2,551 results match your criteria susceptibility cholinergic


Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α7 Subunit Is an Essential Regulator of Seizure Susceptibility.

Front Neurol 2021 12;12:656752. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Rehabilitation & Sports Medicine Research Institute of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, China.

A large body of data has confirmed that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a pivotal role in cognition, memory, and other neuropsychiatric diseases, but their effect on seizure susceptibility in C57BL/6 wild-type mice is not fully understood. Here, we showed that decreased activity of α7 nAChRs could increase the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons and shorten the onset time of epilepsy in pilocarpine-induced mouse models. However, compared with the control group, there was no apparent effect of increasing the activity of α7 nAChRs. Read More

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The adipokinetic hormone signaling system regulates the sensitivity of Bactrocera dorsalis to malathion.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 May 25;174:104808. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Key Laboratory of Entomology and Pest Control Engineering, College of Plant Protection, China; State Cultivation Base of Crop Stress Biology for Southern Mountainous Land of Southwest University, China; International Joint Laboratory of China-Belgium on Sustainable Crop Pest Control, Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China. Electronic address:

The neuropeptide adipokinetic hormone (AKH) binds to the AKH receptor (AKHR) to regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It also participates in the insect anti-stress response. We used RT-qPCR to detect the expression levels of 39 neuropeptides in malathion-susceptible (MS) and malathion-resistant (MR) strains of Bactrocera dorsalis. Read More

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The Role of CaMKII and ERK Signaling in Addiction.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 20;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan.

Nicotine is the predominant addictive compound of tobacco and causes the acquisition of dependence through its interactions with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and various neurotransmitter releases in the central nervous system. The Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. CaMKII is involved in long-term potentiation induction, which underlies the consolidation of learning and memory; however, the roles of CaMKII in nicotine and other psychostimulant-induced addiction still require further investigation. Read More

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Use of multiple anticholinergic medications can predispose patients to severe non-exertional hyperthermia.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Mar 23;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Internal Medicine, Detroit Medical Center/Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

We present a case of a 64-year-old woman who developed severe non-exertional hyperthermia (NEHT) due to excessive anticholinergic effects from her psychiatric medications. The patient was found unresponsive in a non-air-conditioned room where the outside temperature was over 33°C. She presented with altered mental status, hypotension and an oral temperature of 42°C. Read More

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Smoking Enigma in Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Tug of War between Predisposition and Possible Way Out.

Tob Use Insights 2021 3;14:1179173X20988674. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh.

Background: The recent global inclination for smoking during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has drawn attention to the impact of smoking on COVID-19. While smoking increases susceptibility to common respiratory pathogens including the closely related coronaviruses, COVID-19 causing Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) being a respiratory pathogen intrigues the possible association between smoking and viral pathogenicity.

Smoking And Covid-19: The gender dependence of COVID-19 infection rates and a higher prevalence of smokers among males made the scientific world assume smoking to be a confounding variable in sex predisposition to COVID-19. Read More

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The Differential Effects of Salinity Level on Chlorpyrifos and Imidacloprid Toxicity to an Estuarine Amphipod.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 May 1;106(5):753-758. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Biology, Canadian Rivers Institute, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3, Canada.

Agricultural activity within coastal watersheds results in estuaries becoming the receiving environment for pesticide inputs. In estuaries, salinity can alter insecticide responses of exposed crustaceans. The acute toxicity of environmentally relevant doses of chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid were examined using the euryhaline amphipod Gammarus lawrencianus at 20 and 30 Practical Salinity Units (PSU). Read More

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Histamine H receptor deletion in cholinergic neurons induces sensorimotor gating ability deficit and social impairments in mice.

Nat Commun 2021 02 18;12(1):1142. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Institute of Pharmacology & Toxicology, NHC and CAMS Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, P.R. China.

Negative symptoms in schizophrenia strongly contribute to poor functional outcomes, however its pathogenesis is still unclear. Here, we found that histamine H receptor (HR) expression in basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons was decreased in patients with schizophrenia having negative symptoms. Deletion of HR gene in cholinergic neurons in mice resulted in functional deficiency of cholinergic projections from the BF to the prefrontal cortex and in the formation of sensorimotor gating deficit, social impairment and anhedonia-like behavior. Read More

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February 2021

The Positive Allosteric Modulation of alpha7-Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptors by GAT107 Increases Bacterial Lung Clearance in Hyperoxic Mice by Decreasing Oxidative Stress in Macrophages.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jan 19;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, St. John's University, Queens, New York, NY 11439, USA.

Supplemental oxygen therapy with supraphysiological concentrations of oxygen (hyperoxia; >21% O) is a life-saving intervention for patients experiencing respiratory distress. However, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia can compromise bacterial clearance processes, due to oxidative stress-mediated impairment of macrophages, contributing to the increased susceptibility to pulmonary infections. This study reports that the activation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) with the delete allosteric agonistic-positive allosteric modulator, GAT107, decreases the bacterial burden in mouse lungs by improving hyperoxia-induced lung redox imbalance. Read More

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January 2021

Chr15q25 genetic variant (rs16969968) independently confers risk of lung cancer, COPD and smoking intensity in a prospective study of high-risk smokers.

Thorax 2021 03 8;76(3):272-280. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

The University of Auckland Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Auckland, New Zealand

Importance: While cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 5 (CHRNA5) variants have been linked to lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and smoking addiction in case-controls studies, their corelationship is not well understood and requires retesting in a cohort study.

Objective: To re-examine the association between the CHRNA5 variant (rs16969968 AA genotype) and the development of lung cancer, relative to its association with COPD and smoking.

Methods: In 9270 Non-Hispanic white subjects from the National Lung Screening Trial, a substudy of high-risk smokers were followed for an average of 6. Read More

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A Novel Genotyping Method for Detection of the Muscarinic Receptor Gene rs2067477 Polymorphism and Its Genotype/Allele Frequencies in a Turkish Population.

Turk J Pharm Sci 2020 Dec;17(6):653-658

Ankara University Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: Gene variation in the cholinergic muscarinic receptor 1 (CHRM1) has potential to become a candidate biomarker in the development of several disorders as well as drug response. In this study, a novel polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was developed to determine the C to A single nucleotide polymorphism at position 267 in the gene.

Materials And Methods: A new reverse primer and a mismatched forward primer were designed to obtain 125 bp PCR products. Read More

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December 2020

Reactive pericytes in early phase are involved in glial activation and late-onset hypersusceptibility to pilocarpine-induced seizures in traumatic brain injury model mice.

J Pharmacol Sci 2021 Jan 23;145(1):155-165. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Care and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, 814-0180, Japan.

In this study, among neurovascular unit (NVU) cells, we focused on pericyte reactivity in mice subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) to understand how traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes uncoordinated crosstalk in the NVU and alters neuronal activity. Histological analyses of brain pericytes, microglia and astrocytes were performed for up to 28 days after CCI in the injured ipsilateral hippocampus. To evaluate altered neuronal activity caused by CCI, we measured seizure susceptibility to a sub-threshold dose of pilocarpine on postoperative day 7, 14, 21 and 28. Read More

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January 2021

iPSC-Derived Microglia for Modeling Human-Specific DAMP and PAMP Responses in the Context of Alzheimer's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 18;21(24). Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Neurology, State University of New York at Buffalo, 875 Ellicott St., Buffalo, NY 14203, USA.

Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been the focus for identifying targetable pathways for drug development. The role of amyloid beta (Aβ), a prototype of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), has been implicated in triggering an inflammatory response. As alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) binds Aβ with high affinity, α7 nAChR may play a role in Aβ-induced neuroinflammation. Read More

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December 2020

Cholinergic neurotransmission in the basolateral amygdala during cued fear extinction.

Neurobiol Stress 2020 Nov 30;13:100279. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Columbia VA Health Care System, Columbia, SC, 29209, United States.

Cholinergic neuromodulation plays an important role in numerous cognitive functions including regulating arousal and attention, as well as associative learning and extinction processes. Further, studies demonstrate that cholinergic inputs from the basal forebrain cholinergic system influence physiological responses in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) as well as fear extinction processes. Since rodent models display individual differences in conditioned fear and extinction responses, this study investigated if cholinergic transmission in the BLA during fear extinction could contribute to differences between extinction resistant and extinction competent phenotypes in outbred Long-Evans male rats. Read More

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November 2020

High Tolerance and Delayed Responses of to Neonicotinoid Insecticide Imidacloprid: Toxicokinetic and Toxicodynamic Modeling.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 01 17;55(1):458-467. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

School of Energy and Environment and State Key Laboratory of Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Species sensitivity to neonicotinoids has been shown to be highly variable among aquatic invertebrates. Toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic (TKTD) models were constructed to mechanistically elucidate the susceptibility of to imidacloprid. was highly tolerant to single short-term exposure to imidacloprid (96-h LC50 of 8. Read More

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January 2021

Comprehensive Review on Alzheimer's Disease: Causes and Treatment.

Molecules 2020 Dec 8;25(24). Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem 20002, Palestine.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disorder that causes degeneration of the cells in the brain and it is the main cause of dementia, which is characterized by a decline in thinking and independence in personal daily activities. AD is considered a multifactorial disease: two main hypotheses were proposed as a cause for AD, cholinergic and amyloid hypotheses. Additionally, several risk factors such as increasing age, genetic factors, head injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and environmental factors play a role in the disease. Read More

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December 2020

Transfer RNA fragments replace microRNA regulators of the cholinergic poststroke immune blockade.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 12 7;117(51):32606-32616. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

The Edmond & Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 9190401 Jerusalem, Israel;

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Recovery depends on a delicate balance between inflammatory responses and immune suppression, tipping the scale between brain protection and susceptibility to infection. Peripheral cholinergic blockade of immune reactions fine-tunes this immune response, but its molecular regulators are unknown. Read More

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December 2020

A risk-stratified approach toward safely resuming OnabotulinumtoxinA injections based on dosing and ambulatory status in pediatric patients with cerebral palsy during the Coronavirus pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19).

J Pediatr Rehabil Med 2020 ;13(3):273-279

Children's Mercy Hospital Kansas City, MO, USA.

Purpose: After the onset of the Coronavirus pandemic of 2019-2020 (COVID-19), physicians who inject OnabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) were left with determining risks and benefits in pediatric patients with cerebral palsy. Many of these patients have pre-existing conditions that make them more prone to COVID-19 symptoms, and this susceptibility potentially increases after BoNT-A injections.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of 500 patients identified 256 pediatric patients with cerebral palsy who received an intramuscular BoNT-A injection to determine relative doses used for each Gross Motor Functional Classification Score (GMFCS). Read More

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December 2020

Genome-wide assessment and development of molecular diagnostic methods for imidacloprid-resistance in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera; Delphacidae).

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Apr 14;77(4):1786-1795. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), Tsukuba, Japan.

Background: The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is one of the most notorious pests of rice throughout Asia. The brown planthopper has developed high resistance to imidacloprid, a member of neonicotinoid insecticides. Several genes and mutations conferring imidacloprid resistance in N. Read More

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Population viability in a host-parasitoid system is mediated by interactions between population stage structure and life stage differential susceptibility to toxicants.

Sci Rep 2020 11 27;10(1):20746. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Center, California State University, 100 Campus Center Seaside, Monterey Bay, CA, 93955, USA.

The effects of toxicants, such as pesticides, may be more severe for some life stages of an organism than others. However, in most toxicity studies, data is developed for only one life stage, which may lead to misleading interpretations. Furthermore, population stage-structure may interact with differential susceptibility, especially when populations consist of higher proportions of individuals in more susceptible stages at the time of toxicant exposure. Read More

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November 2020

Ntrk1 mutation co-segregating with bipolar disorder and inherited kidney disease in a multiplex family causes defects in neuronal growth and depression-like behavior in mice.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 11 24;10(1):407. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, San Diego, USA.

Previously, we reported a family in which bipolar disorder (BD) co-segregates with a Mendelian kidney disorder linked to 1q22. The causative renal gene was later identified as MUC1. Genome-wide linkage analysis of BD in the family yielded a peak at 1q22 that encompassed the NTRK1 and MUC1 genes. Read More

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November 2020

Thymus-derived B cell clones persist in the circulation after thymectomy in myasthenia gravis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 12 16;117(48):30649-30660. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511;

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular, autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies that target postsynaptic proteins, primarily the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and inhibit signaling at the neuromuscular junction. The majority of patients under 50 y with AChR autoantibody MG have thymic lymphofollicular hyperplasia. The MG thymus is a reservoir of plasma cells that secrete disease-causing AChR autoantibodies and although thymectomy improves clinical scores, many patients fail to achieve complete stable remission without additional immunosuppressive treatments. Read More

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December 2020

The Neat Dance of COVID-19: NEAT1, DANCR, and Co-Modulated Cholinergic RNAs Link to Inflammation.

Front Immunol 2020 9;11:590870. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

The Department of Biological Chemistry and The Edmond and Lilly Safra Center for Brain Sciences, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

The COVID-19 pandemic exerts inflammation-related parasympathetic complications and post-infection manifestations with major inter-individual variability. To seek the corresponding transcriptomic origins for the impact of COVID-19 infection and its aftermath consequences, we sought the relevance of long and short non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) for susceptibility to COVID-19 infection. We selected inflammation-prone men and women of diverse ages among the cohort of Genome Tissue expression (GTEx) by mining RNA-seq datasets from their lung, and blood tissues, followed by quantitative qRT-PCR, bioinformatics-based network analyses and thorough statistics compared to brain cell culture and infection tests with COVID-19 and H1N1 viruses. Read More

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December 2020

Susceptibility of different developmental stages of parasitoids to insecticides commonly used in the Mediterranean olive agroecosystem.

Bull Entomol Res 2021 Jun 3;111(3):301-306. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Laboratory of Biological Control, Department of Entomology & Agricultural Zoology, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 S. Delta Street, 14561Kifissia, Greece.

Insecticide application and augmentative parasitoid releases are often considered incompatible. However, pesticide applications and parasitoid releases can be integrated into a pest management scheme if there is careful time scheduling of these interventions. In this study, we assessed the influence of commonly used insecticides (chlorpyrifos-methyl, deltamethrin, pyriproxyfen, thiamethoxam) in olive agroecosystems to two currently present Trichogramma parasitoids in the Mediterranean basin. Read More

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Genome-Wide Gene-by-Smoking Interaction Study of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 May;190(5):875-885

Risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is determined by both cigarette smoking and genetic susceptibility, but little is known about gene-by-smoking interactions. We performed a genome-wide association analysis of 179,689 controls and 21,077 COPD cases from UK Biobank subjects of European ancestry recruited from 2006 to 2010, considering genetic main effects and gene-by-smoking interaction effects simultaneously (2-degrees-of-freedom (df) test) as well as interaction effects alone (1-df interaction test). We sought to replicate significant results in COPDGene (United States, 2008-2010) and SpiroMeta Consortium (multiple countries, 1947-2015) data. Read More

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Dispersal of boll weevil toward and within the cotton plant and implications for insecticide exposure.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Mar 6;77(3):1339-1347. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Departamento de Agronomia, Entomologia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

Background: Immature stages of boll weevil complete development endophytically leaving only the adult stage accessible for chemical control. We tested the hypothesis that boll weevil colonization of the cotton plants significantly affects their exposure to sprayed insecticides. We determined the adult dispersal toward and within cotton plants, lethal time (LT), and residual control by recommended insecticides (malathion, carbosulfan, thiamethoxam, fipronil, beta-cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin) through dried residue exposure and residual control regarding the leaf position in the upper and the lower thirds of the treated plant canopy. Read More

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A Mechanism of Cocaine Addiction Susceptibility Through D Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Nucleus Accumbens Cholinergic Interneurons.

Biol Psychiatry 2020 11;88(10):738-740

Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism, Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U1233, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California. Electronic address:

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November 2020

NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase mediates the susceptibility of Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Feb 2;77(2):677-685. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Key Laboratory of Entomology and Pest Control Engineering, College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Background: The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri has developed high levels of resistance to many insecticides, and understanding its resistance mechanism will aid in the chemical control of this species. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is crucial in cytochrome P450 function, and in some insects CPR knockdown has increased their susceptibility to insecticides. However, the CPR from D. Read More

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February 2021

Mood-related behavioral and neurochemical alterations in mice exposed to low chlorpyrifos levels during the brain growth spurt.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(10):e0239017. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Laboratório de Neurofisiologia, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Organophosphates are among the most used pesticides. Particularly, chlorpyrifos (CPF) is responsible for a number of deleterious effects on brain development, which may program behavioral changes later in life. Here, we investigated whether a regimen of early low level CPF exposure that did not result in a significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) had deleterious effects on mood-related behaviors, as well as on cholinergic and serotonergic biomarkers in the mice brain. Read More

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November 2020

Heat-not-burn tobacco products: an emerging threat to cardiovascular health.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 12 2;319(6):H1234-H1239. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Cigarette smoking is at all-time lows globally, but the use of electronic cigarettes has increased profoundly. Recent reports of electronic cigarette or vaping use-associated lung injury may lead individuals to explore novel methods of nicotine consumption, such as heat-not-burn devices. IQOS from Philip Morris, a heat-not-burn device, became available for purchase in the United States in October 2019. Read More

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December 2020

Association of anticholinergic medications and AD biomarkers with incidence of MCI among cognitively normal older adults.

Neurology 2020 10 2;95(16):e2295-e2304. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

From the San Diego Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology (A.J.W.), San Diego State University/University of California; Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System (M.W.B., D.R.G., L.D.-W.); Department of Psychiatry (M.W.B., K.R.T., D.R.G., D.S., L.D.-W.), Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (M.W.B., D.R.G., D.P.S., D.S., J.B.B., H.H.F., L.D.-W.), and Department of Neurosciences (D.R.G., D.P.S., J.B.B., H.H.F.), University of California, San Diego; Center for Aging Research (N.L.C.), Regenstrief Institute, Inc. and Indiana University, Indianapolis; and Department of Pharmacy Practice (N.L.C.), Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Objective: To determine the cognitive consequences of anticholinergic medications (aCH) in cognitively normal older adults as well as interactive effects of genetic and CSF Alzheimer disease (AD) risk factors.

Methods: A total of 688 cognitively normal participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative were evaluated (mean age 73.5 years, 49. Read More

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October 2020