32 results match your criteria surplus calves

A Review of Beef Production Systems for the Sustainable Use of Surplus Male Dairy-Origin Calves Within the UK.

Front Vet Sci 2021 27;8:635497. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queens University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.

The UK dairy herd is predominantly of the Holstein-Friesian (HF) breed, with a major emphasis placed on milk yield. Subsequently, following years of continued single-trait selection, the beef production potential of dairy bred calves has declined. Thus, male HF calves are commonly seen as a by-product of the dairy industry. Read More

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The Dispensable Surplus Dairy Calf: Is This Issue a "Wicked Problem" and Where Do We Go From Here?

Front Vet Sci 2021 14;8:660934. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Animal Welfare Program, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Surplus dairy calves consist of all dairy bull calves and any heifer calves not needed as replacements for the milking herd. The fate of these surplus calves varies by region; for example, in Australia and New Zealand they are often sold as "bobby" calves and slaughtered within the first weeks of life; whereas, in North America they are normally sold within the first weeks of life but reared for 16-18 weeks as veal or longer as dairy beef. Regardless of region, demand for these calves is often very low, driving down prices and in some cases leaving farmers with no alternative options other than on-farm euthanasia. Read More

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Factors Affecting the Welfare of Unweaned Dairy Calves Destined for Early Slaughter and Abattoir Animal-Based Indicators Reflecting Their Welfare On-Farm.

Front Vet Sci 2021 16;8:645537. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Teagasc, Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.

In many dairy industries, but particularly those that are pasture-based and have seasonal calving, "surplus calves," which are mostly male, are killed at a young age because they are of low value and it is not economically viable to raise them. Such calves are either killed on farm soon after birth or sent for slaughter at an abattoir. In countries where calves are sent for slaughter the age ranges from 3-4 days (New Zealand and Australia; "bobby calves") to 3-4 weeks (e. Read More

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Perspectives on the Management of Surplus Dairy Calves in the United States and Canada.

Front Vet Sci 2021 13;8:661453. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

The care of surplus dairy calves is a significant issue for the United States and Canadian dairy industries. Surplus dairy calves commonly experience poor welfare as evidenced by high levels of mortality and morbidity, and negative affective states resulting from limited opportunities to express natural behaviors. Many of these challenges are a result of a disaggregated production system, beginning with calf management at the dairy farm of origin and ending at a calf-raising facility, with some calves experiencing long-distance transportation and commingling at auction markets or assembly yards in the interim. Read More

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Sire Effects on Carcass of Beef-Cross-Dairy Cattle: A Case Study in New Zealand.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Feb 27;11(3). Epub 2021 Feb 27.

School of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.

There is interest in increasing the carcass value of surplus calves born in the dairy industry that are reared for beef production in New Zealand. This experiment evaluated the carcass of Angus and Hereford sires via progeny testing of beef-cross-dairy offspring grown on hill country pasture. Weight and carcass traits were analyzed from 1015 animals and 1000 carcasses of 73 sires. Read More

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February 2021

Invited review: Beef-on-dairy-The generation of crossbred beef × dairy cattle.

D P Berry

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 2;104(4):3789-3819. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Teagasc, Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy P61 P302, Co. Cork, Ireland. Electronic address:

Because a growing proportion of the beef output in many countries originates from dairy herds, the most critical decisions about the genetic merit of most carcasses harvested are being made by dairy producers. Interest in the generation of more valuable calves from dairy females is intensifying, and the most likely vehicle is the use of appropriately selected beef bulls for mating to the dairy females. This is especially true given the growing potential to undertake more beef × dairy matings as herd metrics improve (e. Read More

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A Perspective on the Use of Sexed Semen to Reduce the Number of Surplus Male Dairy Calves in Ireland: A Pilot Study.

Front Vet Sci 2020 15;7:623128. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

The production of surplus male offspring illustrates a socioethical concern in the dairy industry. In this article, we highlight the animal health and welfare implications of production outputs for surplus dairy calves, namely veal production, dairy calf to beef production, and euthanasia. Moreover, we present a pilot study focus on exploring the perception of key industry actors within the dairy industry in Ireland regarding the use of sexed semen as a mitigation strategy to reduce the production of surplus male dairy calves. Read More

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February 2021

A review of simulation analyses of economics and genetics for the use of in-vitro produced embryos and artificial insemination in dairy herds.

Anim Reprod 2020 Aug 11;17(3):e20200020. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

The use of in-vitro produced (IVP) embryo transfer (ET) in dairy herds is growing fast. Much of this growth is on dairy farms where the focus is on milk production and not on selling breeding stock. The value of implementing IVP-ET in a dairy herd arises from a higher genetic merit of the IVP-embryo, but the cost to produce a pregnancy with an IVP embryo is greater than the cost of artificial insemination (AI). Read More

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Lions Prefer Killing Certain Cattle Types.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Apr 16;10(4). Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Eugène Marais Chair of Wildlife Management, Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa.

Lion predation on cattle causes severe human-wildlife conflict that results in retaliatory persecution throughout the lion's geographic range. Cattle closely resemble the body size, shape, and herding patterns of preferred lion prey species. We studied cattle depredation patterns in Botswana's Okavango Delta and tested whether lions exhibited specific preferences based on cattle demographic characteristics (sex and age), as well as morphological traits (body mass, horn length, and pelage patterns). Read More

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Eutrophication and climate change impacts of a case study of New Zealand beef to the European market.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Mar 14;710:136120. Epub 2019 Dec 14.

AgResearch Limited, Hamilton, New Zealand.

Objective: Beef production in the Lake Taupō region of New Zealand (NZ) is regulated for nitrogen (N) leaching. The objectives of this study were to 1) evaluate the implications of nitrogen emission limitations on eutrophication and climate change impacts of NZ beef through its life cycle to a European market and uniquely link it to 2) estimation of the reduction in these impacts that can be funded by the consumer's willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for a low environmental-impact product.

Method: The cradle-to-market Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of NZ beef on the European market included beef production on farms, meat processing, packaging and transport stages. Read More

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Economic consequences of dairy crossbreeding in conventional and organic herds in Sweden.

J Dairy Sci 2020 Jan 14;103(1):514-528. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Department of Animal Science, Aarhus University, Blichers Allé 20, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark.

This study simulated the consequences of crossbreeding between Swedish Holstein and Swedish Red on herd dynamics and herd profitability under Swedish conditions. Two base herds were simulated using a stochastic herd simulation model, SimHerd Crossbred. The herds reflected average Swedish conventional and organic herds having purebred Swedish Holstein. Read More

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January 2020

The complex relationship between welfare and reproduction in cattle.

Reprod Domest Anim 2019 Sep;54 Suppl 3:29-37

Animal Welfare Program, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Using reproduction parameters as indicators for cattle welfare has limitations and, at best, these parameters should only be viewed as indirect indicators of welfare. On a farm level, measures such as fertility rates emphasize biological performance of the herd but fail to consider the welfare of individual animals. Even on an individual level, the relationship between reproductive effectiveness and animal welfare is complex. Read More

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September 2019

A breeding index to rank beef bulls for use on dairy females to maximize profit.

J Dairy Sci 2019 Nov 5;102(11):10056-10072. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

AbacuBio Ltd., Dunedin 9016, New Zealand.

The desire to increase profit on dairy farms necessitates consideration of the revenue attainable from the sale of surplus calves for meat production. However, the generation of calves that are expected to excel in efficiency of growth and carcass merit must not be achieved to the detriment of the dairy female and her ability to calve and re-establish pregnancy early postcalving without any compromise in milk production. Given the relatively high heritability of many traits associated with calving performance and carcass merit, and the tendency for many of these traits to be moderately to strongly antagonistic, a breeding index that encompasses both calving performance and meat production could be a useful tool to fill the void in supporting decisions on bull selection. Read More

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November 2019

Production, partial cash flows and greenhouse gas emissions of simulated dairy herds with extended lactations.

Animal 2019 May 22;13(5):1074-1083. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

2Adaptation Physiology Group,Wageningen University & Research,P.O. Box 338,6700 AH Wageningen,The Netherlands.

The transition period is the most critical period in the lactation cycle of dairy cows. Extended lactations reduce the frequency of transition periods, the number of calves and the related labour for farmers. This study aimed to assess the impact of 2 and 4 months extended lactations on milk yield and net partial cash flow (NPCF) at herd level, and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM), using a stochastic simulation model. Read More

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The cost-benefit of genomic testing of heifers and using sexed semen in pasture-based dairy herds.

J Dairy Sci 2018 Jul 26;101(7):6159-6173. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Agriculture Victoria, AgriBio, Centre for AgriBioscience, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia; School of Applied Systems Biology, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia.

Recent improvements in dairy cow fertility and female reproductive technologies offer an opportunity to apply greater selection pressure to females. This means there may be greater incentive to obtain genomic breeding values for females. We modeled the impact of changes to key parameters on the net benefit from genomic testing of heifer calves with and without usage of sexed semen. Read More

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Review: Applications and benefits of sexed semen in dairy and beef herds.

Animal 2018 Jun 10;12(s1):s97-s103. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Teagasc,Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre,Moorepark,Fermoy,Co. Cork,P61 P302,Ireland.

The use of sexed semen in dairy and beef cattle production provides a number of benefits at both farm and industry levels. There is an increasing demand for dairy and beef products across the globe, which will necessitate a greater focus on improving production efficiency. In dairy farming, there is surplus production of unwanted male calves. Read More

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Economic and genetic performance of various combinations of in vitro-produced embryo transfers and artificial insemination in a dairy herd.

J Dairy Sci 2018 Feb 15;101(2):1540-1553. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to find the optimal proportions of pregnancies from an in vitro-produced embryo transfer (IVP-ET) system and artificial insemination (AI) so that profitability is maximized over a range of prices for embryos and surplus dairy heifer calves. An existing stochastic, dynamic dairy model with genetic merits of 12 traits was adapted for scenarios where 0 to 100% of the eligible females in the herd were impregnated, in increments of 10%, using IVP-ET (ET0 to ET100, 11 scenarios). Oocytes were collected from the top donors selected for the trait lifetime net merit (NM$) and fertilized with sexed semen to produce IVP embryos. Read More

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February 2018

Comparison between an exclusive in vitro-produced embryo transfer system and artificial insemination for genetic, technical, and financial herd performance.

J Dairy Sci 2017 Jul 27;100(7):5729-5745. Epub 2017 Apr 27.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to implement an in vitro-produced embryo transfer (IVP-ET) system in an existing stochastic dynamic dairy simulation model with multitrait genetics to evaluate the genetic, technical, and financial performance of a dairy herd implementing an exclusive IVP-ET or artificial insemination (AI) system. In the AI system, sexed semen was used on the genetically best heifers only. In the IVP-ET system, all of the animals in the herd were impregnated with female sexed embryos created through in vitro fertilization of oocytes collected from animals of superior genetics for different traits of interest. Read More

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Generating pulsatility by pump speed modulation with continuous-flow total artificial heart in awake calves.

J Artif Organs 2017 Dec 8;20(4):381-385. Epub 2017 Apr 8.

Cardiovascular Dynamics Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering/ND20, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sinusoidal pump speed modulation of the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) on hemodynamics and pump flow in an awake chronic calf model. The sinusoidal pump speed modulations, performed on the day of elective sacrifice, were set at ±15 and ± 25% of mean pump speed at 80 bpm in four awake calves with a CFTAH. The systemic and pulmonary arterial pulse pressures increased to 12. Read More

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December 2017

Genomic testing interacts with reproductive surplus in reducing genetic lag and increasing economic net return.

J Dairy Sci 2015 Jan 7;98(1):646-58. Epub 2014 Nov 7.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Center for Quantitative Genetics and Genomics, Aarhus University, PO Box 50, 8830 Tjele, Denmark.

Until now, genomic information has mainly been used to improve the accuracy of genomic breeding values for breeding animals at a population level. However, we hypothesize that the use of information from genotyped females also opens up the possibility of reducing genetic lag in a dairy herd, especially if genomic tests are used in combination with sexed semen or a high management level for reproductive performance, because both factors provide the opportunity for generating a reproductive surplus in the herd. In this study, sexed semen is used in combination with beef semen to produce high-value crossbred beef calves. Read More

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January 2015

Application of liquid semen technology improves conception rate of sex-sorted semen in lactating dairy cows.

Z Z Xu

J Dairy Sci 2014 Nov 11;97(11):7298-304. Epub 2014 Sep 11.

LIC, Private Bag 3016, Newstead, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand. Electronic address:

The objective was to compare reproductive performance of liquid sex-sorted (SS) semen with that of conventional (CON) semen in lactating dairy cows. Between 2011 and 2013, commercial dairy herds (n = 101, 203, and 253 for 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively) with predominantly Holstein-Friesian cows were enrolled in a contract mating program to produce surplus heifers for export using liquid SS semen. During the spring mating period, each herd was allocated with liquid SS semen at 50% of its daily requirement and the remaining daily requirement was allocated with CON liquid semen. Read More

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November 2014

Romance without responsibilities: the use of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida to manage free-ranging bison (Bison bison) on Catalina Island, California, USA.

J Zoo Wildl Med 2013 Dec;44(4 Suppl):S123-31

Science and Conservation Center, Billings, Montana 59106, USA.

Prior to 2010, the introduced population of American bison (Bison bison) on Santa Catalina Island, California, was managed through the shipment of surplus bison to private ranches, Native American reservations, and livestock auctions on the mainland. In response to escalating costs, transport-induced stress to the animals, and ecologic impacts associated with high bison numbers on-island between shipments, the use of the immunocontraceptive vaccine porcine zona pellucida (PZP) as a fertility control option for managing the population was investigated. Between 2009 and 2012, a total of 64 bison cows (> or =1 yr old) received primer inoculations of 100 microg PZP emulsified with 0. Read More

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December 2013

Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

J Dairy Sci 2014 Feb 15;97(2):1092-106. Epub 2013 Dec 15.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Read More

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February 2014

Does increasing milk yield per cow reduce greenhouse gas emissions? A system approach.

Animal 2012 Jan;6(1):154-66

Department of Agricultural Economics, Institute of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Technische Universität München, Alte Akademie 14, 85350 Freising, Germany.

Milk yield per cow has continuously increased in many countries over the last few decades. In addition to potential economic advantages, this is often considered an important strategy to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kg of milk produced. However, it should be considered that milk and beef production systems are closely interlinked, as fattening of surplus calves from dairy farming and culled dairy cows play an important role in beef production in many countries. Read More

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January 2012

Economic effects of using sexed semen in Japanese dairy herds.

Anim Sci J 2011 Jun 4;82(3):486-93. Epub 2011 Mar 4.

National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, Tsukuba, Japan.

Dairy farm agricultural income should increase when sexed semen is used instead of unsexed semen. This study simulated three scenarios: using unsexed semen (N), using X sperm of Holstein and unsexed semen of Japanese Black (H), and using X sperm of Holstein and Y sperm of Japanese Black (HJ). Two management scenarios were considered: conventional management (CONV); and the use of Japanese Black semen with surplus cows to produce F(1) s where sufficient replacement female Holstein calves were obtained for maintenance (MAINT). Read More

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Hemodynamic responses to continuous versus pulsatile mechanical unloading of the failing left ventricle.

ASAIO J 2010 Sep-Oct;56(5):410-6

University of Louisville School of Medicine, Kentucky, USA.

Debate exists regarding the merits and limitations of continuous versus pulsatile flow mechanical circulatory support. To characterize the hemodynamic differences between each mode of support, we investigated the acute effects of continuous versus pulsatile unloading of the failing left ventricle in a bovine model. Heart failure was induced in male calves (n = 14). Read More

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January 2011

Economic weights of production and functional traits for Holstein-Friesian cattle in Hungary.

J Anim Breed Genet 2010 Apr;127(2):143-53

Debrecen University, Institute of Animal Science, Debrecen, Hungary.

A bio-economic model was used to estimate economic values of 15 milk production, functional, growth and carcass traits for Hungarian Holstein-Friesian cattle. The calculations were carried out for the situation in Hungary from 2000 to 2007, assuming no production quotas. The marginal economic values were defined as partial derivatives of the profit function with respect to each trait in a production system with dairy cow herds and with sales of surplus male calves. Read More

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Effect of subsidy regimes on economic values of functional traits in beef cattle breeding.

J Anim Breed Genet 2006 Apr;123(2):97-104

Research Institute of Animal Production, Prague - Uhríneves, Czech Republic.

We investigated the impact of five monetary subsidy regimes on economic values of traits in a cow-calf pasture production system with surplus calves fed for slaughter. The following regimes were analysed: (1) maximum prices for slaughter animals actually received in the Czech Republic during 2004, with no subsidies of any kind; (2) prices as in (1), with subsidies awarded per hectare of permanent grassland and per calf born; (3) prices as in (1), with subsidies awarded per hectare of agricultural land, per hectare of pasture and meadow, per beef cow in a forage system and per livestock unit; (4) prices as in (1), with subsidies awarded per hectare of agricultural land; (5) no subsidies, but prices received for slaughter animals that covered production costs and resulted in 1% profitability. The modelled farm showed negative profit under real price conditions with no subsidies (regime 1), which led to an underestimation of economic values for functional traits. Read More

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Effect of colostrum intake on diarrhoea incidence in new-born calves.

A Gutzwiller

Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2002 Feb;144(2):59-64

Federal Research Station for Animal Production, Posieux, Switzerland.

In a survey which lasted one year and included data of 73 dairy cows with their calves, colostrum immunoglobulin G (IgG) of 22 primiparous cows and serum IgG of their calves were lower than the corresponding IgG levels of 51 multiparous cows and their calves. Serum IgG concentration was not correlated with diarrhoea incidence. Although there were no seasonal differences in the IgG concentration of colostrum and calf serum, neonatal diarrhoea incidence was higher in calves which were born in winter than in calves which were born in summer (P < 0. Read More

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February 2002

Forage systems for production of stocker steers in the upper south.

J Anim Sci 2000 Jul;78(7):1973-82

Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg 24061-0306, USA.

The southern states produce large numbers of beef calves that are generally weaned and sold in autumn. Keeping calves in this region beyond weaning to graze high-quality forages through a stocker cattle phase could improve profitability. Autumn-weaned Angus crossbred steers were allocated by breeding and weight to four forage systems that began in mid-November and continued through mid-October as follows: System 1, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Read More

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