14,297 results match your criteria surveillance latent


Multimorbidity patterns and their related characteristics in European older adults: A longitudinal perspective.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2021 May 4;95:104428. Epub 2021 May 4.

Research Group on Aging, Disability and Health, Girona Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBGI), Catalonia, Spain; Institut d'Assistència Sanitària, Catalonia, Spain; Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Girona, Catalonia, Spain.

Background: The concurrence of several chronic conditions is a rising concern that poses a serious burden on ageing populations. Analysing how these conditions appear together and how they change through time may provide useful information to design successful multimorbidity-management programs.

Objective: To identify multimorbidity patterns and their related characteristics from a longitudinal perspective. Read More

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Relationships between patterns of technology-based weight-related self-monitoring and eating disorder behaviors among first year university students.

Eat Behav 2021 May 8;42:101520. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States of America.

Objective: To identify patterns of technology-based weight-related self-monitoring (WRSM) and assess associations between identified patterns and eating disorder behaviors among first year university students.

Methods: First year university students (n = 647) completed a web-based survey to assess their use of technology-based WRSM and eating disorder behaviors. The cross-sectional data were analyzed using gender-stratified latent class analysis to identify patterns of WRSM, followed by logistic regression to calculate the predicted probability of eating disorder behaviors for each pattern of WRSM. Read More

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The impact of the State Innovation Models Initiative on population health.

Econ Hum Biol 2021 May 5;42:101013. Epub 2021 May 5.

Visiting Nurse Service of New York, 220 East 42 Street, Floor 7, New York, NY 10017, United States.

In this paper, we examine the effects of the State Innovation Models Initiative (SIM) on population-level health status. SIM provided $250 million to six states in 2013 for broad delivery system reforms. We use data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for the years 2010-2016. Read More

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Characterization of geographic mobility among participants in facility- and community-based tuberculosis case finding in urban Uganda.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0251806. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: International and internal migration are recognized risk factors for tuberculosis (TB). Geographic mobility, including travel for work, education, or personal reasons, may also play a role in TB transmission, but this relationship is poorly defined. We aimed to define geographic mobility among participants in facility- and community-based TB case finding in Kampala, Uganda, and to assess associations between mobility, access to care, and TB disease. Read More

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Children's oral health-related behaviours and early childhood caries: A latent class analysis.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Division of Pediatric and Public Health, Adams School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Objective: In this cross-sectional study in a large community-based sample of preschool-age children, we sought to identify distinct clusters of modifiable early childhood oral health-related behaviours (OHBs) and quantify their association with clinical and parent-reported measures of early childhood oral health.

Methods: We relied upon a questionnaire (n = 8033; 11% in Spanish) and clinical oral health data (n = 6404; early childhood caries [ECC] prevalence = 54%] collected in the context of an epidemiologic study of early childhood oral health among 3- to 5-year-old children in North Carolina. Latent class analysis was used to identify clusters of modifiable OHBs based on parents' responses to 6 questionnaire items pertaining to their children's oral hygiene, diet and dental home. Read More

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Excessive Unbalanced Meat Consumption in the First Year of Life Increases Asthma Risk in the PASTURE and LUKAS2 Birth Cohorts.

Front Immunol 2021 27;12:651709. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Munich, Germany.

A higher diversity of food items introduced in the first year of life has been inversely related to subsequent development of asthma. In the current analysis, we applied latent class analysis (LCA) to systematically assess feeding patterns and to relate them to asthma risk at school age. PASTURE (N=1133) and LUKAS2 (N=228) are prospective birth cohort studies designed to evaluate protective and risk factors for atopic diseases, including dietary patterns. Read More

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Cost-effectiveness analysis of 3 months of weekly rifapentine and isoniazid compared to isoniazid monotherapy in a Canadian arctic setting.

BMJ Open 2021 May 13;11(5):e047514. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: To assess the cost effectiveness of once weekly rifapentine and isoniazid for 12 weeks (3HP) to the current standard care for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) in Iqaluit, Nunavut.

Design: A cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov model reflecting local practices for LTBI treatment.

Setting: A remote Canadian arctic community with a high incidence of TB. Read More

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Latent leprosy infection identified by dual RLEP and anti-PGL-I positivity: Implications for new control strategies.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251631. Epub 2021 May 13.

Colorado State University, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Mycobacteria Research Laboratories, Fort Collins, CO, Unites States of America.

The number of new cases of leprosy reported worldwide has remained essentially unchanged for the last decade despite continued global use of free multidrug therapy (MDT) provided to any diagnosed leprosy patient. In order to more effectively interrupt the chain of transmission, new strategies will be required to detect those with latent disease who contribute to furthering transmission. To improve the ability to diagnose leprosy earlier in asymptomatic infected individuals, we examined the combined use of two well-known biomarkers of M. Read More

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PMN-MDSC Frequency Discriminates Active Versus Latent Tuberculosis and Could Play a Role in Counteracting the Immune-Mediated Lung Damage in Active Disease.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:594376. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Laboratory of Cellular Immunology and Pharmacology, National Institute for infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani"-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Tuberculosis (TB), due to infection, is still the principal cause of death caused by a single infectious agent. The balance between the bacillus and host defense mechanisms reflects the different manifestations of the pathology. Factors defining this variety are unclear and likely involve both mycobacterial and immunological components. Read More

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Trajectories of work ability from mid-life to pensionable age and their association with retirement timing.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Public Health, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Background: This study aimed to identify the trajectories of work ability over 16 years preceding the individual pensionable age and to examine the association with retirement timing.

Methods: The study population consisted of 2612 public sector employees from the Finnish Retirement and Aging study and the Finnish Public Sector study. Participants were grouped into 'no-extension' (retired at the individual pensionable date or worked no longer than 6 months after that date) and 'extension' (worked more than 6 months after individual pensionable age). Read More

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Forecasting the SARS COVID-19 pandemic and critical care resources threshold in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries: population analysis of aggregate data.

BMJ Open 2021 05 11;11(5):e044102. Epub 2021 May 11.

Social Statistics and Demography, and Centre for Global Health and Policy, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK

Objective: To generate cross-national forecasts of COVID-19 trajectories and quantify the associated impact on essential critical care resources for disease management in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries.

Design: Population-level aggregate analysis.

Setting: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Saudi Arabia. Read More

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Blood-based biomarkers and long-term risk of frailty - experience from the Swedish AMORIS cohort.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Unit of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Frailty is associated with reduced quality of life, poor health outcomes, and death. Past studies have investigated how specific biomarkers are associated with frailty but understanding biomarkers in concert with each other and the associated risk of frailty is critical for clinical application.

Methods: Using a sample aged ≥59 years at baseline from the Swedish AMORIS cohort (n=19341), with biomarkers measured at baseline (1985-1996), we conducted latent class analysis with 18 biomarkers and used Cox models to determine the association between class and frailty and all-cause mortality. Read More

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Trajectories of peer relationship problems and emotional symptoms in children 5 years after a nuclear disaster: Fukushima Health Management Survey.

J Radiat Res 2021 May;62(Supplement_1):i114-i121

Radiation Medical Science Center for the Fukushima Health Management Survey, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan.

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) accident, which occurred in March 2011, is having long-term effects on children. About 3 years after the accident, we identified three patterns of peer relationship problems and four patterns of emotional symptoms using group-based trajectory modeling. As a result, we reported that different factors might be related to very severe trajectories of peer relationship problems and emotional symptoms. Read More

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Gaps in TB preventive therapy for persons initiating antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: an explanatory sequential cascade analysis.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2021 May;25(5):388-394

Department of Epidemiology and Department of Social & Behavioral Sciences, School of Global Public Health, New York University, NY, USA.

The WHO recommends TB symptom screening and TB preventive therapy (TPT) for latent TB infection (LTBI) in persons living with HIV (PLWH). However, TPT uptake remains limited. We aimed to characterize and contextualize gaps in the TPT care cascade among persons enrolling for antiretroviral therapy (ART). Read More

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Patterns of Sex Work Client Solicitation Settings and Associations with HIV/STI Risk Among a Cohort of Female Sex Workers in Baltimore, Maryland.

AIDS Behav 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 624 N Broadway Street, Hampton House Suite 749, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Female sex workers' (FSWs) risk for HIV/STIs is influenced by their work environments. While previous research has characterized vulnerability in a single workplace, many FSWs solicit clients from multiple settings. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we examined client solicitation patterns and associated HIV/STI-related behaviors (consistent condom use with clients, asking clients about HIV/STIs, and past 6-month HIV/STI testing) among 385 FSWs in Baltimore, Maryland. Read More

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Determinants of verbal fluency trajectories among older adults from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2021 May 8:1-10. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.

Background: Prevalence of dementia and cognitive impairment increase creating the need for identifying modifiable risk factors to reduce their burden. The aim of this study was to identify latent groups following similar trajectories in cognitive performance assessed with the verbal fluency test, as well as their determinants.

Methods: Data from English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) were studied. Read More

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Decreases in reported Sexually Transmitted Infections during the time of COVID-19 in King County, WA: Decreased transmission or screening?

Sex Transm Dis 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Public Health - Seattle and King County, Seattle, WA Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Background: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Washington State's Stay Home, Stay Healthy (SHSH) order was implemented on 3/24/2020. We hypothesized that pandemic mitigation measures might reduce sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening and/or transmission.

Methods: We used King County, WA STI surveillance and sexual health clinic (SHC) data from 1/1/2019-7/31/2020. Read More

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Work-related burnout among personnel at a university hospital: identifying quantitative and qualitative differences using latent class analysis.

J Ment Health 2021 May 8:1-12. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Psychiatry, Community Psychiatry Service, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Burnout among hospital personnel is frequent and has impacts on the quality of care. Monitoring is important, but there is a lack of specificity for individual patterns of burnout syndromes.

Aims: This study aimed to identify specific burnout profiles in a hospital setting. Read More

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Sex- specific clustering of metabolic syndrome components and incidence of cardiovascular disease: A latent class analysis in a population-based cohort study.

J Diabetes Complications 2021 Apr 26:107942. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is rapidly increasing in the world; also, the importance of management of MetS to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been recognized worldwide. This study aimed to explore the clusters of participants based on MetS components and its association with CVD outcomes.

Methods: We included 2598 middle-aged participants (1545 women and 1053 men), 45-65 years old, at baseline and without prior CVD history. Read More

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Identification of distinct clinical subphenotypes in critically ill patients with COVID-19.

Chest 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Division, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Subphenotypes have been identified in patients with sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and are associated with different outcomes and response to therapies.

Research Question: Can unique subphenotypes be identified among critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Study Design: & Methods: Using data from a multicenter cohort study that enrolled critically ill patients with COVID-19 from 67 hospitals across the United States, we randomly divided centers into Discovery and Replication cohorts. We utilized latent class analysis independently in each cohort to identify subphenotypes based on clinical and laboratory variables. Read More

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Psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS).

Body Image 2021 May 4;38:210-218. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Centre for Psychological Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS; Alleva et al., 2017) is a widely used instrument for the measurement of individual's appreciation of their body for what it can do and is capable of doing (i.e. Read More

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Early childhood weight gain: Latent patterns and body composition outcomes.

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.

Background: Despite early childhood weight gain being a key indicator of obesity risk, we do not have a good understanding of the different patterns that exist.

Objectives: To identify and characterise distinct groups of children displaying similar early-life weight trajectories.

Methods: A growth mixture model captured heterogeneity in weight trajectories between 0 and 60 months in 1390 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Read More

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[Current approach to diagnosis of chronic prostatitis].

Urologiia 2021 May(2):32-39

TB Research Institute of Ministry of Health of Russia, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Introduction: The problem of chronic prostatitis is still to be resolved.

Aim: to compare the frequency of the main symptoms (pain, dysuria, sexual dysfunction) in patients with chronic bacterial and abacterial prostatitis, as well as prostate tuberculosis (PTB); to determine the prevalence of latent infectious prostatitis in patients with chronic abacterial prostatitis (CAP).

Materials And Methods: A total 73 men who were followed with a diagnosis of chronic prostatitis for at least two years and had a history of at least three exacerbations per year were included in the study. Read More

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Lymphocyte Non-Specific Function Detection Facilitating the Stratification of Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:641378. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Inadequate tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics, especially for discrimination between active TB (ATB) and latent TB infection (LTBI), are major hurdle in the reduction of the disease burden. The present study aims to investigate the role of lymphocyte non-specific function detection for TB diagnosis in clinical practice.

Methods: A total of 208 participants including 49 ATB patients, 64 LTBI individuals, and 95 healthy controls were recruited at Tongji hospital from January 2019 to October 2020. Read More

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Comparisons of Serologic Responses of Early Syphilis to Treatment with a Single-Dose Benzathine Penicillin G Between HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Patients.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, Taiwan.

Introduction: Poorer serologic responses of early syphilis to treatment have been inconsistently reported in HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, but the interpretation of previous studies is limited by discrepant study designs. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on the treatment response to a single dose of benzathine penicillin G (BPG) for early syphilis.

Methods: From January 2015 to March 2020, adult patients with early syphilis who received a single dose of BPG were enrolled and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers were periodically determined. Read More

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Measuring the size and decay dynamics of the HIV-1 latent reservoir.

Cell Rep Med 2021 Apr 20;2(4):100249. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA.

Measuring HIV-1 latent reservoir is essential for HIV-1 cure strategies. Levy et al. developed a multiplex droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay-5-target intact proviral DNA assay-to detect multiple regions of HIV-1 proviral genome and increase accuracy. Read More

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Differential Co-Occurring Patterns Between Depressive Symptomatology and Sleep-Wake-Related Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

Nat Sci Sleep 2021 27;13:503-514. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Purpose: This study aimed to elucidate the various co-occurring patterns of depressive symptomatology and sleep-wake-related disturbances (SWRDs) in patients with mood disorders.

Patients And Methods: Individuals in non-acute states of major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder were recruited. The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) was utilized to evaluate depressive symptoms. Read More

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Dissecting the heterogeneity of posttraumatic stress disorder: differences in polygenic risk, stress exposures, and course of PTSD subtypes.

Psychol Med 2021 May 5:1-9. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Background: Definition of disorder subtypes may facilitate precision treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We aimed to identify PTSD subtypes and evaluate their associations with genetic risk factors, types of stress exposures, comorbidity, and course of PTSD.

Methods: Data came from a prospective study of three U. Read More

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