195,009 results match your criteria surface area

Advanced imaging of dentin microstructure.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Restorative Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Alnaeem, Jeddah, 21418, SAUDI ARABIA.

This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for locating the sectioning site of a specimen before characterizing the ultrastructural features of dentin surfaces as well as the inner wall of the dentinal tubules (DT) using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Eight sound human molar teeth were extracted, examined via cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT), embedded, and hemisectioned using a low-speed diamond sawing machine. Next, each sectioned surface was further trimmed, polished, and examined under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) to locate the target area on the superficial dentin. Read More

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A comparative study of the dichloromethane catalytic combustion over ruthenium-based catalysts: Unveiling the roles of acid types in dissociative adsorption and by-products formation.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 23;605:537-546. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, PR China; Zhejiang Provincial Engineering Research Center of Industrial Boiler & Furnace Flue Gas Pollution Control, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, PR China.

Herein, a comparative investigation of the Ru-based catalysts with different kinds of supports (TiO, AlO, HZSM-5 SiO/AlO = 27 and 130, respectively) for catalytic combustion of dichloromethane (DCM) has been performed. The characterization results showed that the C-Cl bond of DCM was cleaved on both the Brønsted and Lewis acid sites of the catalysts. However, the Lewis acid sites were more active than the Brønsted acid sites. Read More

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Irreversible deformation of hyper-crosslinked polymers after hydrogen adsorption.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 24;605:513-527. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Institut Jean Lamour (IJL), Université de Lorraine, CNRS, F-88000 Epinal, France. Electronic address:

Hyper-crosslinked polymers (HCPs) have been produced by the Friedel-Crafts reaction using anthracene, benzene, carbazole or dibenzothiophene as precursors and dimethoxymethane as crosslinker, and the effect of graphene oxide (GO) addition has been studied. The resulting HCPs were highly microporous with BET areas (A) between 590 and 1120 mg. The benzene-derived HCP (B1FeM2) and the corresponding composite with GO (B1FM2-GO) exhibited the highest A and were selected to study their hydrogen adsorption capacities in the pressure range of 0. Read More

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Biofilm formation of Ancylobacter sp. TS-1 on different granular materials and its ability for chemolithoautotrophic As(III)-oxidation at high concentrations.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 27;421:126733. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; CEDEUS, Centro de Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable, Chile. Electronic address:

The oxidation of arsenic (As) is a key step in its removal from water, and biological oxidation may provide a cost-effective and sustainable method. The biofilm-formation ability of Ancylobacter sp. TS-1, a novel chemolithoautotrophic As oxidizer, was studied for four materials: polypropylene, graphite, sand, and zeolite. Read More

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Porous gelatin microspheres for controlled drug delivery with high hemostatic efficacy.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jul 28;207:112013. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Orthopaedic Oncology Center, Department of Orthopedics, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Effective hemostasis and antibacterial efficacy for extensive trauma in a warzone and civilian accidents are important for reducing mortalities and serious complications. Gelatin has been widely used as a hemostatic agent and has the potential for use in drug delivery systems. To enhance its hemostatic efficiency and create conducive conditions for sustained drug release, we developed Vancomycin-impregnated porous gelatin microspheres (Van-MS) by introducing the porous structure into gelatin. Read More

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Evaluation of S-RBD and high specificity ACE-2-binding antibodies on SARS-CoV-2 patients after six months from infection.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jul 27;99:108013. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tor Vergata University Hospital, Rome, Italy; Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

The antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 has not yet fully defined, but the availability of sensitive and specific serological assays is crucial to observe the presence of specific antibodies against the human receptor binding domain (S-RBD) and high specificity ACE-2-binding antibodies or neutralizing antibodies (NT) in response to vaccines. Indeed, these peculiar antibodies should prevent viral interaction between RBD and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, located on surface of host cells. In this study, 72 samples from 37 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 35 not-hospitalized patients were analyzed longitudinally. Read More

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Geomorphology of the Mirador-Calakmul Karst Basin: A GIS-based approach to hydrogeologic mapping.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(8):e0255496. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Mirador Conservation Fund, Redwood City, California, United States of America.

This paper classifies the karst landscapes of the Petén Plateau and defines the Mirador-Calakmul Karst Basin by illustrating the distribution of its karst hydrologic features. Archaeological and spatial research of the Mirador-Calakmul area of Guatemala and Mexico has shown it to be a karst basin with geopolitical implications. Current research characterizes the karst landscapes of the Petén Plateau, maps the distribution of karst hydrologic features, and delineates the basin in geomorphological terms. Read More

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Tailoring Nanoporous-Engineered Sponge Fiber Molecular Sieves with Ternary-Nested Architecture for Precise Molecular Separation.

ACS Nano 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China.

Polymeric fiber molecular sieves (PFMs) with ultrahigh surface areas, well-defined Murray's-law hierarchical nanoporous structures, and superior self-standing properties are of great interest for molecular-level separation applications. However, creating such PFMs has been proven extremely challenging. Herein, we report a cross-scale pore-forming strategy to create intriguing sponge fiber molecular sieves with hierarchical, tailorable, and molecularly defined nanoporosity by nanospace-confined chain-packing modulation at the molecular level. Read More

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Nanotechnology for Boosting Cancer Immunotherapy and Remodeling Tumor Microenvironment: The Horizons in Cancer Treatment.

ACS Nano 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, 44 WenhuaXilu, Jinan 250012, China.

Immunotherapy that harnesses the human immune system to fight cancer has received widespread attention and become a mainstream strategy for cancer treatment. Cancer immunotherapy not only eliminates primary tumors but also treats metastasis and recurrence, representing a major advantage over traditional cancer treatments. Recently with the development of nanotechnology, there exists much work applying nanomaterials to cancer immunotherapy on the basis of their excellent physiochemical properties, such as efficient tissue-specific delivery function, huge specific surface area, and controllable surface chemistry. Read More

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Characterization of PI/PVDF-TrFE Composite Nanofiber-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerators Depending on the Type of the Electrospinning System.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and BK21 FOUR ERICA-ACE Center, Hanyang University, 55 Hanyangdaehak-ro, Sangrok-gu, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 15588, Korea.

An electrospun nanofiber membrane significantly improves the electrical performances of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) due to its high surface area. In recent years, composite nanofibers were applied to a TENG using various electrospinning system types to further enhance the performance of TENGs; however, the effects of the systems on the energy harvesting capability of TENGs have not been investigated thoroughly. This study aims to fabricate polyimide/poly(vinylidene fluoride--trifluoroethylene) composite nanofiber-based TENGs with three different nozzle systems: single nozzle, conjugated nozzle, and multinozzles, and two different collectors: plate collector and drum collector. Read More

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Long-Term Proactive Treatment of Plaque Psoriasis with Calcipotriene/Betamethasone Dipropionate Foam Prolongs Remission and Reduces Relapses Irrespective of Patient Baseline Characteristics.

Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

The Dermatology Centre, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M6 8HD, UK.

Introduction: The phase 3 PSO LONG study (NCT02899962) demonstrated superior efficacy of proactive (PM) versus reactive management (RM) using calcipotriene 0.005%/betamethasone dipropionate 0.064% (Cal/BD) foam in adults with psoriasis. Read More

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Photoinduced Electron Transfer Reactions of Water Soluble Porphyrins in Zeolite Environment.

J Fluoresc 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Chemistry, Vinayaka Mission's Kirupananda Variyar Arts and Science College, Vinayaka Missions Research Foundation (Deemed to be University), Salem, Tamil Nadu, 636 308, India.

Excited state interactions of zeolite adsorbed porphyrins have been investigated by steady state luminescence quenching technique with certain antioxidants such as reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid and L-cysteine. The zeolite supported porphyrins, meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (HTMPyP) and zinc tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (ZnTMPyP) were prepared and characterized by various techniques such as Diffuse Reflectance Spectra (DRS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and BET surface area. The interaction of zeolites with porphyrins are shown to increase the lifetime of the singlet excited state of porphyrins and decays are biphasic in nature. Read More

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Effect of Counterions on Dissolution of Amorphous Solid Dispersions Studied by Surface Area Normalized Dissolution.

Mol Pharm 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Small Molecule Pharmaceutical Sciences, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, United States.

Solubility enhancement has become a common requirement for formulation development to deliver poorly water soluble drugs. Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) and salt formation have been two successful strategies, yet there are opportunities for further development. For ASDs, drug-polymer phase separation may occur at high drug loadings during dissolution, limiting the increase of drug loadings in ASD formulations. Read More

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Revealing Reactions between the Electron Beam and Nanoparticle Capping Ligands with Correlative Fluorescence and Liquid-Phase Electron Microscopy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States.

Liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy (LP-TEM) enables real-time imaging of nanoparticle self-assembly, formation, and etching with single nanometer resolution. Despite the importance of organic nanoparticle capping ligands in these processes, the effect of electron beam irradiation on surface-bound and soluble capping ligands during LP-TEM imaging has not been investigated. Here, we use correlative LP-TEM and fluorescence microscopy (FM) to demonstrate that polymeric nanoparticle ligands undergo competing crosslinking and chain scission reactions that nonmonotonically modify ligand coverage over time. Read More

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Antisolvent Engineering to Optimize Grain Crystallinity and Hole-Blocking Capability of Perovskite Films for High-Performance Photovoltaics.

Adv Mater 2021 Aug 2:e2102816. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Joint Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau, 999078, China.

With potential commercial applications, inverted perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have received wide-spread attentions as they are compatible with tandem devices and processed at low-temperature. Nevertheless, their efficiencies remain unsatisfactory due to insufficient film quality on hydrophobic hole transport layer and limited hole-blocking capability of the electron transport layer. Herein, 1,3,5-Tris(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)benzene (TPBi), an n-type semiconductor, is incorporated into the antisolvent to simultaneously regulate the grain growth and charge transport of perovskite films. Read More

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Superfast Synthesis of Densely Packed and Ultrafine [email protected] via Solvent-Free Microwave as Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Electrocatalysts.

Small 2021 Aug 1:e2102879. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Key Laboratory of Ecochemical Engineering, Ministry of Education, Taishan Scholar Advantage and Characteristic Discipline Team of Ecochemical Process and Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266042, P. R. China.

At present, it is still a great challenge to synthesize refractory Pt-based electrocatalysts with excellent active specific surface area, specific activity, and stability by a simple method. Here, a superfast and solvent-free microwave strategy is reported to synthesize refractory ultrafine (≈3 nm) [email protected] Black ([email protected], M = La, Gd, Tb, Er, Tm, and Yb) alloy with densely packed as efficient hydrogen evolution electrocatalysts in a domestic microwave oven for the first time. The optimized Pt La @KB delivers excellent hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity with a low overpotential of 38 mV (10 mA cm ) and a high TOF value of 44. Read More

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Improving the Separation of CO/CH Using Impregnation of Deep Eutectic Solvents on Porous Carbon.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 15;6(29):19194-19201. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

The separation of CO/CH using porous carbon can be increased by the presence of a functional group of nitrogen on the carbon surface. This study explores the potential of porous carbon derived from the palm kernel shell (C-PKS) impregnated with a deep eutectic solvent (DES), which is one of the chemicals containing a nitrogen element. The DES was composed of a quaternary ammonium salt of choline chloride (ChCl) and a hydrogen bond donor of alcohol. Read More

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DNA-Modified Cobalt Tungsten Oxide Hydroxide Hydrate Nanochains as an Effective Electrocatalyst with Amplified CO Tolerance during Methanol Oxidation.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 13;6(29):19162-19169. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu 630003, India.

Direct methanol fuel cell technology implementation mainly depends on the development of non-platinum catalysts with good CO tolerance. Among the widely studied transition-metal catalysts, cobalt oxide with distinctively higher catalytic efficiency is highly desirable. Here, we have evolved a simple method of synthesizing cobalt tungsten oxide hydroxide hydrate nanowires with DNA (CTOOH/DNA) and without incorporating DNA (CTOOH) by microwave irradiation and subsequently employed them as electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation. Read More

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Improving the Electrochemical Properties of Carbon Paper as Cathodes for Microfluidic Fuel Cells by the Electrochemical Activation in Different Solutions.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 15;6(29):19153-19161. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, California 95064, United States.

Membraneless microfluidic fuel cells (MFCs) have garnered tremendous interest as micropower devices, which exploit the colaminar nature of two aqueous electrolytes to separate the anode and cathode and avoid the membrane usually used in a fuel cell. Our previous research shows that the performance of FeCl-based MFCs with catalyst-free cathodes is mainly limited by the cathode. To improve the power output of these MFCs, we activated the carbon paper cathode by an electrochemical method in the three solutions (NaSO, NaOH, and HSO) to improve the electrochemical characteristics of the carbon paper cathode. Read More

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Influence of Nanopore Structure Deformation on Gas Migration in Coal.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 14;6(29):19115-19126. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Shanxi Province Mineral Resources Investigation and Monitoring Center, Taiyuan 030024, P. R. China.

To better understand the influence and control of nanopore characteristics on gas migration, three kinds of coal samples with different metamorphic degrees were selected for the experiments including high-pressure isothermal gas adsorption, low-pressure CO adsorption, and low-pressure Ar adsorption. The changes of the pore volume (PV) and specific surface area (SSA) of coal samples before and after adsorption-desorption were compared and analyzed. The adsorption data of all coal samples at a low pressure stage (<8 MPa) conformed to the Langmuir equation, and the adsorption capacity of powdered coal samples was higher than that of columnar coal samples. Read More

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Dissipation Mechanisms for Fluids and Objects in Relative Motion Described by the Navier-Stokes Equation.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 12;6(29):18598-18609. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Equinor ASA, PO Box 7200, 5020 Bergen, Norway.

This work demonstrates that an additional resistance term should be included in the Navier-Stokes equation when fluids and objects are in relative motion. This is based on an observation that the effect of the microscopic molecular random velocity component parallel to the macroscopic flow direction is neglected. The two components of the random velocity perpendicular to the local mean flow direction are accounted for by the viscous resistance, e. Read More

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Effect of the Concentration and the Type of Dispersant on the Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Potential Antimicrobial Applications.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 18;6(29):18576-18590. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

4MAT, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP 194/03, 50 Avenue Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.

The bactericidal properties of copper oxide nanoparticles have growing interest due to potential application in the medical area. The present research investigates the influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) on the production of copper oxide nanoparticles prepared from copper sulfate (CuSO) and sodium borohydride (NaBH) solutions. Different analytical techniques were used to determine the crystal nature, mean size diameter, and surface morphology of the copper oxide nanoparticles. Read More

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Conductive Nanodiamond-Based Detection of Neurotransmitters: One Decade, Few Sensors.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 13;6(29):18548-18558. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Institute of Nanotechnology and Water Sustainability, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1700, South Africa.

Nanodiamond (ND) is a class of carbon nanomaterial with covalently connected sp carbon atoms in its core and an sp carbon adorned surface via edge defects or doping. Endogenous chemicals that provoke physiological responses in the human system called neurotransmitters (NTs) have been detected with several sensors with carbon-based nanomaterials. Nanodiamonds (NDs), another class of carbon nanomaterial, have shown the requisite surface area and electrocatalytic activity toward NTs in the past decade. Read More

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Air Temperature Reductions at the Base of Tree Canopies.

J Sustain Water Built Environ 2021 Aug;7(3)

Environmental Engineer, USEPA Office of Research and Development, 2890 Woodbridge Ave., MS 104, Edison, NJ 08837-3679.

Trees in urban settings have a significant role in regulating urban hydrologic cycles. Urban trees, either as standalone plantings or as part of a tree pit, are an increasingly popular stormwater management tool. Beyond their aesthetic contribution to urban environments, trees are widely accepted as reducing the ambient air temperature. Read More

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Bone marrow adiposity inversely correlates with bone turnover in pediatric renal osteodystrophy.

Bone Rep 2021 Dec 8;15:101104. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, United States of America.

Bone marrow adiposity is associated with bone disease in the general population. Although chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased bone fragility, the correlation between marrow adiposity and bone health in CKD is unknown. We evaluated the relationship between bone marrow adipocytes and bone histomorphometry in 32 pediatric patients. Read More

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December 2021

The pruritus severity scale-a novel tool to assess itch in burns patients.

Int J Burns Trauma 2021 15;11(3):156-162. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Cork University Hospital Cork, Ireland.

Background: Pruritus assessment is difficult due to the varying subjective nature of the experience. There have been several validated tools described to quantify the severity of itch, however these tools fail to provide a comprehensive assessment or are too cumbersome and therefore lack usability. Our novel burn assessment tool, (PSS) allows for accurate quantification of itch components. Read More

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Is Bigger Better? Living Donor Kidney Volume as Measured by the Donor CT Angiogram in Predicting Donor and Recipient eGFR after Living Donor Kidney Transplantation.

J Transplant 2021 9;2021:8885354. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Nephrology and Kidney Transplantation, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: The role of kidney volume measurement in predicting the donor and recipient kidney function is not clear.

Methods: We measured kidney volume bilaterally in living kidney donors using CT angiography and assessed the association with the donor remaining kidney and recipient kidney (donated kidney) function at 1 year after kidney transplantation. Donor volume was categorized into tertiles based on lowest, middle, and highest volume. Read More

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A Conformable Two-Dimensional Resistance Temperature Detector for Measuring Average Skin Temperature.

J Med Device 2021 Sep 8;15(3):031010. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 107 W Dean Keeton Street Stop C0800, Austin, TX 78712.

Thermoregulation research and various medical procedures are accomplished by manipulating skin temperature in a nonuniform pattern. Skin temperature monitoring is essential to assess conformance to protocol specifications and to prevent thermal injury. Existing solutions for skin temperature monitoring include single point sensors, such as thermocouples, and two-dimensional methods of sensing surface temperature, such as infrared thermography, and wearable technology. Read More

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September 2021

Corneal endothelial changes induced by pars plana vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade for retinal detachment.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Sep 7;22(3):961. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, Oculens Clinic, 400501 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Silicone oils are effective intraocular tamponade agents in the treatment of severe retinal detachments, because they maintain the adhesion between neurosensory retina and retinal pigment epithelium, thanks to their ability to remove aqueous humor from the surface of the retina. To understand their effectiveness, it is important to know the characteristics of silicone oils. Patients should be closely monitored due to many complications associated with intraocular silicon oil, such as inflammatory reaction, raised intraocular pressure, refraction disorders, cataract, and emulsification. Read More

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September 2021

Genetic Microbial Source Tracking Support QMRA Modeling for a Riverine Wetland Drinking Water Resource.

Front Microbiol 2021 14;12:668778. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Research Group Environmental Microbiology and Molecular Diagnostics E166/5/3, Institute of Chemical, Environmental and Bioscience Engineering, Vienna, Austria.

Riverine wetlands are important natural habitats and contain valuable drinking water resources. The transport of human- and animal-associated fecal pathogens into the surface water bodies poses potential risks to water safety. The aim of this study was to develop a new integrative modeling approach supported by microbial source tracking (MST) markers for quantifying the transport pathways of two important reference pathogens, and , from external (allochthonous) and internal (autochthonous) fecal sources in riverine wetlands considering safe drinking water production. Read More

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