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Human cytomegalovirus non-primary infection during pregnancy: antibody response, risk factors and newborn outcome.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Genetics, Transplantology and Cardiovascular Diseases Laboratories, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, Pavia, Italy; Molecular Virology Unit, Department of Microbiology and Virology, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, Pavia, Italy.

Objectives: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) non-primary infections can occur in pregnant women and may result in congenital infection. Comprehensive studies investigating the frequency, characteristics, risk factors and immune response of non-primary infection in pregnancy are missing, while rate of vertical transmission is not known.

Methods: HCMV non-primary infection was investigated prospectively in 250 pregnant women. Read More

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September 2021

Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage in South Asian infants: Results of observational cohort studies in vaccinated and unvaccinated populations.

J Glob Health 2021 4;11:04054. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

KEM Hospital Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Background: Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage (NPC) is a prerequisite for invasive pneumococcal disease and reduced carriage of vaccine serotypes is a marker for the protection offered by the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). The present study reports NPC during the first year of life in a vaccinated (with PCV10) cohort in Bangladesh and an unvaccinated cohort in India.

Methods: A total of 450 and 459 infants were recruited from India and Bangladesh respectively within 0-7 days after birth. Read More

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September 2021

The utility of rapid Group A streptococcus molecular testing compared with throat culture for the diagnosis of Group A streptococcal pharyngitis in a high-incidence rheumatic fever population.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 Sep 22:JCM0097821. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Microbiology, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.

Group A (GAS) causes significant morbidity and mortality in New Zealand and is responsible for invasive disease and immune sequelae including acute Rheumatic Fever (ARF). Early treatment of GAS pharyngitis reduces the risk of ARF. In settings with a high-burden of GAS disease, a rapid GAS pharyngitis diagnostic test with a strong negative predictive value is needed to enable prompt and accurate treatment. Read More

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September 2021

Cord-blood respiratory syncytial virus antibodies and respiratory health in first 5-years of life.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Menzies Health Institute Queensland and School of Medicine and Dentistry, Griffith University, Southport, 4222, Queensland, Australia.

Objective: To determine the potential longer-term effects of maternal antenatal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccination, we examined the association between cord-blood RSV-neutralizing antibodies (RSV-NA) and RSV infections in the first 2-years of life, RSV-NA at 3-years, and respiratory health to age 5-years.

Methods: Two community-based Australian birth cohorts were combined. For children with at least one atopic parent, paired serum RSV-NA levels were compared in cord-blood and at age 3-years. Read More

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September 2021

Nasopharyngeal colonization of otopathogens in South Indian children with acute otitis media - A case control pilot study.

J Otol 2021 Oct 4;16(4):220-224. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of ENT, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) is an inflammatory disease of the middle ear causing significant morbidity in early childhood. A pilot study was undertaken to identify the role of various risk factors South Indian children with AOM, especially the role of nasopharyngeal otopathogens.

Methodology: A prospective case control pilot study was conducted in children aged below six years, presenting to a single tertiary care from 2018 to 2019. Read More

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October 2021

Comparison of microbial composition of cough swabs and sputum for pathogen detection in patients with cystic fibrosis.

J Cyst Fibros 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of respiratory medicine, Amsterdam UMC location AMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: With the continued advancement of CFTR modulator therapies there is likely to be a burgeoning population of adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients unable to expectorate sputum. Consequently, the detection and surveillance of pulmonary colonisation, previously reliant on sputum culture, needs re-examining. We hypothesised that cough swabs analysed with culture-independent analysis of the 16S gene could serve as a surrogate for colonisation of the lower airways. Read More

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September 2021

Reproductive tract microbiota of women in childbearing age shifts upon gynecological infections and menstrual cycle.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Sep 21;21(1):252. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Key Laboratory of Laparoscopic Technology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China.

Background: This study was undertaken to discover whether the vaginal microbe of women at childbearing age is different among groups defined by urogenital tract infections, childbearing history and menstrual cycle, respectively.

Results: This was a multiple case-control study of women at childbearing age who were assigned to case or control groups according to their states of urogenital tract infections. The participants were also grouped by childbearing history and menstrual cycle. Read More

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September 2021

Clinical, epidemiological and therapeutic characteristics of Mycoplasma genitalium infection in a French STI center.

Infect Dis Now 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Sorbonne Université, AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires Pitié Salpêtrière-Charles Foix, Services des maladies infectieuses et tropicales, Paris, France; Sorbonne Université, AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires Pitié Salpêtrière-Charles Foix, Centre de santé sexuelle CeGIDD (Centre Gratuit d'information, de Dépistage et de Diagnostic), Paris, France.

Objectives: We report the characteristics of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) infection in patients from a STI center in Paris. We evaluated outcomes after treatment.

Methods: We included all patients tested for MG, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infection in our center from January 2017 to December 2018, using multiplex PCR on urine specimen, vaginal or rectal swabs. Read More

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September 2021

Occurrence, Antibiotic Resistance, Virulence Factors, and Genetic Diversity of spp. from Public Hospital Environments in South Africa.

Microb Drug Resist 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Biomedical Resource Unit, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal Durban, Durban, South Africa.

This study aimed to assess the molecular dissemination of species in public hospitals in South Africa. The study conducted over 3 months during 2017 involved representative samples obtained from three wards (general ward, intensive care unit, and pediatric unit) from four public hospitals denoted as A (Central), B (Tertiary), C (Regional), and D (District). Swabs collected from 11 distinct hospital surfaces were screened using selective media, biochemical testing, and molecular methods. Read More

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September 2021

Genetic diversity of bat coronaviruses and comparative genetic analysis of MERS-related coronaviruses in South Korea.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Laboratory of Veterinary Infectious Disease, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan, Jeonbuk, Republic of Korea.

Bats have been identified as a natural reservoir of several potentially zoonotic viruses, including Lyssavirus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, Hendra virus, Nipah virus, as well as SARS and MERS-coronavirus. Here, we performed a molecular epidemiological investigation of South Korean bat viruses. Genetic comparative analysis was performed on the spike glycoprotein gene of the detected MERS-related coronaviruses. Read More

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September 2021

Research Note: Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Clostridium perfringens in "no antibiotics ever" broiler farms.

Poult Sci 2021 Jul 30;100(11):101414. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Poultry Science, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA. Electronic address:

Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is the etiological agent of necrotic enteritis and gangrenous dermatitis; 2 diseases that cause significant economic and welfare concerns to the broiler industry. Previously, Clostridium-related diseases were managed with the use of antimicrobial growth promoters fed to broilers that improved gut health and performance. Read More

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High immature platelet fraction with reduced platelet count on hospital admission. Can it be useful for COVID-19 diagnosis?

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Unit of Laboratory Medicine, Centro Cardiologico IRCCS Monzino, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: Health professions are heavily engaged facing the current threat of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Although there are many diagnostic tools, an accurate and rapid laboratory procedure for diagnosing COVID-19 is recommended. We focused on platelet parameters as the additional biomarkers for clinical diagnosis in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). Read More

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September 2021

Detection of and spp. DNA in Cutaneous Samples and in Household Dust in Rural Areas, Senegal.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Sep;21(9):659-666

Unité Mixe de Recherche Vecteurs-Infections Tropicales et Méditerranéennes (VITROME), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Campus International de Recherche IRD-UCAD Hann, Dakar, Senegal.

Q fever and tick-borne borreliosis are two zoonotic diseases rarely diagnosed in Senegalese health facilities, particularly in rural areas. Our study aims to better understand the circulation of and spp. DNA on human skin and the domestic environment in rural areas. Read More

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September 2021

Direct and indirect effects of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal carriage in children hospitalised with pneumonia from formal and informal settlements in Mongolia: an observational study.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021 Oct 30;15:100231. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Infection and Immunity, Murdoch Children's Research Institute (MCRI), Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Within Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, risk factors for pneumonia are concentrated among children living in informal settlements comprised of temporary shelters (gers). We used pneumococcal carriage surveillance among children from formal and informal settlements hospitalised with pneumonia to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) against vaccine-type (VT) pneumococcal carriage following a phased introduction of PCV13.

Methods: We enrolled and collected nasopharyngeal swabs from children 2-59 months of age presenting to hospital. Read More

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October 2021

The Challenge of Using an Antigen Test as a Screening Tool for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in an Emergency Department: Experience of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern Italy.

Biomed Res Int 2021 11;2021:3893733. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology-Hygiene Section, University of Bari, P.zza G. Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy.

Background: In emergency hospital settings, rapid diagnosis and isolation of SARS-CoV-2 patients are required. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of an antigen chemiluminescence enzymatic immunoassay (CLEIA) and compare it with that of Real-time Reverse transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR), the gold standard assay, to assess its suitability as a rapid diagnostic method for managing patients in the emergency department (ED).

Methods: Consecutive patients with no previous history of SARS-CoV-2 infection attending the ED of the Policlinico Hospital of Bari between 23rd October and 4th November 2020 were enrolled. Read More

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September 2021

Multi-omics analysis to decipher the molecular link between chronic exposure to pollution and human skin dysfunction.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 15;11(1):18302. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Research and Innovation, L'Oréal SA, Aulnay Sous Bois, France.

Environmental pollution is composed of several factors, namely particulate matter (PM, PM), ozone and Ultra Violet (UV) rays among others and first and the most exposed tissue to these substances is the skin epidermis. It has been established that several skin disorders such as eczema, acne, lentigines and wrinkles are aggravated by exposure to atmospheric pollution. While pollutants can interact with skin surface, contamination of deep skin by ultrafine particles or Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) might be explained by their presence in blood and hair cortex. Read More

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September 2021

A Multicenter Study of Viral Aetiology of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Hospitalized Children in Chinese Mainland.

Virol Sin 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, 100045, China.

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. In this study, we aimed to describe the aetiology of viral infection of pediatric CAP in Chinese mainland. During November 2014 to June 2016, the prospective study was conducted in 13 hospitals. Read More

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September 2021

Duration of carriage of multidrug-resistant bacteria in dogs and cats in veterinary care and co-carriage with their owners.

One Health 2021 Dec 31;13:100322. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland.

Background: The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) represent a threat to human and animal health.

Objectives: To assess duration of carriage of MDROs in dogs and cats presented to veterinary clinics/hospitals in Switzerland. To estimate prevalence, duration of and risk factors for MDRO carriage in their owners and the occurrence of co-carriage in owner-pet pairs. Read More

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December 2021

Feasibility and acceptability of targeted salivary cytomegalovirus screening through universal newborn hearing screening.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Aim: This study aimed to determine the feasibility and parental acceptability of screening for congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) through saliva polymerase chain reaction in infants who did not pass their newborn hearing screening. Additionally, the utility (i.e. Read More

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September 2021

Infectious SARS-CoV-2 in Exhaled Aerosols and Efficacy of Masks During Early Mild Infection.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Public Health Aerobiology and Biomarker Laboratory, Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, Maryland, USA.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology implicates airborne transmission; aerosol infectiousness and impacts of masks and variants on aerosol shedding are not well understood.

Methods: We recruited COVID-19 cases to give blood, saliva, mid-turbinate and fomite (phone) swabs, and 30-minute breath samples while vocalizing into a Gesundheit-II, with and without masks at up to two visits two days apart. We quantified and sequenced viral RNA, cultured virus, and assayed sera for anti-spike and anti-receptor binding domain antibodies. Read More

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September 2021

Lactobacillus crispatus thrives in pregnancy hormonal milieu in a Nigerian patient cohort.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 13;11(1):18152. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Steroid hormones are one of the presumed modulators of Lactobacillus abundance in the vaginal epithelium. We set out to characterize the vaginal microbiome (VMB) and also provide an in-depth understanding of the relative contribution of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P1) in shaping the vaginal microbiome of Nigerian women (n = 38) who experienced both uncomplicated term delivery and preterm delivery using samples longitudinally collected during pregnancy (17-21, 27-31, 36-41 weeks gestation) and 6 weeks postpartum. Vaginal swabs and blood samples were aseptically collected. Read More

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September 2021

Anal human papillomavirus prevalence and risk factors among men who have sex with men in Vietnam.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; Infection and Immunity, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, VIC, Australia; Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia; National Institute for Control of Vaccine and Biologicals, Vietnam.

Objectives: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, while published data are scarce. We determined HPV prevalence and risk factors in MSM in Vietnam to inform HPV prevention strategies in this key population.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of 799 MSM aged 16 to 50 years old was conducted in Vietnam in 2017-2018. Read More

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September 2021

Epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella in chickens, sewage, and workers of broiler farms in selected areas of Bangladesh.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 Aug 31;15(8):1155-1166. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Population Medicine and AMR Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

Introduction: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and AMR pattern of Salmonella isolated from broiler chickens, farm sewage, and farm workers. This study also aimed at identifying the risk factors for Salmonella infection in chickens.

Methodology: Cloacal swabs (n = 50) from broiler chickens, farm sewage (n = 50), and hand washed water of farm workers (n = 50) were collected along with data on farm management and antimicrobial usage from 50 broiler farms of Mymensingh and Gazipur districts. Read More

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Comparative Evaluation of Nasopharyngeal and Oropharyngeal Swab Based Rapid SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Detection and Real-Time RT-PCR for Diagnosis of COVID-19 in Tertiary Care Hospital.

Cureus 2021 Jul 31;13(7):e16785. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Rishikesh, IND.

Purpose: To assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of the GenBody COVID-19 Antigen kit (GenBody Inc., Cheonan, South Korea) available in the market with the gold standard reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Methods: Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and tested by RT-PCR and GenBody Rapid antigen kit. Read More

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Characterisation of the Prevailing Multidrug Strains from Surgical Wound Using 16S rRNA Sequencing Technique.

Malays J Med Sci 2021 Aug 26;28(4):37-49. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Benin, Ugbowo, Benin City, Nigeria.

Background: () is prevalent in hospital-acquired surgical wound infections. It exhibits both innate and acquired resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials and remains a principal problem in clinical practice.

Methods: In total, 284 sterile surgical wound swabs (142 each) were collected from two government hospitals: Central Hospital Benin (CHB) and University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) in Benin City, Nigeria. Read More

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Non-diphtheriae Corynebacterium species are associated with decreased risk of pneumococcal colonization during infancy.

ISME J 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading cause of severe infections among children and adults. Interactions between commensal microbes in the upper respiratory tract and S. pneumoniae are poorly described. Read More

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September 2021

Computerized tomography of the Thorax for surgical patients during the COVID-19 pandemic: Was it useful?

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Sep 12:e14774. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Consultant Colorectal Surgery, New Cross Hospital, Wolverhampton, UK.

Objectives: Diagnostic challenges during the corona virus disease (COVID-19) pandemic forced the radiology regulating body to adopt the use of CT Chest as a triage and diagnostic tool, which was subsequently abandoned. The Royal Wolverhampton hospital followed both protocols. Here, we investigate the evidence behind this decision within the context of surgical admissions during the COVID-19 peak in our hospital. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence of COVID-19 Positive Cases Diagnosed by Real time Polymerase Chain Reaction in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Nepal.

JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2021 Mar 31;59(235):248-251. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Microbiology, Kathmandu Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Introduction: The virus that causes COVID-19 is known as severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2. This new variant of Corona Virus introduced in China has urged the massive health system resources to focus on its screening and management of sick patients worldwide. We aimed to find the prevalence of COVID-19 positive cases diagnosed by Real-time polymerase chain reaction in a tertiary care hospital of Nepal. Read More

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