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Application of fluorescent dextrans to the brain surface under constant pressure reveals AQP4-independent solute uptake.

J Gen Physiol 2021 Aug 15;153(8). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Extracellular solutes in the central nervous system are exchanged between the interstitial fluid, the perivascular compartment, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The "glymphatic" mechanism proposes that the astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a major determinant of solute transport between the CSF and the interstitial space; however, this is controversial in part because of wide variance in experimental data on interstitial uptake of cisternally injected solutes. Here, we investigated the determinants of solute uptake in brain parenchyma following cisternal injection and reexamined the role of AQP4 using a novel constant-pressure method. Read More

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Iris metastasis from breast cancer successfully treated with Abemaciclib and Letrozole.

Retin Cases Brief Rep 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine Moffitt Cancer Center, University of South Florida, Morsani College of Medicine.

Purpose: To describe a patient with an unusual presentation of iris metastasis from breast cancer and her response to systemic therapy.

Methods: Retrospective chart review of one patient.

Results: A 57-year-old woman presented with a superonasal translucent vascularized iris stromal mass with fish egg-like structures budding from the surface. Read More

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Othello Syndrome: Delusional Disorder - Jealous Type ≠ Violence.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):160-161

University of Florida College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Background: Othello syndrome, also known as morbid jealousy, pathological jealousy, and conjugal paranoia, is a rare delusional disorder related to partner's infidelity. There are no large scale or comprehensive studies on delusional jealousy, and only few case reports and cases series leave delusional disorder jealous type (DDJT) largely unknown. Herein, we report a case of DDJT, its possible etiology and describe its characteristics, comorbidities, and interventions. Read More

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A pH ratiometrically responsive surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering probe for tumor acidic margin delineation and image-guided surgery.

Chem Sci 2020 Apr 7;11(17):4397-4402. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University Shanghai 201203 China

Surgery remains the mainstay for most solid tumor treatments. However, surgeons face challenges in intra-operatively identifying invasive tumor margins due to their infiltrative nature. Incomplete excision usually leads to early recurrence, while aggressive resection may injure adjacent functional tissues. Read More

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Establishment and Maintenance of Gnotobiotic American Cockroaches (Periplaneta americana).

J Vis Exp 2021 May 28(171). Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia.

Gnotobiotic animals are a powerful tool for the study of controls on microbiome structure and function. Presented here is a protocol for the establishment and maintenance of gnotobiotic American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). This approach includes built-in sterility checks for ongoing quality control. Read More

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Intracranial Traumatic Hematoma Detection in Children Using a Portable Near-infrared Spectroscopy Device.

West J Emerg Med 2021 Mar 24;22(3):782-791. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Departments of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics, Providence, Rhode Island.

Introduction: We sought to validate a handheld, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device for detecting intracranial hematomas in children with head injury.

Methods: Eligible patients were those <18 years old who were admitted to the emergency department at three academic children's hospitals with head trauma and who received a clinically indicated head computed tomography (HCT). Measurements were obtained by a blinded operator in bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. Read More

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Interrogating surface intracellular transmembrane receptor populations using cell-impermeable SNAP-tag substrates.

Chem Sci 2020 Jul 7;11(30):7871-7883. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Department of Chemical Biology Jahnstr. 29 69120 Heidelberg Germany.

Employing self-labelling protein tags for the attachment of fluorescent dyes has become a routine and powerful technique in optical microscopy to visualize and track fused proteins. However, membrane permeability of the dyes and the associated background signals can interfere with the analysis of extracellular labelling sites. Here we describe a novel approach to improve extracellular labelling by functionalizing the SNAP-tag substrate benzyl guanine ("BG") with a charged sulfonate ("SBG"). Read More

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Treatment-Induced BAFF Expression and B Cell Biology in Multiple Sclerosis.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:676619. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Neurosciences, Laboratory for Neuroimmunology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Although fingolimod and interferon-β are two mechanistically different multiple sclerosis (MS) treatments, they both induce B cell activating factor (BAFF) and shift the B cell pool towards a regulatory phenotype. However, whether there is a shared mechanism between both treatments in how they influence the B cell compartment remains elusive. In this study, we collected a cross-sectional study population of 112 MS patients (41 untreated, 42 interferon-β, 29 fingolimod) and determined B cell subsets, cell-surface and RNA expression of BAFF-receptor (BAFF-R) and transmembrane activator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) as well as plasma and/or RNA levels of BAFF, BAFF splice forms and interleukin-10 (IL-10) and -35 (IL-35). Read More

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Potential evidence of peripheral learning and memory in the arms of dwarf cuttlefish, Sepia bandensis.

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Biology, Georgia Southern University, 4324 Old Register Rd, Statesboro, GA, 30460, USA.

CREB (cAMP response element-binding) transcription factors are conserved markers of memory formation in the brain and peripheral circuits. We provide immunohistochemical evidence of CREB phosphorylation in the dwarf cuttlefish, Sepia bandensis, following the inaccessible prey (IP) memory experiment. During the IP experiment, cuttlefish are shown prey enclosed in a transparent tube, and tentacle strikes against the tube decrease over time as the cuttlefish learns the prey is inaccessible. Read More

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G-Protein-Coupled Receptors and Ischemic Stroke: a Focus on Molecular Function and Therapeutic Potential.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Anatomical Sciences Research Center, Institute for Basic Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

In ischemic stroke, there is only one approved drug, tissue plasminogen activator, to be used in clinical conditions for thrombolysis. New neuroprotective therapies for ischemic stroke are desperately needed. Several targets and pathways have been shown to confer neuroprotective effects in ischemic stroke. Read More

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The Poised Cannula Technique Reduces the Stereotactic Error of the Fiducial-Less Frameless DBS Procedure.

Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2021 Jun 11:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

Background: In this study, we describe a technique of optimizing the accuracy of frameless deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead placement through the use of a cannula poised at the entry to predict the location of the fully inserted device. This allows real-time correction of error prior to violation of the deep gray matter.

Methods: We prospectively gathered data on radial error during the operative placements of 40 leads in 28 patients using frameless fiducial-less DBS surgery. Read More

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Utility of monitoring the serum levetiracetam concentration for intraoperative seizure control during awake craniotomy.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Jul 21;89:279-282. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0021, Japan.

Awake craniotomy is an established procedure for resecting brain tumors in eloquent lesions, and intraoperative seizure is one of the most important complications. Phenytoin is normally used to control intraoperative seizures. Recently, phenytoin was replaced with levetiracetam at our institution because the latter has fewer side effects. Read More

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Arothron: An R package for geometric morphometric methods and virtual anthropology applications.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell'Ambiente e delle Risorse, Università di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Objectives: The statistical analysis of fossil remains is essential to understand the evolution of the genus Homo. Unfortunately, the human fossil record is straight away scarce and plagued with severe loss of information caused by taphonomic processes. The recently developed field of Virtual Anthropology helps to ameliorate this situation by using digital techniques to restore damaged and incomplete fossils. Read More

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Is Contrast Medium Really Needed for Follow-up MRI of Untreated Intracranial Meningiomas?

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

From the Division of Neuroradiology (J.B., A.F., M.I.V.), Geneva University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background And Purpose: Recent concerns relating to tissue deposition of gadolinium are favoring the use of noncontrast MR imaging whenever possible. The purpose of this study was to assess the necessity of gadolinium contrast for follow-up MR imaging of untreated intracranial meningiomas.

Materials And Methods: One-hundred twenty-two patients (35 men, 87 women) with meningiomas who underwent brain MR imaging between May 2007 and May 2019 in our institution were included in this retrospective cohort study. Read More

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Mechanism and microstructure based concept to predict skull fracture using a hybrid-experimental-modeling-computational approach.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Jun 1;121:104599. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

SURVICE Engineering Company, 4695 Millennium Dr, Belcamp, MD, 21017, USA.

Cellular and tissue-scale indent/impact thresholds for different mechanisms of functional impairments to the brain would be the preferred method to predict head injuries, but a comprehensive understanding of the dominant possible injury mechanisms under multiaxial stress-states and rates is currently not available. Until then, skull fracture could serve as an indication of head injury. Therefore the ability to predict the initiation of skull fracture through finite element simulation can serve as an in silico tool for assessing the effectiveness of various head protection scenarios. Read More

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The tracheal system in the stick insect prothorax and prothoracic legs: Homologies to orthoptera and relations to mechanosensory functions.

Authors:
Johannes Strauß

Arthropod Struct Dev 2021 Jun 8;63:101074. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

AG Integrative Sensory Physiology, Institute for Animal Physiology, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Gießen, Germany; Center for Mind, Brain and Behavior (CMBB), University of Marburg and Justus Liebig University Gießen, Germany. Electronic address:

Arthropod respiration depends on the tracheal system running from spiracles at the body surface through the body and appendages. Here, three species of stick insects (Carausius morosus, Ramulus artemis, Sipyloidea sipylus) are investigated for the tracheae in the prothorax and foreleg. The origin of the tracheae from the mesothoracic spiracle that enter the foreleg is identified: five tracheae originate from the mesothoracic spiracle, of which two enter the foreleg (supraventral trachea, trachea pedalis anterior). Read More

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One-Pot Synthesis of Carboxymethyl-Dextran Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (CION) for Preclinical fMRI and MRA Applications.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 8:118213. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Center for Animal MRI, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Biomedical Research Imaging Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles are robust contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and has shown promise for sensitive structural and functional mapping of the cerebral blood volume (CBV) when administered intravenously. To date, many CBV-MRI studies are conducted with Feraheme, manufactured for the treatment of iron-deficiency. Unfortunately, Feraheme is currently not available outside the United States due to commercial and regulatory constraints, making the CBV-MRI method either inaccessible or very costly to achieve. Read More

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Unusual surface texture, dimensions and morphology variations of chiral and single crystals.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Weizmann Institute of Science, Organic Chemistry, Herzl street 234, 76100, Rehovot, ISRAEL.

We demonstrate here a unique metallo-organic material where the appearance and the internal crystal structure are in contradiction. The egg-shaped (ovoid) crystals have a brain-like texture. Although these micro-sized crystals are monodispersed; like fingerprints their grainy surfaces are never exactly alike. Read More

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Emerging Nanotechnology for Treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 25;9:672594. Epub 2021 May 25.

Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Henan Joint International Research Laboratory of Nanomaterials for Energy and Catalysis, College of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, China.

The prevalence of the two most common neurodegenerative diseases, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD), are expected to rise alongside the progressive aging of society. Both PD and AD are classified as proteinopathies with misfolded proteins α-synuclein, amyloid-β, and tau. Emerging evidence suggests that these misfolded aggregates are prion-like proteins that induce pathological cell-to-cell spreading, which is a major driver in pathogenesis. Read More

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Carotid Atherosclerotic Calcification Characteristics Relate to Post-stroke Cognitive Impairment.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 25;13:682908. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Together with cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), large vessel atherosclerosis is considered to be an equally important risk factor in the progression of vascular cognitive impairment. This article aims to investigate whether carotid atherosclerotic calcification is associated with the increased risk of post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI). A total of 128 patients (mean age: 62. Read More

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The effects of mechanical noise bandwidth on balance across flat and compliant surfaces.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12276. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Malaysian Research Institute on Ageing, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.

Although the application of sub-sensory mechanical noise to the soles of the feet has been shown to enhance balance, there has been no study on how the bandwidth of the noise affects balance. Here, we report a single-blind randomized controlled study on the effects of a narrow and wide bandwidth mechanical noise on healthy young subjects' sway during quiet standing on firm and compliant surfaces. For the firm surface, there was no improvement in balance for both bandwidths-this may be because the young subjects could already balance near-optimally or optimally on the surface by themselves. Read More

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Electroblotting through Enzymatic Membranes to Enhance Molecular Tissue Imaging.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, United States.

MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool for studying biomolecule localization in tissue. Protein distributions in tissue provide important histological information; however, large proteins exhibit a high limit of detection in MALDI-MS when compared to their corresponding smaller proteolytic peptides. As a result, several techniques have emerged to digest proteins into more detectable peptides for imaging. Read More

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Nanoprobe-mediated precise imaging and therapy of glioma.

Nanoscale Horiz 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, P. R. China. and School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, P. R. China.

Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults, accounting for 80% of primary intracranial tumors. Due to the heterogeneous and infiltrating nature of malignant gliomas and the hindrance of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), it is very difficult to accurately image and differentiate the malignancy grade of gliomas, thus significantly influencing the diagnostic accuracy and subsequent surgery or therapy. In recent years, the rapid development of emerging nanoprobes has provided a promising opportunity for the diagnosis and treatment of gliomas. Read More

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Autoimmune encephalitis: clinical spectrum and management.

Pract Neurol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Oxford Autoimmune Neurology Group, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford, UK

Autoimmune encephalitis defines brain inflammation caused by a misdirected immune response against self-antigens expressed in the central nervous system. It comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders that are at least as common as infectious causes of encephalitis. The rapid and ongoing expansion of this field has been driven by the identification of several pathogenic autoantibodies that cause polysymptomatic neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. Read More

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Empirical validation of gradient field models for an accurate ADC measured on clinical 3T MR systems in body oncologic applications.

Phys Med 2021 Jun 6;86:113-120. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Purpose: To empirically corroborate vendor-provided gradient nonlinearity (GNL) characteristics and demonstrate efficient GNL bias correction for human brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) across 3T MR systems and spatial locations.

Methods: Spatial distortion vector fields (DVF) were mapped in 3D using a surface fiducial array phantom for individual gradient channels on three 3T MR platforms from different vendors. Measured DVF were converted into empirical 3D GNL tensors and compared with their theoretical counterparts derived from vendor-provided spherical harmonic (SPH) coefficients. Read More

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Enlightenment on oscillatory properties of 23 class B notifiable infectious diseases in the mainland of China from 2004 to 2020.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(6):e0252803. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

A variety of infectious diseases occur in mainland China every year. Cyclic oscillation is a widespread attribute of most viral human infections. Understanding the outbreak cycle of infectious diseases can be conducive for public health management and disease surveillance. Read More

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Study on optimization and evaluation system of traditional Chinese medicine rehabilitation program for swallowing disorder after stroke.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(19):e25731

Rehabilitation Center.

Background: Acupuncture has a long history in China and is currently widely used in clinical practice. However, there is no large sample data confirming the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating stroke and its sequelae. This article presents a study protocol for a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial for evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture in treating post-stroke dysphagia. Read More

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Clinical significance of S100B protein in pregnant woman with early- onset severe preeclampsia.

Ginekol Pol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Obstetrics, Maternal and child health hospital of Hunan Province Changsha, Hunan, China.

Objectives: Preeclampsia is one of the most feared complications of pregnancy, which can progress rapidly to serious complications such as death of both mother and fetus. To present, the leading cause of preeclampsia is still debated. The purpose of this article was to explore the clinical significance of S100B protein, a kind of Ca2+ -sensor protein, in the early-onset severe preeclampsia. Read More

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Sequence-Defined Nanotubes Assembled from IR780-Conjugated Peptoids for Chemophototherapy of Malignant Glioma.

Research (Wash D C) 2021 16;2021:9861384. Epub 2021 May 16.

School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, PO Box 642920 Pullman, Washington 99164, USA.

Near-infrared (NIR) laser-induced phototherapy through NIR agents has demonstrated the great potential for cancer therapy. However, insufficient tumor killing due to the nonuniform heat or cytotoxic singlet oxygen (O) distribution over tumors from phototherapy results in tumor recurrence and inferior outcomes. To achieve high tumor killing efficacy, one of the solutions is to employ the combinational treatment of phototherapy with other modalities, especially with chemotherapeutic agents. Read More

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Vascular Endothelial Repair and the Influence of Circulating Antiplatelet Drugs in a Carotid Coil Model.

J Cent Nerv Syst Dis 2021 20;13:11795735211011786. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kindai University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Osakasayama, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Clinicians may choose to administer antiplatelet medications to patients with cerebral aneurysms following endovascular coiling to prevent thrombus formation and vascular occlusion, if they fear a thrombus will form on the platinum wire where it diverges into the vessel from the aneurysm sac. However, the mechanism by which vascular endothelial cells repair a vessel in the living body in the event of a coil deviation and the effects of antiplatelet drugs on these cells have not been fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the association between endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and endothelium formation at the surface of the platinum coils deployed in the carotid artery of rats, and to determine the effects of different antiplatelet drugs on this process. Read More

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