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Baseline characteristics and outcomes of end-stage renal disease patients after in-hospital sudden cardiac arrest: a national perspective.

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Section of Electrophysiology, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sulpizio Cardiovascular Center, University of California San Diego, 9452 Medical Center Dr., MC 7411, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.

Purpose: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a well-recognized risk factor for the development of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). There is limited data on baseline characteristics and outcomes after an in-hospital SCA event in ESRD patients.

Methods: For the purpose of this study, data were obtained from the National Inpatient Sample from January 2007 to December 2017. Read More

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Marked improvements in glycaemic outcomes following insulin pump therapy initiation in people with type 1 diabetes: a nationwide observational study in Scotland.

Diabetologia 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

MRC Institute of Genetic and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Aims/hypothesis: Our aim was to assess the use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in people with type 1 diabetes in Scotland and its association with glycaemic control, as measured by HbA levels, frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and severe hospitalised hypoglycaemia (SHH), overall and stratified by baseline HbA.

Methods: We included 4684 individuals with type 1 diabetes from the national Scottish register, who commenced CSII between 2004 and 2019. We presented crude within-person differences from baseline HbA over time since initiation, crude DKA and SHH event-rates pre-/post-CSII exposure. Read More

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Predictors of Anxiety-Induced Sleep Disturbance among in-School Adolescents in Ghana: Evidence from the 2012 Global School-Based Health Survey.

Behav Sci (Basel) 2021 Feb 1;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast PMB TF0494, Ghana.

(1) Psychological problems of adolescents have become a global health and safety concern. Empirical evidence has shown that adolescents experience diverse mental health conditions (e.g. Read More

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February 2021

Influence of Hepatitis C Coinfection and Treatment on Risk of Diabetes Mellitus in HIV-Positive Persons.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Dec 7;7(12):ofaa470. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Centre for Clinical Research, Epidemiology, Modelling and Evaluation (CREME), Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.

Background: The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection and HCV-RNA in the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in HIV-positive persons remains unclear.

Methods: Poisson regression was used to compare incidence rates of DM (blood glucose >11.1 mmol/L, HbA1C >6. Read More

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December 2020

Production and characterization of a novel, thermotolerant fungal phytase from agro-industrial byproducts for cattle feed.

Biotechnol Lett 2021 Apr 2;43(4):865-879. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Objective: The application of phytases helps in releasing bound phosphorus and other nutrients in cattle feed eventually reducing the need for supplementations. However, high production cost owing to the unavailability of cheaper sources of phytases has limited their usage in developing countries. Herein, firstly isolation, identification of a phytase from fungal isolate, Aspergillus niger NT7 was carried out followed by optimizing of all production parameters, through solid-state fermentation (SSF). Read More

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Incidence and risk factors of preoperative deep venous thrombosis in closed tibial shaft fracture: a prospective cohort study.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2020 Nov 21. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050051, Hebei, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To investigate the preoperative morbidity of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and predictive risk factors associated with DVT after closed tibial shaft fracture.

Methods: Ultrasonography and blood analyses were performed preoperatively in patients who sustained tibial shaft fracture between October 2014 and December 2018. Univariate analyses were used in the data of demographics, comorbidities, mechanism of injury, concomitant fractures and laboratory biomarkers. Read More

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November 2020

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Antimicrobial Consumption and Hospital-Acquired Candidemia and Multidrug-Resistant Bloodstream Infections.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Nov 17;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Infectious Diseases Research Group, Clinical Unit of Infectious Diseases, Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville (IBiS), University of Seville/CSIC/University Hospital Virgen del Rocio, Avenue Manuel Siurot, 41013 Seville, Spain.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship strategies has been recommended. This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary care Spanish hospital with an active ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP). For a 20-week period, we weekly assessed antimicrobial consumption, incidence density, and crude death rate per 1000 occupied bed days of candidemia and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial bloodstream infections (BSI). Read More

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November 2020

Impacts of zinc oxide nano and bulk particles on redox-enzymes of the Punica granatum callus.

Sci Rep 2020 11 12;10(1):19722. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, 71516, Egypt.

The structure and function of cellular membranes were sustained by redox-enzymes. We studied the interaction between the oxidative stress caused by excessive accumulation of ZnO-nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in plants and the role of redox-enzymes that can alleviate this stress. The crude callus extract from pomegranate, which was treated with 0, 10, and 150 µg mL ZnO-NPs or bulk particles (ZnO-BPs), was applied to study the activity and kinetics of redox-enzymes. Read More

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November 2020

Impact of a pay-for-performance scheme for long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) advice on contraceptive uptake and abortion in British primary care: An interrupted time series study.

PLoS Med 2020 09 14;17(9):e1003333. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is among the most effective contraceptive methods, but uptake remains low even in high-income settings. In 2009/2010, a target-based pay-for-performance (P4P) scheme in Britain was introduced for primary care physicians (PCPs) to offer advice about LARC methods to a specified proportion of women attending for contraceptive care to improve contraceptive choice. We examined the impact and equity of this scheme on LARC uptake and abortions. Read More

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September 2020

Blunt Versus Penetrating Neck Trauma: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Laryngoscope 2021 04 7;131(4):E1109-E1116. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objectives/hypothesis: Despite being common, neck injuries have received relatively little attention for important quality of care metrics. This study sought to determine the association between blunt and penetrating neck injuries on mortality and length of stay, and to identify additional patient and hospital-level characteristics that impact these outcomes.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study utilizing the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program database. Read More

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One-step extrusion of concentrated lidocaine lipid nanocarrier (LNC) dispersions.

Int J Pharm 2020 Nov 29;589:119817. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Dynation LLC, 1000 Westgate Drive, Suite 150N, St. Paul, MN 55114, United States; Superior Nano, 1313 Fairgrounds Road, Two Harbors, MN 55616, United States. Electronic address:

Lipid nanocarriers (LNCs) have been successfully produced by many methods including high pressure homogenization, sonication and microemulsification, but it remains very difficult to produce dispersions with greater than 30% LNCs, volume average particle diameter less than 150 nm, and concentration of drugs useful for topical products. This research is the first to propose and demonstrate extrusion to manufacture highly concentrated drug containing LNC dispersions continuously and economically in a single step. By treating crude emulsions in a twin-screw extruder which has sections for homogenizing, mixing and fast-cooling inside the extruder, lidocaine-loaded LNC dispersions were successfully generated with lipid concentration up to 60% and particle diameters less than 50 nm. Read More

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November 2020

All-Cause Mortality and Causes of Death in the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort Study (SCCS).

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Aug 25;7(8):ofaa308. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Institute of Global Health, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: With direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs), mortality rates and causes of death among persons with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may change over time. However, the emergence of such trends may be delayed by the slow progression of chronic hepatitis C. To date, detailed analyses of cause-specific mortality among HCV-infected persons over time remain limited. Read More

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Two Cases of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Successfully Treated With Kampo Medicine.

Altern Ther Health Med 2020 Aug 20. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Context: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic disorder in which minimal but sustained exposure to particular chemicals causes headaches, vertigo, and multiple other symptoms. Up to 10% of cases are clinically unresponsive to treatment. Kampo medicines include multiple crude components with many applications for organ disorders. Read More

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Cranberry extract-based formulations for preventing bacterial biofilms.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2020 Aug 11. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261, USA.

Generating formulations for the delivery of a mixture of natural compounds extracted from natural sources is a challenge because of unknown active and inactive ingredients and possible interactions between them. As one example, natural cranberry extracts have been proposed for the prevention of biofilm formation on dental pellicle or teeth. However, such extracts may contain phenolic acids, flavonol glycosides along with other constituents like coumaroyl iridoid glycosides, flavonoids, alpha-linolenic acid, n-6 (or n-3) fatty acids, and crude fiber. Read More

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Current developments in the nanomediated delivery of photoprotective phytochemicals.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Nov 6;27(31):38446-38471. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Pharmaceutics, NITTE Gulabi Shetty Memorial Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, NITTE Deemed-to-be University, Mangalore, 575018, India.

Natural products have been used to protect the skin from harmful UV radiation for decades. Due to the ecotoxicological implications of synthetic sunscreen exposure in aquatic ecosystems, there is a greater need to explore alternative sources of UV filters. Recent research has focused on discovering novel UV absorbing photoprotective molecules from nature. Read More

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November 2020

Microscopic and Submicroscopic Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Infections in Ghanaian Children and Protection against Febrile Malaria.

Infect Immun 2020 09 18;88(10). Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Immunology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana.

Naturally acquired immunity to malaria is thought to be nonsterile and sustained by persistence of low-level parasitemia. This study assessed the association between baseline microscopic and submicroscopic asymptomatic infections and antimalarial antibody levels and whether these parasitemia modify protective associations between antibody levels and malaria in Ghanaian children. Healthy children ( = 973, aged 0. Read More

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September 2020

Fertility, mortality, migration, and population scenarios for 195 countries and territories from 2017 to 2100: a forecasting analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Lancet 2020 10 14;396(10258):1285-1306. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Health Metrics Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Understanding potential patterns in future population levels is crucial for anticipating and planning for changing age structures, resource and health-care needs, and environmental and economic landscapes. Future fertility patterns are a key input to estimation of future population size, but they are surrounded by substantial uncertainty and diverging methodologies of estimation and forecasting, leading to important differences in global population projections. Changing population size and age structure might have profound economic, social, and geopolitical impacts in many countries. Read More

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October 2020

Association between palliative care and healthcare outcomes among adults with terminal non-cancer illness: population based matched cohort study.

BMJ 2020 07 6;370:m2257. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objective: To measure the associations between newly initiated palliative care in the last six months of life, healthcare use, and location of death in adults dying from non-cancer illness, and to compare these associations with those in adults who die from cancer at a population level.

Design: Population based matched cohort study.

Setting: Ontario, Canada between 2010 and 2015. Read More

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Association Between an Acute, Drug-Induced Decrease in High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels and Risk of Cardiovascular Events.

Clin Drug Investig 2020 Aug;40(8):747-754

Pharmacoepidemiology, Merck & Co., Inc., North Wales, PA, USA.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The literature describing the long-term effect of an acute, drug-induced decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and cardiovascular (CV) risk is limited. We aimed to further explore this potential association.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) between 2006 and 2014. Read More

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Sustained impact of the activities of local crude oil refiners on their host communities in Nigeria.

Heliyon 2020 Jun 5;6(6):e04000. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK.

The local refining of crude oil has become a lucrative but disturbing business in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Deep inside the forest of the Niger Delta camps are built and used for the local refining of crude oil. The economic benefits this brings to the refiners are clear, however the host communities are severely hit by the activities of the 'local crude oil refiners'. Read More

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COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 14 (Reporting week to 23:59 AEST 3 May 2020).

Authors:

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2020 May 8;44. Epub 2020 May 8.

Confirmed cases in Australia notified up to 03 May 2020: notifications = 6,784; deaths = 89. The reduction in international travel and domestic movement, social distancing measures and public health action have likely slowed the spread of COVID-19 in Australia. Currently new notifications in Australia are mostly considered to be locally-acquired with some cases still reported among people with recent overseas travel. Read More

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COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 13 (Reporting week to 23:59 AEST 26 April 2020).

Authors:

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2020 May 1;44. Epub 2020 May 1.

Confirmed cases in Australia notified up to 26 April 2020: notifications = 6,711; deaths = 77. The reduction in international travel and domestic movement, social distancing measures and public health action have likely slowed the spread of COVID-19 in Australia. Notifications in Australia remain predominantly among people with recent overseas travel, with some locally-acquired cases being detected. Read More

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COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 12 (Reporting week to 23:59 AEST 19 April 2020).

Authors:

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2020 Apr 24;44. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Confirmed cases in Australia notified up to 19 April 2020: notifications = 6,606; deaths = 69. The reduction in international travel and domestic movement, social distancing measures and public health action have likely slowed the spread of the disease. Notifications in Australia remain predominantly among people with recent overseas travel, with some locally-acquired cases being detected. Read More

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Half of Prescribed Antibiotics Are Not Needed: A Pharmacist-Led Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention and Clinical Outcomes in a Referral Hospital in Ethiopia.

Front Public Health 2020 9;8:109. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

J. D. MacLean Centre for Tropical Diseases and McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Intense antibiotic consumption in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) is fueled by critical gaps in laboratory infrastructure and entrenched syndromic management of infectious syndromes. Few data inform the achievability and impact of antimicrobial stewardship interventions, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of a pharmacist-led laboratory-supported intervention at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and report on antimicrobial use and clinical outcomes associated with the intervention. Read More

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Predicting sustained ventricular arrhythmias in dilated cardiomyopathy: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 08 14;7(4):1430-1441. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Cardiology, Division Heart & Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Aims: Patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are at increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Identification of patients that may benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation remains challenging. In this study, we aimed to determine predictors of sustained ventricular arrhythmias in patients with DCM. Read More

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Transmission potential and severity of COVID-19 in South Korea.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Apr 18;93:339-344. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Population Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Since the first case of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) identified on Jan 20, 2020, in South Korea, the number of cases rapidly increased, resulting in 6284 cases including 42 deaths as of Mar 6, 2020. To examine the growth rate of the outbreak, we present the first study to report the reproduction number of COVID-19 in South Korea.

Methods: The daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 in South Korea were extracted from publicly available sources. Read More

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Bacterial cellulose production from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol, magnetic functionalization, and its application as carrier for lipase immobilization.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jun 9;153:902-911. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The present study aims towards the kinetic analysis of bacterial cellulose (BC) production by Gluconobacter xylinus from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol and its application as support for immobilization of lipase. Enhancement in strength of BC membrane and its magnetic functionalization were accomplished by the impregnation of iron oxide nanoparticles into the BC matrix. Fitting of experimental results to various substrate inhibition models revealed a reduction of substrate affinity (K) and reaction rate (V), and increase in substrate inhibition concentration of G. Read More

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Association of antiretroviral therapy with anal high-risk human papillomavirus, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal cancer in people living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lancet HIV 2020 04 25;7(4):e262-e278. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Clinical Research Department, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the natural history of anal high-risk HPV and anal lesion progression is not well established. We reviewed the association of ART and other HIV-related factors on anal HPV infection, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), and anal cancer among people living with HIV.

Methods: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies published between Jan 1, 1996, and Oct 30, 2019, that reported the association of HIV-related exposures (ART or highly active ART [HAART], HIV-RNA plasma viral load [PVL], and nadir or current CD4 cell count) with outcomes of anal high-risk HPV prevalence, incidence, and persistence; prevalence, incidence, progression, or regression of anal histological and cytological abnormalities; and anal cancer incidence. Read More

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