica in combination with a pH-insensitive cationic surfactant as a stabilizer and show an interesting sensitivity to acids and bases. Adding a suitable amount of NaOH (/ ≥ 1) led to prompt demulsification within 10 s. Upon further adding HCl solutions (/ = 1), stable PEs re-formed after homogenization. Read More

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Low-burden TP53 mutations in CLL: Clinical impact and clonal evolution within the context of different treatment options.

Blood 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients with TP53 mutations experience chemo-refractory disease and are therefore indicated for targeted therapy. However, the significance of low-burden TP53 mutations with <10% variant allele frequency (VAF) remains a matter of debate. Here we describe clonal evolution scenarios of low-burden TP53 mutations and analyzed their clinical impact in a "real-world" CLL cohort. Read More

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Finite-Time Robust Intelligent Control of Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Systems With Flight Dynamics Application.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 May 4;PP. Epub 2021 May 4.

The tracking control is investigated for a class of uncertain strict-feedback systems with robust design and learning systems. Using the switching mechanism, the states will be driven back by the robust design when they run out of the region of adaptive control. The adaptive design is working to achieve precise adaptation and higher tracking precision in the neural working domain, while the finite-time robust design is developed to make the system stable outside. Read More

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scRNA Transcription Profile of Adult Zebrafish Podocytes Using a Novel Reporter Strain.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2021 May;55(S4):35-47

Queen's Medical Research Institute, Cardiovascular Science Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Background/aims: The role of podocytes is well conserved across species from drosophila to teleosts, and mammals. Identifying the molecular markers that actively maintain the integrity of the podocyte will enable a greater understanding of the changes that lead to damage.

Methods: We generated transgenic zebrafish, expressing fluorescent reporters driven by the podocin promoter, for the visualization and isolation of podocytes. Read More

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Switching the Inhibitor-Enzyme Recognition Profile via Chimeric Carbonic Anhydrase XII.

ChemistryOpen 2021 May;10(5):567-580

Department of Biothermodynamics and Drug Design, Institute of Biotechnology, Life Sciences Center, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio 7, Vilnius, 10257, Lithuania.

A key part of the optimization of small molecules in pharmaceutical inhibitor development is to vary the molecular design to enhance complementarity of chemical features of the compound with the positioning of amino acids in the active site of a target enzyme. Typically this involves iterations of synthesis, to modify the compound, and biophysical assay, to assess the outcomes. Selective targeting of the anti-cancer carbonic anhydrase isoform XII (CA XII), this process is challenging because the overall fold is very similar across the twelve CA isoforms. Read More

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Extensive subcutaneous fat necrosis complicated by neonatal hypercalcaemia.

Acta Biomed 2021 Apr 30;92(S1):e2021081. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

king abdulaziz university hospital.

subcutaneous fat necrosis is a benign and often self-limiting inflammatory disorder experienced by newborns who were exposed to perinatal stress in the form of asphyxia, hypothermia, cord prolapse, and/or sepsis. lesions are usually benign and self-limiting, with complete resolution anticipated within a few weeks up to 6 months. they can be accompanied by multiple complications. Read More

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Reversible switching of primary cells between normal and malignant state by oncogenic virus KSHV and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of a major viral latent protein.

J Med Virol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Cancer Virology Program, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Viral infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a plethora of human diseases. Although antiviral therapies effectively confront the viral spread and infection, how to completely eradicate the viral genome from infected cells remains a challenge. In this study, we demonstrated the reversible switching of primary cells between normal and malignant states by an oncogenic virus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of a major viral latent protein. Read More

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Disruptive innovation for inclusive renewable policy in sub-Saharan Africa: A social shaping of technology analysis of appliance uptake in Rwanda.

Renew Energy 2021 May;168:896-912

Energy Policy Research Group, Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Rural off-grid renewable energy solutions often fail due to uncertainties in household energy demand, insufficient community engagement, inappropriate financial models and policy inconsistency. Social shaping of technology (SST) of household appliances provides a critical lens of understanding the involved socio-technical drivers behind these constraints. This study employs an SST lens to investigate appliance uptake drivers in 14,580 households in Rwanda, such that these drivers can aid in policy design for green growth at the grassroots level. Read More

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Optimal sliding mode control for cutting tasks of quick-return mechanisms.

ISA Trans 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Departamento de Control Automático, CINVESTAV-IPN National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City 07360, Mexico.

A solution of the constant cutting velocity problem of quick-return mechanisms is the main concern of this paper. An optimal sliding mode control in the task space is used to achieve uniform and accurate cuts throughout the workpiece. The switching hyperplane is designed to minimize the position error of the slider-dynamics in an infinite horizon. Read More

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Virologic outcomes of switching to dolutegravir functional mono- or dual therapy with a non-cytosine nucleoside analog: a retrospective study of treatment-experienced, patients living with HIV.

AIDS Res Ther 2021 May 3;18(1):26. Epub 2021 May 3.

Orlando Immunology Center, 1707 North Mills Avenue, Orlando, FL, 32803, USA.

Background: Dolutegravir (DTG) monotherapy results in virologic failure and the development of DTG resistance. Here, we evaluated virologic outcomes of patients switched to DTG functional mono- or dual therapy with a non-cytosine nucleoside analog (NA).

Methods: This retrospective, single center study included treatment-experienced patients switched to regimens containing ≥ 2 antiretrovirals between 8/13/13-11/22/14 who were later found to be on DTG functional mono- or dual therapy with a non-cytosine NA based on historical genotypes. Read More

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Coping with access barriers to non-communicable disease medicines: qualitative patient interviews in eight counties in Kenya.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 May 3;21(1):417. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Crosstown, 3rd floor, 801 Massachusetts Avenue, MA, 02118, Boston, USA.

Background: There is rich literature on barriers to medicines access for the treatment of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in high-income countries. Less is known about low- and middle-income countries, in particular the differences in coping with medicines access barrier by household wealth and disease. The aim of this study was to compare the coping mechanisms of patients with the lack of availability and affordability of cardio-vascular diseases, diabetes and asthma medicines in Kenya. Read More

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Correlates of e-cigarette use among adults initiating smoking cessation treatment.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Apr 24;224:108724. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, United States; TSET Health Promotion Research Center, Stephenson Cancer Center, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Little is known about the correlates of e-cigarette (EC) use among adults seeking smoking cessation treatment, and it is unclear how EC use affects smoking treatment outcomes.

Methods: Participants were 649 adult smokers enrolled in smoking cessation treatment. Participants completed a baseline (pre-quit) assessment with follow-up at 4-, 12-, and 26-weeks after a scheduled combustible cigarette (CC) cessation date. Read More

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