23,461 results match your criteria suppression fungi


Human Gut Microbiota-associated Gastrointestinal Malignancies: A Comprehensive Review.

Radiographics 2021 May 14:200168. Epub 2021 May 14.

From the Department of Radiology, University of Texas Health at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Dr, San Antonio, TX 78229 (A.B., S.D., J.K., V.S.K.); University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex (S.K.); Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (V.M.); and Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Ariz (C.O.M.).

The human gastrointestinal tract houses trillions of microbes. The gut and various types of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and archaea, form a complex ecosystem known as the gut microbiota, and the whole genome of the gut microbiota is referred to as the gut microbiome. The gut microbiota is essential for homeostasis and the overall well-being of a person and is increasingly considered an adjunct "virtual organ," with a complexity level comparable to that of the other organ systems. Read More

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Characterization of FtsH Essentiality in Genetic Suppression.

Front Genet 2021 27;12:659220. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

MOE Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin, China.

FtsH belongs to the AAA+ ATP-dependent family of proteases, which participate in diverse cellular processes and are ubiquitous among bacteria, chloroplasts, and mitochondria. FtsH is poorly characterized in most organisms, especially compared to other major housekeeping proteases. In the current study, we examined the source of FtsH essentiality in the human oral microbiome species , one of the primary etiological agents of dental caries. Read More

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Cleavage of TANK-Binding Kinase 1 by HIV-1 Protease Triggers Viral Innate Immune Evasion.

Front Microbiol 2021 27;12:643407. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Microbiology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

Type-I interferons (IFN-I) are the innate immune system's principal defense against viral infections. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) has evolved several ways to suppress or evade the host's innate immunity in order to survive and replicate to sustain infection. Suppression of IFN-I is one among the multiple escape strategies used by HIV-1 to prevent its clearance. Read More

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miR-155 and miR-146a collectively regulate meningitic Escherichia coli infection-mediated neuroinflammatory responses.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 May 13;18(1):114. Epub 2021 May 13.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Background: Escherichia coli is the most common Gram-negative bacterium causing meningitis, and E. coli meningitis is associated with high mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Our previous study showed that E. Read More

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Compartmentalization of cerebrospinal fluid inflammation across the spectrum of untreated HIV-1 infection, central nervous system injury and viral suppression.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250987. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States of America.

Objective: To characterize the evolution of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in HIV-1 infection applying a panel of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory biomarkers to grouped subjects representing a broad spectrum of systemic HIV-1 immune suppression, CNS injury and viral control.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of archived CSF and blood samples, assessing concentrations of 10 functionally diverse soluble inflammatory biomarkers by immunoassays in 143 HIV-1-infected subjects divided into 8 groups: untreated primary HIV-1 infection (PHI); four untreated groups defined by their blood CD4+ T lymphocyte counts; untreated patients presenting with subacute HIV-associated dementia (HAD); antiretroviral-treated subjects with ≥1 years of plasma viral suppression; and untreated elite controllers. Twenty HIV-1-uninfected controls were included for comparison. Read More

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Secretory Mevalonate Kinase Regulates Host Immune Response and Facilitates Phagocytosis.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 26;11:641985. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Molecular Biology, ICMR-Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, India.

secretes over 151 proteins during cultivation. Cellular functions of one such novel protein: mevalonate kinase is discussed here; signifying its importance in infection. Visceral Leishmaniasis is a persistent infection, caused by in Indian subcontinent. Read More

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Restriction Factors expression decreases in HIV-1 patients after cART.

New Microbiol 2021 May 1;44(2). Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Activation of interferon (IFN) mediated responses and the consequent expression of restriction factors (RFs) represent an early line of defense against HIV-1 infection. The levels of viral replication and the antiviral are among the determinants influencing RFs' expression pattern. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating RFs activity and their relationship with viral replication factors might lead to new therapeutic strategies based on the enhancement of immune response against the virus. Read More

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Interaction of tacrolimus through hedgehog signaling pathway: An in vitro evaluation using rat hepatocytes.

Hum Exp Toxicol 2021 May 12:9603271211017313. Epub 2021 May 12.

Cell and Molecular Biology Lab, Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Tacrolimus (TAC) is the drug of choice in immunosuppressive therapy for organ transplantation; however, adverse effects are still a major concern. The current study aims to decipher the short-term exposure of TAC on rat hepatocytes in relation to activation of hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway. Time dependent study was conducted using primary rat hepatocytes treated with TAC (36 µM) for 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Read More

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The SARS-CoV-2 Transcriptome and the Dynamics of the S Gene Furin Cleavage Site in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

mBio 2021 05 11;12(3). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA

The spike (S) polypeptide of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) consists of the S1 and S2 subunits and is processed by cellular proteases at the S1/S2 boundary that contains a furin cleavage site (FCS), RRAR↓S Various deletions surrounding the FCS have been identified in patients. When SARS-CoV-2 propagated in Vero cells, it acquired deletions surrounding the FCS. We studied the viral transcriptome in Vero cell-derived SARS-CoV-2-infected primary human airway epithelia (HAE) cultured at an air-liquid interface (ALI) with an emphasis on the viral genome stability of the FCS. Read More

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The MNK1/2-eIF4E axis supports immune suppression and metastasis in postpartum breast cancer.

Cancer Res 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Goodman Cancer Research Center, McGill University.

Breast cancer diagnosed within 10 years following childbirth is defined as postpartum breast cancer (PPBC) and is highly metastatic. Interactions between immune cells and other stromal cells within the involuting mammary gland are fundamental in facilitating an aggressive tumor phenotype. The MNK1/2-eIF4E axis promotes translation of pro-metastatic mRNAs in tumor cells, but its role in modulating the function of non-tumor cells in the PPBC microenvironment has not been explored. Read More

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Azithromycin Exhibits Activity Against in Chronic Rat Lung Infection Model.

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:603151. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Microbiology, Daiichi Sankyo India Pharma Private Limited, Gurgaon, India.

forms biofilms in the lungs of chronically infected cystic fibrosis patients, which are tolerant to both the treatment of antibiotics and the host immune system. Normally, antibiotics are less effective against bacteria growing in biofilms; azithromycin has shown a potent efficacy in cystic fibrosis patients chronically infected with and improved their lung function. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of azithromycin on biofilm. Read More

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Anti-inflammatory effects of Water Extract are regulated by the STAT/NF-κB pathway and HO-1 expression in Virus-infected RAW264.7 cells.

Int J Med Sci 2021 30;18(11):2285-2293. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Post-Modern Agriculture, MingDao University, Changhua, Taiwan.

This study examined the effect of the Flos Lonicerae Japonicae water extract (FLJWE), chlorogenic acid, and luteolin on pseudorabies virus (PRV)-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 cells and elucidated related molecular mechanisms. The results revealed that FLJWE and luteolin, but not chlorogenic acid, inhibited the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inflammatory cytokines in PRV-infected RAW 264. Read More

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RNAi-mediated suppression of insect metalloprotease inhibitor (IMPI) enhances Galleria mellonella susceptibility to fungal infection.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 May 6:104126. Epub 2021 May 6.

Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, Laboratory of Biological Plant Protection and Biotechnology, Dobrolubova Str. 160, 630039, Novosibirsk, Russia; Siberian Federal Scientific Centre of Agro-BioTechnologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia. Electronic address:

The co-evolutionary arms race between disease-causing agents and their insect victims is ancient and complex - leading to the development of specialised attack and defence strategies. Among such strategies is the capacity of fungal and oomycete pathogens to deploy degradative enzymes, notably proteases, to facilitate infection directly across the integument. To counter these proteases, insects such as the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella release metalloprotease inhibitors and other immune factors to thwart the invading fungus. Read More

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Biocontrol of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita by a nematicidal bacterium Pseudomonas simiae MB751 with cyclic dipeptide.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Background: Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are harmful plant-parasitic nematodes that cause serious damage to plant hosts. In the long-term practice of RKN management, bacterial nematicides have attracted increasing attention as an effective biocontrol means. Here we determined the active substances against Meloidogyne incognita from a nematicidal bacterium, developed a biocontrol agent (BCA) based on optimized culture processes. Read More

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Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy following in utero HIV infection is associated with low viral reservoirs but other factors determine subsequent plasma viral rebound.

J Infect Dis 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

HIV Pathogenesis Programme, The Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Early HIV diagnosis allows combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation in the first days of life following in utero (IU) infection. The impact of early cART initiation on infant viral reservoir size in the setting of high-frequency cART non-adherence is unknown.

Methods: Peripheral blood total HIV DNA from 164 early treated (day 0-21 of life) IU HIV-infected South African infants was measured using droplet digital PCR at birth and following suppressive cART. Read More

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Sodium and its manifold impact on our immune system.

Trends Immunol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Molecular Medicine and Experimental Immunology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

The Western diet is rich in salt, and a high salt diet (HSD) is suspected to be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It is now widely accepted that an experimental HSD can stimulate components of the immune system, potentially exacerbating certain autoimmune diseases, or alternatively, improving defenses against certain infections, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis. However, recent findings show that an experimental HSD may also aggravate other infections (e. Read More

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Suppressive, Curative, and Prophylactic Potentials of an Antimalarial Polyherbal Mixture and its Individual Components in Plasmodium berghei-Infected Mice.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 4:114105. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Malaria remains one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in tropical regions of the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where it remains epidemiologically holoendemic. The absence of effective vaccines and Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial drugs have been the major challenges to malaria control measures. An alternative strategy could be the application of validated and standardized herbal formulations. Read More

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Resolution of hepatitis E virus infection in CD8+ T cell depleted rhesus macaques.

J Hepatol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Center for Vaccines and Immunity, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: HEV is a significant cause of acute hepatitis globally. Some genotypes establish persistent infection when immunity is impaired. Adaptive immune mechanisms that mediate resolution of infection have not been identified. Read More

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Suppression of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato infection by rhizosphere fungi.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Faculty of Applied Biological Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu Pref. 501-1193, Japan.

Background: Induced resistance against several plant pathogens was reported using different beneficial plant growth promoting microorganisms. The potential of 5 fungal isolates, Trichoderma harzianum GT 3-2, Fusarium equiseti GF 18-3, Fusarium equiseti GF 19-1, Phoma sp. GS 10-1 and Phoma sp. Read More

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Trichovariability in rhizosphere soil samples and their biocontrol potential against downy mildew pathogen in pearl millet.

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9517. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Studies in Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru, Karnataka, 570 006, India.

The present work is aimed to examine the genetic variability and the distribution pattern of beneficial Trichoderma spp. isolated from rhizosphere samples and their mode of action in improving the plant health. A total of 131 suspected fungi were isolated from the rhizospheric soil and 91 isolates were confirmed as Trichoderma spp. Read More

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A Quorum Sensing System Enables Suppression of Innate Immunity.

mBio 2021 05 4;12(3). Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Some bacterial pathogens utilize cell-cell communication systems, such as quorum sensing (QS), to coordinate genetic programs during host colonization and infection. The human-restricted pathosymbiont (group A streptococcus [GAS]) uses the Rgg2/Rgg3 QS system to modify the bacterial surface, enabling biofilm formation and lysozyme resistance. Here, we demonstrate that innate immune cell responses to GAS are substantially altered by the QS status of the bacteria. Read More

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Identification of a Sensitive Human Immunological Target of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation: CD5 Innate-Like B Cells.

Front Immunol 2021 15;12:635748. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States.

Xenobiotic-mediated activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is immunotoxic in a number of immune cell types, with the B cell being a well-established sensitive target. Recent advances have provided evidence that the B cell repertoire is a heterogeneous population, with subpopulations exhibiting vastly different cellular and functional phenotypes. Recent work from our laboratory identified the T cell specific kinase lck as being differentially regulated by (TCDD), which is a potent activator of AHR. Read More

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Does COVID-19 cause an increase in spleen dimensions? Possible effects of immune activation, hematopoietic suppression and microthrombosis.

Clin Imaging 2021 Apr 28;79:104-109. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Gulhane Medical Faculty, University of Health Sciences, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: To radiologically examine how the spleen size, which has important functions in hematological and immunological balance, is affected in COVID-19.

Methods: Between July 1 and August 31, 2020, consecutive patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were analyzed. Among these patients, those who underwent chest computed tomography (CT) examination at the time of presentation, patients with follow-up CT due to clinical deterioration were included in the study. Read More

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Male courtship song drives escape responses that are suppressed for successful mating.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 29;11(1):9227. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Champalimaud Research, Champalimaud Center for the Unknown, 1400-038, Lisbon, Portugal.

Persuasion is a crucial component of the courtship ritual needed to overcome contact aversion. In fruit flies, it is well established that the male courtship song prompts receptivity in female flies, in part by causing sexually mature females to slow down and pause, allowing copulation. Whether the above receptivity behaviours require the suppression of contact avoidance or escape remains unknown. Read More

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Myco-Suppression Analysis of Soybean () Damping-Off Caused by .

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 16;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Plant Pathology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.

The role of as a biocontrol agent against was investigated to avoid the harmful impacts of fungicides. Three isolates of (MS15, MS19, and MS31) were assessed facing the plant pathogenic the causal agent of damping-off. The tested species were recognized according to their cultural and microscopic characterizations. Read More

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Antiretroviral Drugs Impact Autophagy with Toxic Outcomes.

Cells 2021 Apr 15;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pathology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

Antiretroviral drugs have dramatically improved the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV (PLWH). While current antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are generally well-tolerated, risks for side effects and toxicity remain as PLWH must take life-long medications. Antiretroviral drugs impact autophagy, an intracellular proteolytic process that eliminates debris and foreign material, provides nutrients for metabolism, and performs quality control to maintain cell homeostasis. Read More

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Treatment with the Immunomodulator AIC649 in Combination with Entecavir Produces Antiviral Efficacy in the Woodchuck Model of Chronic Hepatitis B.

Viruses 2021 04 9;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA.

As current interventions for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) rarely induce cure, more effective drugs are needed. Short-term treatment of woodchucks with the novel immunomodulator AIC649, a parapoxvirus-based stimulator of toll-like receptor 9 dependent and independent pathways, has been shown to reduce viral DNA and surface antigen via a unique, biphasic response pattern. The present study evaluated long-term AIC649 treatment in combination with Entecavir for potency and safety in woodchucks. Read More

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Lung development, repair and cancer: A study on the role of MMP20 gene in adenocarcinoma.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(4):e0250552. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Sakaka, Aljouf Province, Saudi Arabia.

Multiple matrix metalloproteinases have significant roles in tissue organization during lung development, and repair. Imbalance of proteinases may lead to chronic inflammation, changes in tissue structure, and are also highly associated to cancer development. The role of MMP20 is not well studied in lung organogenesis, however, it was previously shown to be present at high level in lung adenocarcinoma. Read More

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Epidemiology of Post-Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis.

Indian J Dermatol 2021 Jan-Feb;66(1):12-23

Department of Dermatology, Bankura Sammilani Medical College, Bankura, West Bengal, India.

Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a cutaneous sequel of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar and has become an entity of epidemiological significance by virtue of its ability to maintain the disease in circulation during inter-epidemic periods. PKDL has been identified as one of the epidemiological marker of "kala-azar elimination programme." Data obtained in 2018 showed PKDL distribution primarily concentrated in 6 countries, which includes India, Sudan, south Sudan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Nepal in decreasing order of case-burden. Read More

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Nanoparticles Displaying Allergen and Siglec-8 Ligands Suppress IgE-FcεRI-Mediated Anaphylaxis and Desensitize Mast Cells to Subsequent Antigen Challenge.

J Immunol 2021 May 28;206(10):2290-2300. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA

Siglec-8 is an inhibitory receptor expressed on eosinophils and mast cells. In this study, we took advantage of a novel Siglec-8 transgenic mouse model to assess the impact of modulating IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation and anaphylaxis using a liposomal platform to display an allergen with or without a synthetic glycan ligand for Siglec-8 (Sig8L). The hypothesis is that recruitment of Siglec-8 to the IgE-FcεRI receptor complex will inhibit allergen-induced mast cell degranulation. Read More

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