141 results match your criteria surplus dairy

Review: International trade in animal products and the place of the European Union: main trends over the last 20 years.

V Chatellier

Animal 2021 Jul 23:100289. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

INRAE, UMR SMART-LERECO, Rue de la Géraudière, 44300 Nantes, France. Electronic address:

This article presents an analysis of the evolution of international trade in animal products over the period 2000 to 2018, using customs data from the "BACI" database. Firstly, this article presents the evolution of global trade in animal products for the top five exporting countries (in decreasing order: the European Union (EU), the United States, New Zealand, Brazil and Australia) and then for the two largest importers (China and Japan). It then looks at the world trade situation for four major animal products: poultry meat, pig meat, beef and dairy products. Read More

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Data inaccessibility at sub-county scale limits implementation of manuresheds.

J Environ Qual 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI, 53705.

The manureshed concept aims to rebalance surplus manure nutrients produced at animal feeding operations (sources) and the demands from nutrient-deficient croplands (sinks) to reduce negative environmental impacts and utilize nutrients more efficiently. Due to water quality implications, studies focused on this re-balancing have typically created domain boundaries that match a particular watershed. However, a majority of agricultural datasets that are used to inform these analyses - specifically, livestock populations - are only available at the county scale, which generally do not match watershed boundaries. Read More

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Metabolic and endocrine responses to short-term nutrient imbalances in the feed ration of mid-lactation dairy cows.

Animal 2021 Jul 25;15(7):100306. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Veterinary Physiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

Short-term imbalances of dietary nutrients occur during natural fluctuations in roughage quality (e.g. on pasture) or temporal shortages of supplementary feed components. Read More

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The Combined Influence of Magnesium and Insulin on Central Metabolic Functions and Expression of Genes Involved in Magnesium Homeostasis of Cultured Bovine Adipocytes.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 31;22(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

Institute of Veterinary Physiology, Freie Universität Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany.

At the onset of lactation, dairy cows suffer from insulin resistance, insulin deficiency or both, similar to human diabetes, resulting in lipolysis, ketosis and fatty liver. This work explored the combined effects of different levels of magnesium (0.1, 0. Read More

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A Review of Beef Production Systems for the Sustainable Use of Surplus Male Dairy-Origin Calves Within the UK.

Front Vet Sci 2021 27;8:635497. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queens University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.

The UK dairy herd is predominantly of the Holstein-Friesian (HF) breed, with a major emphasis placed on milk yield. Subsequently, following years of continued single-trait selection, the beef production potential of dairy bred calves has declined. Thus, male HF calves are commonly seen as a by-product of the dairy industry. Read More

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Feeding high amounts of almond hulls to lactating cows.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Aug 10;104(8):8846-8856. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis 95616. Electronic address:

California is the leading state for the production of almonds, with more than 400,000 bearing hectares of orchards that produced approximately 1 billion kilograms of shelled nuts in 2017. Almond hulls (AH) are a regional by-product feedstuff fed predominantly to dairy cattle in California. A 2012 study surveyed 40 dairy farms in California and found that 39 out of 104 total mixed rations contained AH, with a mean daily feeding rate of 1. Read More

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-palmitoleic acid reduces adiposity via increased lipolysis in a rodent model of diet-induced obesity.

Br J Nutr 2021 May 7:1-9. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratorio de Enfermedades Metabólicas, Obesidad y Diabetes, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (HIMFG), Mexico City, Mexico.

Obesity is defined as increased adiposity, which leads to metabolic disease. The growth of adipose tissue depends on its capacity to expand through hyperplasia or hypertrophy, in order to buffer energy surplus. Also, during the establishment of obesity, adipose tissue expansion reflects adipose lipid metabolism (lipogenesis and/or lipolysis). Read More

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The Dispensable Surplus Dairy Calf: Is This Issue a "Wicked Problem" and Where Do We Go From Here?

Front Vet Sci 2021 14;8:660934. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Animal Welfare Program, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Surplus dairy calves consist of all dairy bull calves and any heifer calves not needed as replacements for the milking herd. The fate of these surplus calves varies by region; for example, in Australia and New Zealand they are often sold as "bobby" calves and slaughtered within the first weeks of life; whereas, in North America they are normally sold within the first weeks of life but reared for 16-18 weeks as veal or longer as dairy beef. Regardless of region, demand for these calves is often very low, driving down prices and in some cases leaving farmers with no alternative options other than on-farm euthanasia. Read More

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Factors Affecting the Welfare of Unweaned Dairy Calves Destined for Early Slaughter and Abattoir Animal-Based Indicators Reflecting Their Welfare On-Farm.

Front Vet Sci 2021 16;8:645537. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Teagasc, Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.

In many dairy industries, but particularly those that are pasture-based and have seasonal calving, "surplus calves," which are mostly male, are killed at a young age because they are of low value and it is not economically viable to raise them. Such calves are either killed on farm soon after birth or sent for slaughter at an abattoir. In countries where calves are sent for slaughter the age ranges from 3-4 days (New Zealand and Australia; "bobby calves") to 3-4 weeks (e. Read More

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Greenhouse gas emissions and nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows of divergent economic breeding index under seasonal pasture-based management.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jul 30;104(7):8039-8049. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Teagasc, Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, P61 C996, Ireland. Electronic address:

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and nitrogen (N) efficiencies were modeled for 2 genetic groups (GG) of Holstein-Friesian cows across 3 contrasting feeding treatments (FT). The 2 GG were (1) high economic breeding index (EBI) animals representative of the top 5% of cows nationally (elite) and (2) EBI representative of the national average (NA). The FT represented (1) generous feeding of pasture, (2) a slight restriction in pasture allowance, and (3) a high-concentrate feeding system with adequate pasture allowance. Read More

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Perspectives on the Management of Surplus Dairy Calves in the United States and Canada.

Front Vet Sci 2021 13;8:661453. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

The care of surplus dairy calves is a significant issue for the United States and Canadian dairy industries. Surplus dairy calves commonly experience poor welfare as evidenced by high levels of mortality and morbidity, and negative affective states resulting from limited opportunities to express natural behaviors. Many of these challenges are a result of a disaggregated production system, beginning with calf management at the dairy farm of origin and ending at a calf-raising facility, with some calves experiencing long-distance transportation and commingling at auction markets or assembly yards in the interim. Read More

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Genetic consequences of terminal crossbreeding, genomic test, sexed semen, and beef semen in dairy herds.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jul 2;104(7):8062-8075. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7023, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden.

The development of breeding tools, such as genomic selection and sexed semen, has progressed rapidly in dairy cattle breeding during the past decades. In combination with beef semen, these tools are adopted increasingly at herd level. Dairy crossbreeding is emerging, but the economic and genetic consequences of combining it with the other breeding tools are relatively unknown. Read More

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Sire Effects on Carcass of Beef-Cross-Dairy Cattle: A Case Study in New Zealand.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Feb 27;11(3). Epub 2021 Feb 27.

School of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.

There is interest in increasing the carcass value of surplus calves born in the dairy industry that are reared for beef production in New Zealand. This experiment evaluated the carcass of Angus and Hereford sires via progeny testing of beef-cross-dairy offspring grown on hill country pasture. Weight and carcass traits were analyzed from 1015 animals and 1000 carcasses of 73 sires. Read More

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February 2021

Invited review: Beef-on-dairy-The generation of crossbred beef × dairy cattle.

D P Berry

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 2;104(4):3789-3819. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Teagasc, Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy P61 P302, Co. Cork, Ireland. Electronic address:

Because a growing proportion of the beef output in many countries originates from dairy herds, the most critical decisions about the genetic merit of most carcasses harvested are being made by dairy producers. Interest in the generation of more valuable calves from dairy females is intensifying, and the most likely vehicle is the use of appropriately selected beef bulls for mating to the dairy females. This is especially true given the growing potential to undertake more beef × dairy matings as herd metrics improve (e. Read More

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A Perspective on the Use of Sexed Semen to Reduce the Number of Surplus Male Dairy Calves in Ireland: A Pilot Study.

Front Vet Sci 2020 15;7:623128. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

The production of surplus male offspring illustrates a socioethical concern in the dairy industry. In this article, we highlight the animal health and welfare implications of production outputs for surplus dairy calves, namely veal production, dairy calf to beef production, and euthanasia. Moreover, we present a pilot study focus on exploring the perception of key industry actors within the dairy industry in Ireland regarding the use of sexed semen as a mitigation strategy to reduce the production of surplus male dairy calves. Read More

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February 2021

Screening of frozen-thawed conditions for keeping nutritive compositions and physicochemical characteristics of goat milk.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 19;104(4):4108-4118. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Frozen milk can help producers overcome the seasonality of goat milk production, low goat production and short lactation periods, and avoid discarding milk during some special periods. We investigated effects of combination between freezing (cryogenic refrigerator of -16 to -20°C or ultra-cryogenic refrigerator of -76 to -80°C) and thawing (homeothermy of 20 to 25°C or refrigeration of 2 to 4°C) on nutritive compositions and physicochemical characteristics of raw goat milk during storage period (80 d). Compared with fresh goat milk, the frozen-thawed milk decreased contents of fat, protein, and lactose, as well as surface tension and stability coefficient, whereas increased effective diameter and polydispersity index. Read More

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Proteins Derived from the Dairy Losses and By-Products as Raw Materials for Non-Food Applications.

Foods 2021 Jan 10;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 10.

CBQF-Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina-Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Rua Diogo Botelho 1327, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal.

The disposal of a high volume of waste-containing proteins is becoming increasingly challenging in a society that is aware of what is happening in the environment. The dairy industry generates several by-products that contain vast amounts of compounds, including proteins that are of industrial importance and for which new uses are being sought. This article provides a comprehensive review of the potential of the valorisation of proteins that can be recovered by chemical and/or physical processes from protein-containing milk by-products or milk surplus, particularly whey proteins or caseins. Read More

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January 2021

Bacterial and fungal contaminants in caprine and ovine cheese: A meta-analysis assessment.

Food Res Int 2020 11 17;137:109445. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Food Sciences and Nutrition, University of Malta, Msida, Malta; Centre of Molecular Medicine and Biobanking, University of Malta, Msida, Malta.

The dairy industry is of great importance to the European economy contributing towards € 8.7 billion of the total trade surplus. Caprine and ovine milk amount to 3. Read More

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November 2020

Farmer's participatory approach for breed improvement in Malpura sheep.

J Anim Breed Genet 2021 Jul 26;138(4):403-417. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

ICAR-Central Sheep & Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar, Rajasthan, India.

The objective of the study was to propose a model for a community-based breeding programme (CBBP) in Malpura sheep. The study was carried out for nine years (2012-2018) in 31 villages covering 77 flocks. The average flock size was 54. Read More

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A review of simulation analyses of economics and genetics for the use of in-vitro produced embryos and artificial insemination in dairy herds.

Anim Reprod 2020 Aug 11;17(3):e20200020. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

The use of in-vitro produced (IVP) embryo transfer (ET) in dairy herds is growing fast. Much of this growth is on dairy farms where the focus is on milk production and not on selling breeding stock. The value of implementing IVP-ET in a dairy herd arises from a higher genetic merit of the IVP-embryo, but the cost to produce a pregnancy with an IVP embryo is greater than the cost of artificial insemination (AI). Read More

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The state of phosphorus balance on 58 Virginia dairy farms.

J Environ Qual 2020 Mar 4;49(2):324-334. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

School of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA.

Managing a sustainable dairy farm requires balancing phosphorus (P) imports and exports that enter and leave through the farm gate. Over the long term, P surpluses will elevate soil-test P concentrations above crop requirements through routine land applications of manure. The objectives of this study were aimed at Virginia dairy farms (a) to determine P mass balances, (b) to define potential guidelines for a sustainable and feasible zone of operation based on P balance and P use efficiency, and (c) to assess risk factors driving P surplus and P use inefficiencies. Read More

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Milk fat: opportunities, challenges and innovation.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 10;61(14):2411-2443. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Food Chemistry and Technology Department, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland.

Milk fat is a high-value milk component that is processed mainly as butter, cheese, cream and whole milk powder. It is projected that approximately 35 million tonnes of milk fat will be produced globally by 2025. This surplus, enhances the need for diversification of milk fat products and the milk pool in general. Read More

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Establishing nationally representative benchmarks of farm-gate nitrogen and phosphorus balances and use efficiencies on Irish farms to encourage improvements.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 12;720:137245. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Environment and Sustainable Resource Management Section, School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland; UCD Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address:

Agriculture faces considerable challenges of achieving more sustainable production that minimises nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses and meets international obligations for water quality and greenhouse gas emissions. This must involve reducing nutrient balance (NB) surpluses and increasing nutrient use efficiencies (NUEs), which could also improve farm profitability (a win-win). To set targets and motivate improvements in Ireland, nationally representative benchmarks were established for different farm categories (sector, soil group and production intensity). Read More

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Modelling environmental technical efficiency and phosphorus pollution abatement cost in dairy farms.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Apr 16;714:136690. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Teagasc, Rural Economy and Development Centre, Co Galway, Ireland.

The dairy sector is an important sector in Northern Ireland being the single largest contributor to its agricultural economy. However, the sector contributes more to soil phosphorus (P) surplus compared to other agricultural sectors. Consequently, the goal of this research is to analyse the environmental technical efficiency of dairy farms making use of a novel parametric hyperbolic distance function approach. Read More

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Eutrophication and climate change impacts of a case study of New Zealand beef to the European market.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Mar 14;710:136120. Epub 2019 Dec 14.

AgResearch Limited, Hamilton, New Zealand.

Objective: Beef production in the Lake Taupō region of New Zealand (NZ) is regulated for nitrogen (N) leaching. The objectives of this study were to 1) evaluate the implications of nitrogen emission limitations on eutrophication and climate change impacts of NZ beef through its life cycle to a European market and uniquely link it to 2) estimation of the reduction in these impacts that can be funded by the consumer's willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for a low environmental-impact product.

Method: The cradle-to-market Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of NZ beef on the European market included beef production on farms, meat processing, packaging and transport stages. Read More

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Production intensification and animal health expenditure on dairy farms in New Zealand.

J Dairy Sci 2020 Feb 20;103(2):1598-1607. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Department of Global Value Chains and Trade, Faculty of Agribusiness and Commerce, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Although previous studies have investigated the effects of production intensification on farm economic performance and production efficiency in the dairy sector, knowledge is currently lacking on how intensification is related to farmer activities directed toward animal health outcomes. This study addresses the gap in the literature. A fixed-effects model estimated with a panel data set from New Zealand dairy farms is used to analyze the relationship between feed use intensification and animal health expenditure, controlling for a range of confounding effects. Read More

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February 2020

Economic consequences of dairy crossbreeding in conventional and organic herds in Sweden.

J Dairy Sci 2020 Jan 14;103(1):514-528. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Department of Animal Science, Aarhus University, Blichers Allé 20, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark.

This study simulated the consequences of crossbreeding between Swedish Holstein and Swedish Red on herd dynamics and herd profitability under Swedish conditions. Two base herds were simulated using a stochastic herd simulation model, SimHerd Crossbred. The herds reflected average Swedish conventional and organic herds having purebred Swedish Holstein. Read More

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January 2020

Potential Evaluation and Health Fostering Intrinsic Traits of Novel Probiotic Strain F3 Isolated from the Gut of Fresh Water Fish .

Food Sci Anim Resour 2019 Oct 31;39(5):844-861. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Hail, Hail 2440, Saudi Arabia.

Over the last few years, marine environment was found to be a source of surplus natural products and microorganisms with new bioactive secondary metabolites of interest which can divulge nutritional and biological impact on the host. This study aims to assess the possible, inherent and functional probiotic properties of a novel probiotic strain F3 ( F3) isolated from the gut of fresh water fish . Parameters for evaluating and describing the probiotics described in FAD/WHO guidelines were followed. Read More

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October 2019

A quantitative case study assessment of biophysical and economic effects from altering season of calving in temperate pasture-based dairy systems.

J Dairy Sci 2019 Dec 20;102(12):11523-11535. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

DairyNZ, Private Bag 3221, Hamilton, New Zealand 3240; School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Electronic address:

In theory, a late winter-early spring calving date in temperate grazing systems best matches pasture supply and herd demand, thereby minimizing the need for nonpasture feeds and maximizing profitability. We used a quantitative case study approach to define the effects of season of calving on biophysical and financial performance in a grazing system without the confounding effects of imported feeds (i.e. Read More

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December 2019

The complex relationship between welfare and reproduction in cattle.

Reprod Domest Anim 2019 Sep;54 Suppl 3:29-37

Animal Welfare Program, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Using reproduction parameters as indicators for cattle welfare has limitations and, at best, these parameters should only be viewed as indirect indicators of welfare. On a farm level, measures such as fertility rates emphasize biological performance of the herd but fail to consider the welfare of individual animals. Even on an individual level, the relationship between reproductive effectiveness and animal welfare is complex. Read More

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September 2019