Int J Biol Sci 2021 5;17(11):2772-2794. Epub 2021 Jul 5.
General Surgical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong, P.R.China.
Autophagy and glycolysis are two catabolic processes that manipulate pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) development in response to hypoxia sensing, yet the underlying mechanism of how they are interlinked remain elusive. The functional roles of Unc-51 like kinase 1 and 2 (ULK1/2) in pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) transcription and glycolysis under hypoxia were assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation, luciferase reporter, glucose consumption and lactate production assay. Co-immunoprecipitation, cellular ubiquitination, His-pulldown, protein kinase assay, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, CRISPR technology, in silico studies were adopted to determine the molecular mechanism. Read More