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Invasive urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder presenting with annular constriction and mimicking proctitis observed by colonoscopy: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Mar 16;82:105785. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, No. 325, Sec. 2, Chenggong Rd., Neihu District, Taipei City, 11490, Taiwan, ROC.

Introduction: Bladder urothelial carcinoma rarely spreads to the gastrointestinal tract, and its presentation in the rectum varies. We report a case of a patient who presented with an annular constriction of the rectum.

Presentation Of Case: A 60-year-old man was referred to our hospital with chief complaints of anal stricture and partial obstruction for about 1 month. Read More

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Stunting, IQ, and final school attainment in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey birth cohort.

Econ Hum Biol 2021 Apr 7;42:100999. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

USC-Office of Population Studies Foundation, Inc., University of San Carlos, Cebu City, Philippines.

School attainment is an important aspect of human capital, and a key determinant of long-term health and well-being. Early life deprivation and poor nutritional status are well known predictors of school entry and progression. We examine the persistence of early life influences and subsequent socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) across the multiple school continuation decisions that lead to final school attainment. Read More

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Decreased serum testosterone levels associated with 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in 7-year-old children from a dioxin-exposed area of Vietnam.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 30;783:146701. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Japan.

Since 2008, we have conducted epidemiological cohort studies on the relationship between dioxin exposure and disruption with children in the area sprayed with defoliants during the Vietnam War. In a long-term survey of children through the age of five, we observed androgen disruption due to decreased dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone levels. In this study of 7-year-old, we separately elucidated androgen disruption for boys and girls, and discussed with respect to hormone disruption with sex differences on the steroid hormone biosynthesis process. Read More

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Association of hospitalization with driving reduction and cessation in older adults.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Background: Driving has not been considered as part of the social cost of acute illness and may go unnoticed in the post-hospital care of older adults. Decreases in driving after hospitalization and at-risk populations have not been investigated.

Objective: To determine the association between driving reduction and cessation and hospitalization in older adults by using nationally representative data. Read More

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Liothyronine and Levothyroxine Prescribing in England: A Comprehensive Survey and Evaluation.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Apr 16:e14228. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

The School of Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, England, UK.

Introduction: The approach to thyroid hormone replacement varies across centres but the extent and determinants of variation is unclear. We evaluated geographical variation in levothyroxine (LT4) and liothyronine (LT3) prescribing across General Practices in England and analysed the relationship of prescribing patterns to clinical and socioeconomic factors.

Methods: Data was downloaded from the NHS monthly General Practice Prescribing Data in England for the period 2011-2020. Read More

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Moderate-to-Severe Tobacco Use Disorder and Discrimination among U.S. Sexual Minority Older Adults.

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Center for the Study of Drugs, Alcohol, Smoking and Health, Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Objectives: The dearth of research on age-related differences in risk factors for tobacco use disorder (TUD) among sexual minorities, particularly among older adults, can obscure the differential needs of sexual minority age groups for tobacco prevention and cessation. We examined the association of cumulative ethnic/racial discrimination and sexual orientation discrimination with moderate-to-severe TUD among U.S. Read More

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Trends in Receipt of American Diabetes Association Guideline-Recommended Care Among U.S. Adults With Diabetes: NHANES 2005-2018.

Diabetes Care 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.

Objective: To characterize national trends and characteristics of adults with diabetes receiving American Diabetes Association (ADA) guideline-recommended care.

Research Design And Methods: We performed serial cross-sectional analyses of 4,069 adults aged ≥20 years with diabetes who participated in the 2005-2018 National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES) RESULTS: Overall, the proportion of U.S. Read More

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Quarter of a century of contact lens prescribing trends in the United Kingdom (1996 - 2020).

Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2021 Apr 13:101446. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Optometry and Vision Science, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

Purpose: To document contact lens prescribing trends in the United Kingdom over the past quarter of a century.

Methods: An annual survey of contact lens prescribing was conducted each year from 1996 to 2020, inclusive, by asking a random selection of optometrists and contact lens opticians to provide information relating to 10 consecutive contact lens fits between January and March.

Results: Over the 25 year survey period, 2,671 practitioners returned survey forms, reporting a total of 25,575 contact lens fits. Read More

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COVID-19 Impact on Surgical Resident Education and Coping.

J Surg Res 2021 Feb 11;264:534-543. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Stanford-Surgery Policy Improvement Research and Education (S-SPIRE) Center, Stanford, California; Department of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California. Electronic address:

Background: Healthcare systems and surgical residency training programs have been significantly affected by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A shelter-in-place and social distancing mandate went into effect in our county on March 16, 2020, considerably altering clinical and educational operations. Along with the suspension of elective procedures, resident academic curricula transitioned to an entirely virtual platform. Read More

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February 2021

Pocket ACE: Child sexual abuse survivors missed by the ACEs Study Questionnaire.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Apr 13;117:105049. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Psychology, East Tennessee State University, United States.

Background: A 1998 seminal study catapulted adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) into the zeitgeist and shaped assessment of these experiences and long-term health consequences via The ACEs Study Questionnaire (ACE-SQ). However, the ACE-SQ's childhood sexual abuse (CSA) item requires the perpetrator have been 5-years or older than the survivor for endorsement. This may not adequately capture CSA and limit the questionnaire's ability to detect survivors. Read More

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Mean differences and individual changes in nursing students' attitudes toward statistics: The role of math background and personality traits.

Authors:
F Chiesi F Bruno

Nurse Educ Pract 2021 Mar 26;52:103043. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Regional Neurogenetic Centre (CRN), Department of Primary Care, ASP Catanzaro, Viale A. Perugini, 88046 Lamezia Terme, CZ, Italy. Electronic address:

Nursing students have compulsory statistics courses in their degree program, but they usually have negative attitudes toward statistics that may hinder their learning. The present study aims: (i) to investigate nurse students' attitudes toward statistics and the relationships with mathematical background and personality traits; (ii) to stress individual changes in attitude that occur during the course; and (iii) to explore if mathematical background and personality traits influence these changes. We adopted a one-group pre-post survey study. Read More

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Mental health treatment use among cannabis users aged 50+: Associations with cannabis use characteristics.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Apr 10;223:108705. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Center for Integrated Health Care Research, Kaiser Permanente, Honolulu, HI, 96817, United States.

Background: This study examined associations of mental health treatment use and perceived treatment need with cannabis use characteristics (medical vs. nonmedical use, initiation age, use frequency, and cannabis use disorder) among past-year cannabis users aged 50+.

Methods: Data came from the 2015-2019 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (N = 44,007). Read More

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Development of the Person-Centered Prenatal Care scale for People of Color.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California; Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, & Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco; California Preterm Birth Initiative, University of California, San Francisco.

Background: Given stark disparities in maternal mortality and adverse birth outcomes among Black, Indigenous, and other people of color, there is a need to better understand and measure how individuals from these communities experience their care during pregnancy.

Objectives: To develop and validate a tool that can be used to measure person-centered prenatal care (PCPC) that reflects the experiences of people of color.

Study Design: We followed standard procedures for scale development-integrated with community-based participatory approaches-to adapt a person-centered maternity care scale that was initially developed and validated for intrapartum care in low resource countries to reflect the needs and prenatal care experiences of people of color in the US. Read More

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Physicians' attitude towards webinars and online education amid COVID-19 pandemic: When less is more.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(4):e0250241. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Neurology, Ibn Sina Hospital, Kuwait City, Kuwait.

Background: Since the declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic, all scientific medical activities were shifted to an online format, in the form of webinars, to maintain continuing medical education (CME). We aimed to assess physicians' attitude among different medical specialties towards this sudden and unexpected shift of traditional face-to-face meetings into webinars, and to suggest future recommendations.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, internet-based survey study using a 25-item questionnaire, from November 1 and November 15, 2020. Read More

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Serology, infection, and clinical trachoma as tools in prevalence surveys for re-emergence of trachoma in a formerly hyperendemic district.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 16;15(4):e0009343. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: To eliminate trachoma as a public health problem, countries must achieve a district-level prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) <5% in children ages 1-9 years. Re-emergence of TF could trigger additional rounds of mass drug/antibiotic administration (MDA), so accurate tools for use in surveys assessing trachoma prevalence are essential.

Methodology & Principal Findings: We surveyed 2401 children ages 1-9 years from 50 villages in Kongwa, Tanzania, 2 years post-MDA and 1. Read More

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Arthroscopic Circumferential Acetabular Labral Reconstruction for Irreparable Labra in the Revision Setting: Patient-Reported Outcome Scores and Rate of Achieving the Minimal Clinically Important Difference at a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up.

Am J Sports Med 2021 Apr 16:3635465211005742. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: There is a paucity in the literature reporting patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) after revision hip arthroscopic surgery with circumferential labral reconstruction.

Purpose: To report minimum 2-year PRO scores and the rate of achieving the MCID in patients who underwent revision hip arthroscopic surgery with circumferential labral reconstruction in the setting of irreparable labral tears.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Read More

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Can Antarctica's shallow zoobenthos 'bounce back' from iceberg scouring impacts driven by climate change?

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK.

All coastal systems experience disturbances and many across the planet are under unprecedented threat from an intensification of a variety of stressors. The West Antarctic Peninsula is a hotspot of physical climate change and has experienced a dramatic loss of sea-ice and glaciers in recent years. Among other things, sea-ice immobilizes icebergs, reducing collisions between icebergs and the seabed, thus decreasing ice-scouring. Read More

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An autofluorescence-based survey of late follicular atresia in ovaries of a teleost fish (Thunnus thynnus).

J Fish Biol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Spain.

We examined late atretic follicles in ovaries of Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758), at different times of the year using transmitted light and epifluorescence microscopy. Atresia (degeneration and resorption of developing ovarian follicles) is a natural process involved in fecundity downregulation in teleosts, and is substantially enhanced in stressful conditions. Early (α and β) atretic stages of yolked oocytes have a relatively short duration in seasonally reproducing species, whereas later (γ and δ) atretic follicles (LAF) persist for longer time in the ovary, serving as a sign of previous vitellogenic activity. Read More

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Economics of mental well-being: a prospective study estimating associated health care costs and sickness benefit transfers in Denmark.

Eur J Health Econ 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 2A, 1353, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Previous literature has examined the societal costs of mental illness, but few studies have estimated the costs associated with mental well-being. In this study, a prospective analysis was conducted on Danish data to determine 1) the association between mental well-being (measured in 2016) and government expenditure in 2017, specifially healthcare costs and sickness benefit transfers.

Methods: Data stem from a Danish population-based survey of 3,508 adults (aged 16 + years) in 2016, which was linked to Danish registry data. Read More

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How Nearby Homicides Affect Young Women's Pregnancy Desires: Evidence From a Quasi-Experiment.

Demography 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Leveraging spatiotemporal variation in homicides that occurred during a 2.5-year weekly panel survey of 387 women ages 18-22 in Flint, Michigan, we investigate how young women's desires to become pregnant and to avoid pregnancy evolve in response to local homicides during the transition to adulthood. To address the endogeneity of exposure, we explore how the same woman's pregnancy desires (1) differed, on average, across weeks before and after the first homicide occurred within a quarter mile of her home; (2) evolved in the aftermath of this initial homicide exposure; and (3) changed in response to additional nearby homicides. Read More

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Adrenaline to improve survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: the PARAMEDIC2 RCT.

Health Technol Assess 2021 Apr;25(25):1-166

Warwick Clinical Trials Unit, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Background: Adrenaline has been used as a treatment for cardiac arrest for many years, despite uncertainty about its effects on long-term outcomes and concerns that it may cause worse neurological outcomes.

Objectives: The objectives were to evaluate the effects of adrenaline on survival and neurological outcomes, and to assess the cost-effectiveness of adrenaline use.

Design: This was a pragmatic, randomised, allocation-concealed, placebo-controlled, parallel-group superiority trial and economic evaluation. Read More

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History of health care use and disease burden in older adults with different levels of alcohol use. A register-based cohort study.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Unit of Clinical Alcohol Research, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern, Denmark.

Background: Only a smaller part of all individuals with problematic alcohol use ever seek alcohol treatment. Knowledge of general help-seeking behavior in the health-care system can identify possibilities for prevention and intervention.

Method: The current study described health care use, burden of disease, and prior morbidities over a 15-year-period by current alcohol use behavior among Danish adults aged 60-70. Read More

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Risk factors for infestation by Triatoma dimidiata in a rural locality of Veracruz, Mexico, with active transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi: weather and rain as factors.

Trop Med Int Health 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

LADISER Inmunología y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz, México.

Objective: To analyze the ecological and social factors involved in infestation of houses by T. dimidiata in a rural locality of Veracruz, Mexico, where active transmission of the parasite is occurring.

Methods: A survey was applied to the households of the locality to obtain sociodemographic data. Read More

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[How Often is Rare Really Rare? A Survey on the Frequency of Rare Diseases at a University Hospital].

Gesundheitswesen 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Dresden University Hospital, Dresden, Deutschland.

Aim Of Study: The prevalence of rare diseases in hospitals and in university hospitals is unknown. As the ICD-10 coding system does not adequately represent rare diagnoses, the prevalence of rare diseases cannot be estimated based on ICD-10 coded discharge diagnoses. The current hospital reimbursement system does not seem to be designed to capture performance-related higher expenditures in the treatment of rare diseases. Read More

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Development and validation of the Child Weight Risk Questionnaire.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Psychological Science, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC, 28223, USA.

Purpose: The study objective was to develop and validate a measure of parent perception of child weight-related risk, the Child Weight Risk Questionnaire (CWRQ), among a sample of US parents.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of 216 parents of 6- to 12-year-old children who were overweight. The CWRQ was used to assess parent beliefs about their child's susceptibility to physical, social-emotional, and behavioral health problems due to weight. Read More

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Posterior cruciate ligament repair with suture tape augmentation: a case series with minimum 2-year follow-up.

J Exp Orthop 2021 Apr 15;8(1):28. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.

Purpose: The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is an important stabilizer of the knee and can be damaged in up to 20% of ligamentous injuries. Numerous techniques for surgical treatment have been described in the literature with none shown to be clearly superior. The aim of this study was to assess the 2-year outcomes of PCL repair with suture tape augmentation. Read More

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Effect of Interprofessional Clinical Debates on Attitudes of Interprofessional Teams.

PRiMER 2021 7;5:14. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Huntsville, AL.

Introduction: Current evidence supports the notion of debates as a pedagogical method to teach literature evaluation skills in health care education; however, there are no reports of this method as an interprofessional approach and its potential benefits. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of interprofessional clinical debates on attitudes toward interprofessional teamwork and perceived literature evaluation skills.

Methods: We invited third-year family medicine residents and fourth-year pharmacy students to complete a survey before and after participating in an interprofessional clinical debate. Read More

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Third-Year Medical Students' Self-perceived Knowledge About Health Disparities and Community Medicine.

PRiMER 2021 25;5. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.

Introduction: Medical providers' attitudes about caring for vulnerable populations have significant implications for persistent health disparities. Therefore, assessing medical students' self-perceived knowledge about community-based medicine and care for underserved populations can provide insights for improving health care delivery to achieve health equity. We evaluated third-year medical students' perceptions of their knowledge and attitudes about community medicine, and addressing health care needs of vulnerable populations. Read More

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February 2021