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In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of photocatalytic oxidation of As(III) to less toxic As(V) by TiO nanotubes.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2021 May 13;28(Pt 3):849-853. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan.

Arsenic in groundwater caused the black-foot disease (BFD) in many countries in the 1950-1960s. It is of great importance to develop a feasible method for removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater in BFD endemic areas. Photocatalytic oxidation of As(III) to less toxic As(V) is, therefore, of significance for preventing any arsenic-related disease that may occur. Read More

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Intranasal vaccination with influenza HA/GO-PEI nanoparticles provides immune protection against homo- and heterologous strains.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302;

Intranasal (i.n.) immunization is a promising vaccination route for infectious respiratory diseases such as influenza. Read More

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Surface Chemistry of Gold Nanoparticles Produced by Laser Ablation in Pure and Saline Water.

Langmuir 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR5306 CNRS, Institut Lumière Matière, University of Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France.

Pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) is a powerful method for producing nanoparticle colloids with a long-term stability despite the absence of stabilizing organic agents. The colloid stability involves different reactivities and chemical equilibria with complex ionic-specific effects at the nanoparticle/solvent interface which must be strongly influenced by their chemical composition. In this work, the surface composition of PLAL-produced gold nanoparticles in alkaline and saline (NaBr) water is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on free-flying nanoparticles, exempt from any substrate or radiation damage artifact. Read More

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Fatigue Damage-Resistant Physical Hydrogel Adhesion.

Front Robot AI 2021 15;8:666343. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, China.

Strong adhesion between hydrogels and various engineering surfaces has been achieved; yet, achieving fatigue-resistant hydrogel adhesion remains challenging. Here, we examine the fatigue of a specific type of hydrogel adhesion enabled by hydrogen bonds and wrinkling and show that the physical interactions-based hydrogel adhesion can resist fatigue damage. We synthesize polyacrylamide hydrogel as the adherend and poly(acrylic acid--acrylamide) hydrogel as the adhesive. Read More

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The Grip Concept of Incisional Hernia Repair-Dynamic Bench Test, CT Abdomen With Valsalva and 1-Year Clinical Results.

Front Surg 2021 14;8:602181. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

General, Visceral and Pediatric Surgery, Klinikum Am Gesundbrunnen, Heilbronn, Germany.

Incisional hernia is a frequent consequence of major surgery. Most repairs augment the abdominal wall with artificial meshes fixed to the tissues with sutures, tacks, or glue. Pain and recurrences plague at least 10-20% of the patients after repair of the abdominal defect. Read More

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Macroscale Superlubricity Accomplished by SbO-MSH/C Under High Temperature.

Front Chem 2021 15;9:667878. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, United States.

Here, we report the high-temperature superlubricity phenomenon accomplished in coatings produced by burnishing powders of antimony trioxide (SbO) and magnesium silicate hydroxide coated with carbon (MSH/C) onto the nickel superalloy substrate. The tribological analysis performed in an open-air experimental setup revealed that with the increase of testing temperature, the coefficient of friction (COF) of the coating gradually decreases, finally reaching the superlubricity regime (the COF of 0.008) at 300°C. Read More

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Using Cu-Zn-Sn-O Precursor to Optimize CZTSSe Thin Films Fabricated by Se Doping With CZTS Thin Films.

Front Chem 2021 16;9:621549. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Laboratory of Vacuum Smelting, School of Metallurgical Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an, China.

The copper-zinc-tin oxide (CZTO) precursor was synthesized to avoid sudden volume expansion from CZTO precursor to CuZnSnS (CZTS) thin films and smooth CZTSSe thin-film surfaces without pinholes. The CZTO precursor was prepared by coprecipitation and ball milling to form nanoink of CZTO. Based on the CZTO precursor, the CZTS thin film was fabricated and then selenized to make pinhole-free and flat CuZnSn(S,Se)(CZTSSe) thin films. Read More

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The crystal structures, Hirshfeld surface analyses and energy frameworks of 8-{1-[3-(cyclo-pent-1-en-1-yl)benz-yl]piperidin-4-yl}-2-meth-oxy-quinoline and 8-{4-[3-(cyclo-pent-1-en-1-yl)benz-yl]piperazin-1-yl}-2-meth-oxy-quinoline.

Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun 2021 Apr 9;77(Pt 4):372-377. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Institute of Physics, University of Neuchâtel, rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

The title compounds, 8-{1-[3-(cyclo-pent-1-en-1-yl)benz-yl]piperidin-4-yl}-2-meth-oxy-quinoline, CHNO (), and 8-{4-[3-(cyclo-pent-1-en-1-yl)benz-yl]piperazin-1-yl}-2-meth-oxy-quinoline, CHNO (), differ only in the nature of the central six-membered ring: piperidine in and piperazine in . They are isoelectronic (CH . N) and isotypic; they both crystallize in the triclinic space group with very similar unit-cell parameters. Read More

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Maintenance of Barrier Tissue Integrity by Unconventional Lymphocytes.

Front Immunol 2021 14;12:670471. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Manchester Collaborative Centre for Inflammation Research, Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, School of Biological Science, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Mucosal surfaces, as a first barrier with the environment are especially susceptible to damage from both pathogens and physical trauma. Thus, these sites require tightly regulated repair programs to maintain barrier function in the face of such insults. Barrier sites are also enriched for unconventional lymphocytes, which lack rearranged antigen receptors or express only a limited range of such receptors, such as ILCs (Innate Lymphoid Cells), γδ T Cells and MAIT (Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells). Read More

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An Integrated Genomic, Proteomic, and Immunopeptidomic Approach to Discover Treatment-Induced Neoantigens.

Front Immunol 2021 15;12:662443. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Mass Spectrometry Platform, Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, Stanford, CA, United States.

All nucleated mammalian cells express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins that present peptides on cell surfaces for immune surveillance. These MHC-presented peptides (pMHC) are necessary for directing T-cell responses against cells harboring non-self antigens derived from pathogens or from somatic mutations. Alterations in tumor-specific antigen repertoires - particularly novel MHC presentation of mutation-bearing peptides (neoantigens) - can be potent targets of anti-tumor immune responses. Read More

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Cholinergic System and Its Therapeutic Importance in Inflammation and Autoimmunity.

Front Immunol 2021 15;12:660342. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Autoimmunity and Tolerance, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India.

Neurological and immunological signals constitute an extensive regulatory network in our body that maintains physiology and homeostasis. The cholinergic system plays a significant role in neuroimmune communication, transmitting information regarding the peripheral immune status to the central nervous system (CNS) and vice versa. The cholinergic system includes the neurotransmitter\ molecule, acetylcholine (ACh), cholinergic receptors (AChRs), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) enzyme, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme. Read More

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Impact of roof rain water harvesting of runoff capture and household consumption.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Physical Geography, University of Trier, 54296, Trier, Germany.

In recent years, the occurrence of floods is one of the most important challenges facing in Hamadan city. In the absence/inefficiency of urban drainage systems, rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems as low-impact development (LID) methods can be considered as a measure to reduce the floods. In this study, three scenarios concerning the RWH from the roof surfaces are studied to evaluate the type of the harvested water on reducing flooding. Read More

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Ultrasound expands the versatility of polydopamine coatings.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Apr 21;74:105571. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China; State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong 266237, China. Electronic address:

Polydopamine (PDA) coating of surfaces is a versatile strategy to fabricate functional films on various substrates, which typically requires oxygen and alkaline pH. Overcoming such limitations may enhance the versatility of this technique. Herein, we develop a simple and green sonochemical process for PDA coatings, which overcomes the limitations of traditional coating technique and expands the versatility of PDA chemistry. Read More

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Life in a Droplet: Microbial Ecology in Microscopic Surface Wetness.

Front Microbiol 2021 13;12:655459. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food, and Environment, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Hebrew University, Rehovot, Israel.

While many natural and artificial surfaces may appear dry, they are in fact covered by thin liquid films and microdroplets invisible to the naked eye known as microscopic surface wetness (MSW). Central to the formation and the retention of MSW are the deliquescent properties of hygroscopic salts that prevent complete drying of wet surfaces or that drive the absorption of water until dissolution when the relative humidity is above a salt-specific level. As salts are ubiquitous, MSW occurs in many microbial habitats, such as soil, rocks, plant leaf, and root surfaces, the built environment, and human and animal skin. Read More

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An Overview of Biological and Computational Methods for Designing Mechanism-Informed Anti-biofilm Agents.

Front Microbiol 2021 13;12:640787. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Bacterial biofilms are complex and highly antibiotic-resistant aggregates of microbes that form on surfaces in the environment and body including medical devices. They are key contributors to the growing antibiotic resistance crisis and account for two-thirds of all infections. Thus, there is a critical need to develop anti-biofilm specific therapeutics. Read More

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Inhibition of and Mixed Salivary Bacterial Biofilms on Antimicrobial Loaded Phosphated Poly(methyl methacrylate).

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Apr 13;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Engineering, Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA 23504, USA.

Biofilms play a crucial role in the development of -associated denture stomatitis. Inhibition of microbial adhesion to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and phosphate containing PMMA has been examined in this work. and mixed salivary microbial biofilms were compared on naked and salivary pre-conditioned PMMA surfaces in the presence or absence of antimicrobials (Cetylpyridinium chloride [CPC], KSL-W, Histatin 5 [His 5]). Read More

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Probing the Surface Chemistry of Nanoporous Gold via Electrochemical Characterization and Atom Probe Tomography.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Corrosion and Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3E5, Canada.

Surface chemistry information is crucial in understanding catalytic and sensing mechanisms. However, resolving the outermost monolayer composition of metallic nanoporous materials is challenging due to the high tortuosity of their morphology. In this study, we first elaborate on the capabilities and limitations of atom probe tomography (APT) in resolving interfaces. Read More

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Effects of Copper Surface Oxidation and Reduction on Shear-Bond Strength Using Functional Monomers.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 2;14(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, Nihon University School of Dentistry, 1-8-13, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8310, Japan.

This study was conducted to clarify the influence of the copper surface oxidation and reduction on the shear-bond strength with functional monomers. Unheated copper specimens (UH; = 88) were wet-ground. Three-quarters of the UH were then heated (HT). Read More

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Delayed postoperative opacification of three hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens: A scanning electron microscopic and energy dispersive spectroscopic study.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 May;69(5):1103-1107

Sri Sankaradeva Nethralaya, Guwahati, Assam, India.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to report scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) findings of three specimens of opaque hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) explanted in delayed postoperative period for visual indications.

Methods: Clinical data and photographs from each subject were obtained. Explanted IOLs were examined under gross and light microscopy followed by SEM coupled with EDS. Read More

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Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Composition Revealed Cross-Contamination Pathway of Bacteria at a Foodservice Facility.

Front Microbiol 2021 12;12:636329. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, South Korea.

Bacterial contamination of food-contact surfaces can be a potential risk factor for food quality and safety. To evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of the potential cross-contamination routes, we conducted a biogeographical assessment of bacteria in a foodservice facility based on the diversity of microflora on each surface. To this end, we performed high-throughput amplicon sequencing of 13 food-contact and non-food contact surfaces in a foodservice facility throughout a year. Read More

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Exposure to nanoparticles derived from diesel particulate filter equipped engine increases vulnerability to arrhythmia in rat hearts.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 20;284:117163. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy; CERT, Center of Excellence for Toxicological Research, University of Parma, Parma, Italy; Humanitas Clinical and Research Center -IRCCS, 20090, Rozzano, Milan, Italy; National Research Council (CNR), Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica (IRGB), Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Air pollution is well recognized as a central player in cardiovascular disease. Exhaust particulate from diesel engines (DEP) is rich in nanoparticles and may contribute to the health effects of particulate matter in the environment. Moreover, diesel soot emitted by modern engines denotes defective surfaces alongside chemically-reactive sites increasing soot cytotoxicity. Read More

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Vision Affects Gait Speed but not Patterns of Muscle Activation During Inclined Walking-A Virtual Reality Study.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 9;9:632594. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Center of Advanced Technologies in Rehabilitation, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel.

While walking, our locomotion is affected by and adapts to the environment based on vision- and body-based (vestibular and proprioception) cues. When transitioning to downhill walking, we modulate gait by braking to avoid uncontrolled acceleration, and when transitioning to uphill walking, we exert effort to avoid deceleration. In this study, we aimed to measure the influence of visual inputs on this behavior and on muscle activation. Read More

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Interactions Between Commensal Microbiota and Mucosal Immunity in Teleost Fish During Viral Infection With SVCV.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:654758. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Aquatic Animal Medicine, College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

The mucosa of vertebrates is a particularly complex but dynamic environment in which the host constantly interacts with trillions of commensal microorganisms and pathogens. Although the internal and external mucosal microbiomes with immune defense of mammals have been well investigated, the relationship between mucosal microbes and their host's immune responses has not been systematically understood in the early vertebrates. In this study, we compared the composition and distribution of mucosal microbiota in common carp (), and found that there were significant differences of microbiota between in the internal (gut) and external mucosal (buccal mucosa, gills and skin) tissues. Read More

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MR1-Restricted MAIT Cells From The Human Lung Mucosal Surface Have Distinct Phenotypic, Functional, and Transcriptomic Features That Are Preserved in HIV Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 9;12:631410. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Africa Health Research Institute (AHRI), Durban, South Africa.

Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a class of innate-like T cells that utilize a semi-invariant αβ T cell receptor to recognize small molecule ligands produced by bacteria and fungi. Despite growing evidence that immune cells at mucosal surfaces are often phenotypically and functionally distinct from those in the peripheral circulation, knowledge about the characteristics of MAIT cells at the lung mucosal surface, the site of exposure to respiratory pathogens, is limited. HIV infection has been shown to have a profound effect on the number and function of MAIT cells in the peripheral blood, but its effect on lung mucosal MAIT cells is unknown. Read More

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Soil Microsite Outweighs Cultivar Genotype Contribution to Rhizobacterial Community Structure.

Front Microbiol 2021 7;12:645784. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Marine Biological Laboratory, Josephine Bay Paul Center for Comparative Molecular Biology and Evolution, Woods Hole, MA, United States.

Microorganisms residing on root surfaces play a central role in plant development and performance and may promote growth in agricultural settings. Studies have started to uncover the environmental parameters and host interactions governing their assembly. However, soil microbial communities are extremely diverse and heterogeneous, showing strong variations over short spatial scales. Read More

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An electrochemical technique for fabrication of Mn-54 sources towards characterization of gamma counting nuclear instruments.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Apr 17;173:109736. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai, 400 094, India.

Long lived sealed radioactive sources are used for the energy calibration and efficiency determination of counting systems used in the nuclear sector. Using a sulphate bath, a facile electrochemical method was developed by electrodeposition of Mn on 5 mm (φ) stainless steel substrates for the preparation of Mn sources for such uses. Inactive sources prepared under suitable experimental parameters characterized by XRD revealed that manganese is deposited in oxide form. Read More

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Maxillary anterior teeth with extensive root resorption treated with low-level light-activated engineered chitosan nanoparticles.

J Endod 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Dentistry, Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: Photoactivated chitosan-based nanoparticles can eliminate bacterial biofilm, inactivate endotoxins, improve resistance to biological degradation (resorption) besides promoting bone regeneration. This case is the first documentation to highlight the successful healing of teeth with extensive inflammatory root resorption (IRR) with periapical lesions using a combined Surgical and Non-Surgical Root Canal Therapy using rose-bengal functionalized chitosan nanoparticles (CSRBnp).

Methods: A 17-year-old boy with extensive IRR of maxillary right canine (teeth #6), maxillary right lateral incisor (#7), maxillary right central incisor (#8) and maxillary left central incisor (#9) was treated with photoactivated CSRBnp, both intra-canal as well as topically on resorptive defects and periapical lesions. Read More

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Pectin Induced Colony Expansion of Soil-Derived Strains.

Front Microbiol 2021 6;12:651891. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion, Israel.

The genus is characterized by the capacity to metabolize complex organic compounds and a unique gliding motility mechanism. Flavobacteria are often abundant in root microbiomes of various plants, but the factors contributing to this high abundance are currently unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effect of various plant-associated poly- and mono-saccharides on colony expansion of two strains. Read More

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Sex hormone regulation of innate lymphoid cells.

Biomed J 2020 Nov 18. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Physiopathology Center of Toulouse-Purpan (CPTP), University of Toulouse, INSERM, CNRS, UPS, 31300, France. Electronic address:

Innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subsets at barrier surfaces contribute to maintain tissue homeostasis and appropriate responses to infection. ILCs respond to environmental factors produced by non-hematopoietic cells within tissues, but also circulating cytokines or dietary compounds which allow them to adapt to organ milieu. Among these extrinsic signals, evidence is emerging that sex steroid hormones may act in a cell-intrinsic manner to regulate the development, maintenance in tissues and effector functions of specific subsets of ILCs. Read More

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November 2020

Titanium Nanotube Modified With Silver Cross-Linked Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Improves Osteoblastic Activities of Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Antibacterial Effect.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 1;9:654654. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Titanium modifications with different silver loading methods demonstrate excellent antibacterial properties. Yet pure silver nanoparticles with limited bioactive properties may delay regeneration of bone surrounding the dental implant. Therefore, loading silver with bioactive drugs on titanium surfaces seems to be a very promising strategy. Read More

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