731 results match your criteria switch intervals

Pseudocell Tracer-A method for inferring dynamic trajectories using scRNAseq and its application to B cells undergoing immunoglobulin class switch recombination.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 May 3;17(5):e1008094. Epub 2021 May 3.

University of Chicago, Department of Pathology, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) can be used to infer a temporal ordering of cellular states. Current methods for the inference of cellular trajectories rely on unbiased dimensionality reduction techniques. However, such biologically agnostic ordering can prove difficult for modeling complex developmental or differentiation processes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Intraindividual Comparisons to Determine Comparative Effectiveness: Their Relevance for G-BA's Health Technology Assessments.

Value Health 2021 May 18;24(5):744-752. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Medical School of Hanover, Hanover, Germany; r-connect ltd.

Objectives: Health technology assessments (HTA) rely on head-to-head comparisons. We searched for intraindividual comparisons (IIC) qualifying as head-to-head design to develop comparative evidence.

Methods: Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss (G-BA) appraisals between January 2011 and April 2020 were reviewed for inclusion of IIC. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Health-related quality-of-life in people living with HIV after switching to dual therapy with ritonavir-boosted darunavir + dolutegravir: a DUALIS sub-study.

AIDS Care 2021 Apr 25:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Klinik Barmelweid AG, Barmelweid, Switzerland.

The DUALIS study demonstrated efficacy and safety of switching to dolutegravir plus ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV/r) (2DR) as compared to standard-of-care-therapy with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors + DRV/r (3DR) in pretreated people living with HIV (PLWH), 48 weeks after switching. This DUALIS sub-study investigates health-related-quality-of-life (HrQoL) in this study-population. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Medical Outcome Survey-HIV (MOS-HIV) were used assessing anxiety and depression symptoms, respectively HrQoL. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Component processes underlying voluntary task selection: Separable contributions of task-set inertia and reconfiguration.

Cognition 2021 Mar 26;212:104685. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, 4235 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843, USA; Texas A&M Institute for Neuroscience, 3474 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Electronic address:

Most theories describing the cognitive processes underlying task switching allow for contributions of active task-set reconfiguration and task set inertia. Manipulations of the Cue-to-Stimulus-Interval (CSI) are generally thought to influence task set reconfiguration, while Response-to-Cue (RCI) manipulations are thought to influence task set inertia. Together, these intervals compose the Response-to-Stimulus (RSI) interval. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Risk of venous thromboembolism associated with tofacitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based cohort study.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) with tofacitinib compared to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFIs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: RA patients initiating tofacitinib or a TNFI without use of any biologic or tofacitinib any time prior were identified from IBM 'MarketScan' (2012-2018), Medicare (parts A, B, and D, 2012-2017), or 'Optum'Clinformatics (2012-2019) and followed until treatment discontinuation, treatment switch, insurance disenrollment, or administrative censoring. The primary outcome, VTE, was identified using inpatient claims for pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Time-Based Transition Expectancy in Task Switching: Do We Need to Know the Task to Switch to?

J Cogn 2021 Mar 10;4(1):19. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Cognition, Action, and Sustainability Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, DE.

Recent research has shown that humans are able to implicitly adapt to time-transition contingencies in a task-switching paradigm, indicated by better performance in trials where the task transition (switch vs. repetition) is validly predicted by the pre-target interval compared to trials with invalidly predicted transitions. As participants switched between only two different tasks, not only the transition, but also the specific task was predictable; at least indirectly when taking into account the temporally predicted transition in the current trial together with the task in the previous trial. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The irrelevancy of the inter-trial interval in delay-discounting experiments on an animal model of ADHD.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Jun 13;408:113236. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Departamento de Psicología Básica I, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), C/ Juan del Rosal 10, Madrid, 28040, Spain. Electronic address:

Delay discounting involves choosing between a small, immediate reward, and a larger but delayed one. As the delay between choice and large reward gets longer, people with ADHD tend to become impulsive faster than controls, indicated by a switch in preference from the large to the smaller reward. Choosing the smaller reward when the larger is considered reward maximizing is labeled impulsive behaviour. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Factors affecting the choice of first-line therapy in Parkinson's disease patients in Wales: A population-based study.

Saudi Pharm J 2021 Feb 28;29(2):206-212. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, CF10 3NB, United Kingdom.

First line treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) is typically either L-dopa or a non-ergot dopamine agonist (DA). However, the options for the treatment of motor symptoms in PD patients have increased in the last thirty years, which have seen several new classes of PD medications introduced onto the market. The purpose of this study is to examine the changes in first line therapy of newly diagnosed Parkinson's patients between 2000 and 2016 in Wales. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Switching to aflibercept versus continuing bevacizumab for treatment-resistant neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a one-year comparative observational study.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: To compare outcomes of a treatment algorithm that allows for switching treatment-resistant neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) eyes to aflibercept with continuing bevacizumab.

Methods: Retrospective study of nAMD patients who initiated treatment in 2012 (aflibercept unavailable) and 2018 (aflibercept available). Eyes were included in the case of residual macular fluid after a minimum of 4 monthly bevacizumab injections. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Bipolar radiofrequency ablation treatment of liver cancer employing monopolar needles: A comprehensive investigation on the efficacy of time-based switching.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Apr 16;131:104273. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

School of Engineering and Information Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Federation University, VIC, 3350, Australia.

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a thermal ablative treatment method that is commonly used to treat liver cancer. However, the thermal coagulation zone generated using the conventional RFA system can only successfully treat tumours up to 3 cm in diameter. Switching bipolar RFA has been proposed as a way to increase the thermal coagulation zone. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Basis of specificity for a conserved and promiscuous chromatin remodeling protein.

Elife 2021 Feb 12;10. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, United States.

Eukaryotic genomes are organized dynamically through the repositioning of nucleosomes. Isw2 is an enzyme that has been previously defined as a genome-wide, nonspecific nucleosome spacing factor. Here, we show that Isw2 instead acts as an obligately targeted nucleosome remodeler in vivo through physical interactions with sequence-specific factors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Switch to aflibercept in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: 30-month results.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, Liv Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate visual function and changes in the central macular thickness of patients with unresponsive neovascular age-related macular degeneration who were switched from ranibizumab (Lucentis®) to aflibercept (Eylea®) treatment at 30 months.

Methods: This retrospective study examined patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration who were switched to aflibercept after ≥6 previous intravitreal ranibizumab injections at 4- to 8-week intervals. All patients were switched to intravitreal aflibercept (2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Drivers of site fidelity in ungulates.

J Anim Ecol 2021 04 9;90(4):955-966. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

U.S. Geological Survey, Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Zoology and Physiology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA.

While the tendency to return to previously visited locations-termed 'site fidelity'-is common in animals, the cause of this behaviour is not well understood. One hypothesis is that site fidelity is shaped by an animal's environment, such that animals living in landscapes with predictable resources have stronger site fidelity. Site fidelity may also be conditional on the success of animals' recent visits to that location, and it may become stronger with age as the animal accumulates experience in their landscape. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Symptomatic atrioventricular block during biventricular pacing: Facing a double trouble.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2020 09 29;43(9):1024-1027. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiology, Medica Superspeciality Hospital, Kolkata, India.

Far-field R wave (FFRW) oversensing in atrial channel is known to cause inappropriate automatic mode switch. We describe a case of 63-year-old lady with dual-chamber permanent pacemaker implanted 2 years back for symptomatic infra-hisian complete heart block and normal biventricular function. After 6 months, she underwent upgradation to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-P, Boston Scientific) for right ventricular pacing induced cardiomyopathy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

A Nationwide Survey of Program Directors on Resident Attrition in Emergency Medicine.

West J Emerg Med 2020 Dec 14;22(1):86-93. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Boston Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Introduction: Despite the burdens that resident attrition places upon programs and fellow trainees, emergency medicine (EM) as a specialty has only begun to explore the issue. Our primary objectives were to quantify attrition in EM residency programs and elucidate the reasons behind it. Our secondary objectives were to describe demographic characteristics of residents undergoing attrition, personal factors associated with attrition, and methods of resident replacement. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Bioequivalence and switchability of generic antiseizure medications (ASMs): A re-appraisal based on analysis of generic ASM products approved in Europe.

Epilepsia 2021 02 10;62(2):285-302. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

The safety of switching between generic products of antiseizure medications (ASMs) continues to be a hot topic in epilepsy management. The main reason for concern relates to the uncertainty on whether, and when, two generics found to be bioequivalent to the same brand (reference) product are bioequivalent to each other, and the risk of a switch between generics resulting in clinically significant changes in plasma ASM concentrations. This article addresses these concerns by discussing the distinction between bioequivalence and statistical testing for significant difference, the importance of intra-subject variability in interpreting bioequivalence studies, the stricter regulatory bioequivalence requirements applicable to narrow-therapeutic-index (NTI) drugs, and the extent by which currently available generic products of ASMs comply with such criteria. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Switching anti-VEGF agent for wet AMD: evaluation of impact on visual acuity, treatment frequency and retinal morphology in a real-world clinical setting.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, Region Västmanland, S-721 89, Västerås, Sweden.

Purpose: The aim of the present cross-sectional real-world study is to evaluate the impact of switch of anti-VEGF agent from ranibizumab to aflibercept on visual acuity, treatment frequency and retinal morphology after 12 months in eyes with ongoing chronic treatment for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compared to eyes not subjected to switch of anti-VEGF agent.

Methods: Data was obtained retrospectively from the Swedish Macular Register, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and electronic patient charts. All eyes included were treated in the same clinical setting at the Department of Ophthalmology at the county hospital of Västmanland in Västerås, Sweden. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

A Retrospective Cost Analysis of Patients Who Switched from OnabotulinumtoxinA to IncobotulinumtoxinA in a Private Neurology Practice.

Am Health Drug Benefits 2020 Oct-Nov;13(5):205-210

Founding Neurologist, Northwest Neurological, Spokane, WA.

Background: Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) is an effective treatment for many chronic conditions, but the economic implications of repeated treatments can be a burden on patients. The 3 commercial preparations of BoNT-A types available today are onabotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA, and incobotulinumtoxinA, but no clear differences have been found in clinical efficacy between these 3 type A toxins in blinded comparative studies.

Objective: To conduct a cost-minimization analysis in a cohort of patients with chronic neurologic conditions who switched treatment from onabotulinumtoxinA to incobotulinumtoxinA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Satisfaction of Patients with Nonvitamin K Anticoagulants Compared to Vitamin K Antagonists: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Mar 7;121(3):366-382. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Laboratório de Farmacologia Clínica e Terapêutica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

Objective:  To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the satisfaction of patients receiving nonvitamin K anticoagulants (NOACs), compared with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs).

Methods:  We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and Clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Long-Term Oral Bisphosphonate Compliance Focusing on Switching of Prescription Pattern.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2020 22;14:2009-2016. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Background: Factors determining bisphosphonate compliance are not fully understood. We examined fluctuations in oral bisphosphonate dosing intervals to gauge therapeutic compliance in patients with osteoporosis.

Materials And Methods: Hospital data accruing between 2010 and 2017 were accessed to retrospectively study patients ≥50 years old (N=1873), each prescribed bisphosphonate at initial diagnosis of osteoporosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

A Systematic Switch From Originator Infliximab to Biosimilar Infliximab in Patients With Non-Infectious Uveitis.

Am J Ophthalmol 2020 Oct 23. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim Norway; Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of biosimilar infliximab compared to that of the originator infliximab for the treatment of chronic non-infectious uveitis.

Design: Before-and-after study.

Methods: All patients in the Central Norway Health Region between 2007 and 2018 were included. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Detection of data manipulation in bioequivalence trials.

Anders Fuglsang

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Jan 11;156:105595. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Hiort Lorenzens Vej 6c, DK6100 Haderslev, Denmark.

In recent years regulators have documented how pharmaceutical companies or clinical research organisation can manipulate bioequivalence trial data for non-approvable formulations by performing an interim analysis followed by re-analysis of pharmacokinetic profiles under new subject aliases, with a switch of Test and Reference and/or dilutions. The net effect is that point estimates for failing products will be forced artifically towards 1 and that trials will pass the test for bioequivalence. This is not detectable by any pharmacopoeial method, and is not addressed by common assessment practices at agencies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Visual Reasoning Strategies for Effect Size Judgments and Decisions.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2021 Feb 28;27(2):272-282. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Uncertainty visualizations often emphasize point estimates to support magnitude estimates or decisions through visual comparison. However, when design choices emphasize means, users may overlook uncertainty information and misinterpret visual distance as a proxy for effect size. We present findings from a mixed design experiment on Mechanical Turk which tests eight uncertainty visualization designs: 95% containment intervals, hypothetical outcome plots, densities, and quantile dotplots, each with and without means added. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Reduced Rates of Hypoglycemia in Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes After Switching to Insulin Degludec: Results from the Italian Cohort of the ReFLeCT Study.

Diabetes Ther 2020 Dec 3;11(12):2909-2920. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

The Center for Outcomes Research and Clinical Epidemiology (CORESEARCH), Pescara, Italy.

Introduction: To evaluate in an Italian real-world setting the safety and effectiveness of insulin degludec 100 units/mL, given once daily in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after switching from other basal insulins.

Methods: ReFLeCT was a multicenter, prospective, observational study conducted across seven European countries which involved adult patients whose physician planned to switch their medication from basal insulin to insulin degludec. The primary outcome was the change in the number of hypoglycemic episodes before and after the switch to insulin degludec. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Modeling the Efficacy of Natalizumab in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Who Switch From Every-4-Week Dosing to Extended-Interval Dosing.

J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Mar 19;61(3):339-348. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Biogen, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Natalizumab is approved for multiple sclerosis treatment at a dose of 300 mg every 4 weeks. Extended-interval dosing of natalizumab has been proposed as a strategy to mitigate the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, but the efficacy of extended-interval dosing is not established. Previous models suggesting lower efficacy when initiating natalizumab treatment with extended-interval dosing rather than every-4-week dosing are inconsistent with reports from clinical observations and real-world studies conducted in patient populations switching to extended-interval dosing after a period of receiving natalizumab every 4 weeks. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Risk of Incident Diabetes Mellitus, Weight Gain, and their Relationships with Integrase Inhibitor-based Initial Antiretroviral Therapy Among Persons with HIV in the US and Canada.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Sep 16. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with greater weight gain among persons with HIV, though the metabolic consequences, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), are unclear. We examined the impact of initial cART regimen and weight on incident DM in a large North American HIV cohort (NA-ACCORD).

Methods: cART-naïve adults (≥18 years) initiating INSTI-, PI-, or NNRTI-based regimens from 01/2007-12/2017 who had weight measured 12 (±6) months after treatment initiation contributed time until clinical DM (HbA1c ≥6. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

EXPRESS: Foraging Tempo: Human run patterns in multiple target search are constrained by the rate of successive responses.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2020 Sep 16:1747021820961640. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Faculty of Psychology, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Oddi v. Sturlugötu, 101, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Human foraging tasks are beginning to provide new insights into the roles of vision, attention and working memory during complex, multiple-target search. Here, we test the idea that "foraging tempo" - the rate of successive target selections - helps determine patterns of behaviour in these tasks. Previously, we established that the majority of target selections during unconstrained foraging happen at regular, rapid intervals, forming the "cruise phase" of a foraging trial. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

High-fat diet-induced adipose tissue expansion occurs prior to insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice.

Chronic Dis Transl Med 2020 Sep 18;6(3):198-207. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an JiaoTong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China.

Background: To date, there is only scare evidence characterizing the temporal features and progression of metabolic dysfunction in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. Hence, its specific pathogenesis remains unclear.

Methods: Sixty 6-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into HFD and control diet (CD) groups and sacrificed at 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, and 21 weeks, respectively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Retinoic acid promotes metabolic maturation of human Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Cardiomyocytes.

Theranostics 2020 1;10(21):9686-9701. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital & Institute for Cardiovascular Science, Collaborative Innovation Center of Hematology, State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou 215000, China.

Cardiomyocytes differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent a promising cell source for heart repair, disease modeling and drug testing. However, improving the differentiation efficiency and maturation of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) is still a major concern. Retinoic acid (RA) signaling plays multiple roles in heart development. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Multi-centre, three arm, randomized controlled trial on the use of methylprednisolone and unfractionated heparin in critically ill ventilated patients with pneumonia from SARS-CoV-2 infection: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Aug 17;21(1):724. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Terapia Intensiva Polivalente, Policlinico di Modena, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Modena, Ospedale Policlinico, Via del Pozzo, 71, 41124, Modena, Italy.

Objectives: To assess the hypothesis that an adjunctive therapy with methylprednisolone and unfractionated heparin (UFH) or with methylprednisolone and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) are more effective in reducing any-cause mortality in critically-ill ventilated patients with pneumonia from SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to LMWH alone.

Trial Design: The study is designed as a multi-centre, interventional, parallel group, superiority, randomized, investigator sponsored, three arms study. Patients, who satisfy all inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria, will be randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups in a ratio 1:1:1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF