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Rediscovering potential molecular targets for glioma therapy through the analysis of the cell of origin, microenvironment, and metabolism.

Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Tomas Lindahl Nobel Laureate Laboratory, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University (SYSU), No.628, Zhenyuan Rd, Guangming Dist., Shenzhen 518107. China.

Gliomas are the most common type of malignant brain tumors. Despite significant medical advances, gliomas remain incurable and are associated with high mortality. Although numerous biomarkers of diagnostic value have been identified and significant progress in the prognosis of the outcome has been made, the treatment has not been parallelly improved during the last three decades. Read More

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Biosynthetic gold nanoparticles of Hibiscus syriacus L. callus potentiates anti-inflammation efficacy via an autophagy-dependent mechanism.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 11;124:112035. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Graduate School of Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si 17104, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Biological applications of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) have potentially explored an efficient agent attributed to their biocompatibility and high efficiency in drug delivery. Our study applied an extract of Hibiscus syriacus L. callus (HCE) with a pioneer implementation on the induction of mass production. Read More

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Semi-Lethal Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia in Rats Lacking the Gene.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 7;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Laboratory of Transgenic Models of Diseases, Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, v.v.i., 252 50 Vestec, Czech Republic.

(non-metastatic cells 7, nucleoside diphosphate kinase 7) is a member of a gene family with a profound effect on health/disease status. NME7 is an established member of the ciliome and contributes to the regulation of the microtubule-organizing center. We aimed to create a rat model to further investigate the phenotypic consequences of gene deletion. Read More

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Autonomous Calcium Signaling in Human and Zebrafish Podocytes Controls Kidney Filtration Barrier Morphogenesis.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Davis Center for Regenerative Biology and Aging, Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine

Background: Podocytes are critical to maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier, and mutations in nephrotic syndrome genes are known to affect podocyte calcium signaling. However, the role of calcium signaling during podocyte development remains unknown.

Methods: We undertook live imaging of calcium signaling in developing podocytes, using zebrafish larvae and human kidney organoids. Read More

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Active surveillance for thyroid Cancer: a qualitative study of barriers and facilitators to implementation.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 28;21(1):471. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Wisconsin Surgical Outcomes Research Program, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.

Background: The 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines supported active surveillance (AS) as a strategy for managing select low-risk thyroid cancers. Data examining physicians' attitudes about the acceptability of this option are limited. This study aimed to characterize the barriers and facilitators to implementing AS as perceived by practicing endocrinologists and surgeons in the United States. Read More

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Twitter Speaks: An Analysis of Australian Twitter Users' Topics and Sentiments About COVID-19 Vaccination Using Machine Learning.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Discipline of Information Technology, Media and Communications, Murdoch University, 90 South St, Perth, AU.

Background: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is one of the greatest threats to human beings in terms of healthcare, economy and the society in recent history. Up to this moment, there are no signs of remission and there is no proven effective cure. The vaccine is the primary biomedical preventive measure against the novel coronavirus. Read More

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The structural and electrophysiological properties of progesterone receptor expressing neurons vary along the anterior-posterior axis of the ventromedial hypothalamus and undergo local changes across the reproductive cycle.

eNeuro 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Champalimaud Research, Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, Av. Brasilia, s/n Lisboa, Portugal

Sex hormone levels continuously fluctuate across the reproductive cycle, changing the activity of neuronal circuits to coordinate female behavior and reproductive capacity. The ventrolateral division of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) contains neurons expressing receptors for sex hormones and its function is intimately linked to female sexual receptivity. However, recent findings suggest that the VMHvl is functionally heterogeneous. Read More

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Police Perceptions of Sex-worker Rape Victims and Their Offenders: A Vignette Study.

Authors:
Liza Zvi

J Interpers Violence 2021 Apr 18:8862605211005140. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Ariel University, Israel.

Women who are sex workers are at high risk of being victims of sexual violence. Yet research suggests that their claims of victimization are not taken seriously enough and largely go unbelieved by the police. The current study goes beyond the issue of victim credibility to examine police officer blame attributions and judgments toward rape victims and offenders. Read More

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The C Factor: Cognitive dysfunction as a transdiagnostic dimension in psychopathology.

Clin Psychol Rev 2021 Mar 26;86:102007. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

NYC Medical and Neurological Offices, USA.

Research into cognitive functions across psychological disorders suggests that cognitive deficiencies may be present across multiple disorders, potentially pointing to a transdiagnostic phenomenon. More recently, a single dimension model of psychopathology, the p factor, has been proposed, in which cognitive deficits are thought to be an intrinsic construct, assumed to be transdiagnostic. However, no systematic investigation to date tested this hypothesis. Read More

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The role of tumor-associated macrophages in primary hepatocellular carcinoma and its related targeting therapy.

Int J Med Sci 2021 15;18(10):2109-2116. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Liver Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Liver macrophages consist of ontogenically distinct populations termed Kupffer cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) inhepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC) play a prominent role in tumormicroenvironment by presenting M1(induced by IFN γ along with LPS) and M2(induced by IL-4 and IL13) polarization. Although TAMs are involved in tumor immune surveillance during the course of HCC, they contribute to tumour progression at different levels by inhibiting the anti-tumor immune response, promoting the generation of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, and supporting the proliferation and survival of tumor cells. Read More

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Knowledge of and experience with transgender players among soccer team staff: a cross-sectional questionnaire design.

Phys Sportsmed 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Objectives: Transgender issues have become increasingly prominent in sports. However, knowledge of and experience with supporting transgender players across soccer team staff remain unclear. The objectives of this questionnaire-based study were to 1) clarify staff knowledge of transgender-related terminology; and 2) explore soccer team staff's awareness and experience with supporting transgender players. Read More

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A meta-analysis on individual differences in primary emotional systems and Big Five personality traits.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 2;11(1):7453. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Molecular Psychology, Institute for Psychology and Education, Ulm University, Helmholtzstraße 8/1, 89081, Ulm, Germany.

The Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS) were constructed as a self-report assessment to measure individual differences in Jaak Panksepp's cross-species primary emotional systems: SEEKING, PLAY, CARE (positive emotions) and FEAR, SADNESS, ANGER (negative emotions). Beginning with the first published work on the ANPS in 2003, individual differences on the ANPS measures of these six primary emotional systems have been consistently linked to Big Five personality traits. From a theoretical perspective, these primary emotional systems arising from subcortical regions, shed light on the nature of the Big Five personality traits from an evolutionary perspective, because each of these primary emotional systems represent a tool for survival endowing mammalian species with inherited behavioral programs to react appropriately to complex environments. Read More

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l-Aspartate: An Essential Metabolite for Plant Growth and Stress Acclimation.

Molecules 2021 Mar 26;26(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.

L-aspartate (Asp) serves as a central building block, in addition to being a constituent of proteins, for many metabolic processes in most organisms, such as biosynthesis of other amino acids, nucleotides, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and glycolysis pathway intermediates, and hormones, which are vital for growth and defense. In animals and humans, lines of data have proved that Asp is indispensable for cell proliferation. However, in plants, despite the extensive study of the Asp family amino acid pathway, little attention has been paid to the function of Asp through the other numerous pathways. Read More

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The Influence of Vitamin D Intake and Status on Mental Health in Children: A Systematic Review.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 16;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Food Market and Consumer Research, Institute of Human Nutrition Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS-SGGW), 159C Nowoursynowska Street, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland.

A potential role of vitamin D in some components of mental health is currently suggested, but the analyses are conducted mainly for adults, while for young individuals mental health is especially important, due to its lifelong effects. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between vitamin D intake or status and mental health in children within a systematic review of literature, including both intervention and observational studies. The literature search was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and it covered peer-reviewed studies included in databases of PubMed and Web of Science until October 2019. Read More

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Antioxidant Activity and Neuroprotective Role of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation in Eye Diseases That Can Lead to Blindness: A Narrative Review.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biomedicine, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.

The objective of this narrative review is to provide updated evidence, based on data from experimental and clinical studies, of the prominent role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) for a number of crucial mechanisms involved in counteracting cell damage induced by oxidative stress in eye diseases. This article is focused on the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which have been assessed in different experimental models and clinical studies, particularly in proliferative diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma that are the most common eye diseases leading to severe vision loss. The mechanisms involved in the role of DHA in protecting human retinal pigment epithelial cells from oxidative stress as well as the interaction with glutathione (GSH) are also described. Read More

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Modulation of Endosome Function, Vesicle Trafficking and Autophagy by Human Herpesviruses.

Cells 2021 Mar 4;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Santiago 8330025, Chile.

Human herpesviruses are a ubiquitous family of viruses that infect individuals of all ages and are present at a high prevalence worldwide. Herpesviruses are responsible for a broad spectrum of diseases, ranging from skin and mucosal lesions to blindness and life-threatening encephalitis, and some of them, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are known to be oncogenic. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that some herpesviruses may be associated with developing neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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How Can Malnutrition Affect Autophagy in Chronic Heart Failure? Focus and Perspectives.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 24;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cagliari, 09124 Cagliari, Italy.

Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a disease with important clinical and socio-economic ramifications. Malnutrition and severe alteration of the protein components of the body (protein disarrangements), common conditions in CHF patients, are independent correlates of heart dysfunction, disease progression, and mortality. Autophagy, a prominent occurrence in the heart of patients with advanced CHF, is a self-digestive process that prolongs myocardial cell lifespan by the removal of cytosolic components, such as aging organelles and proteins, and recycles the constituent elements for new protein synthesis. Read More

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Bearing witness to the challenges of breathlessness.

Br J Community Nurs 2021 Apr;26(4):162-166

Senior Lecturer in Adult Nursing, Oxford Brookes University.

The community respiratory nurse specialist (CRNS) supports patients at different stages of lung disease, witnessing the challenge of living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a progressive illness for which there is no cure. Breathlessness is the most prominent and debilitating symptom experienced; it is frightening, distressing and very difficult to manage. Little is known about the experience of CRNSs in witnessing the distress of patients, specifically those experiencing breathlessness. Read More

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Role of Charge Transfer in Halogen Bonding.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Apr 2;125(14):2944-2953. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Nanoscience, Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27401, United States.

Halogen bonding has received intensive attention recently for its applications in the construction of supramolecular assemblies and crystal engineering and its implications and potentials in chemical and biological processes and rational drug design. Peculiarly, in intermolecular interactions, halogen atoms are known as electron-donating groups carrying partial negative charges in molecules due to its high electronegativity, but they can counterintuitively act as Lewis acids and bind with Lewis bases in the form of a halogen bond. The unsettling issue regarding the nature of the halogen bonding is whether the electrostatics or charge transfer interaction dominates. Read More

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A link between gastrointestinal disorders and migraine: Insights into the gut-brain connection.

Headache 2021 Apr 1;61(4):576-589. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Background: Migraine is a complex, multifaceted, and disabling headache disease that is often complicated by gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, such as gastroparesis, functional dyspepsia, and cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS). Functional dyspepsia and CVS are part of a spectrum of disorders newly classified as disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI). Gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia are both associated with delayed gastric emptying, while nausea and vomiting are prominent in CVS, which are also symptoms that commonly occur with migraine attacks. Read More

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Civil-military cooperation in the early response to the COVID-19 pandemic in six European countries.

BMJ Mil Health 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Conflict and Health Research Group, King's College London-Strand Campus, London, UK.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has presented many countries with significant health system and economic challenges. The role of civil-military cooperation in a health crisis of the magnitude presented by COVID-19 remains virtually unexplored. This review aims to detect and identify typologies, if any, of associations between security or military systems and the national response measures during the COVID-19, as adopted by six European countries during the early phase of the outbreak (January to March 2020). Read More

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Infrared MALDI Mass Spectrometry with Laser-Induced Postionization for Imaging of Bacterial Colonies.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2021 Apr 29;32(4):1053-1064. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Institute of Hygiene, University of Münster, Robert-Koch-Str. 41, 48149 Münster, Germany.

Ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (UV-MALDI-MSI) is a powerful tool to visualize bacterial metabolites in microbial colonies and in biofilms. However, a challenge for the method is the efficient extraction of analytes from deeper within the bacterial colonies and from the cytoplasm of individual cells during the matrix coating step. Here, we used a pulsed infrared (IR) laser of 2. Read More

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Do Changes in Synaptic Autophagy Underlie the Cognitive Impairments in Huntington's Disease?

J Huntingtons Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Although Huntington's disease (HD) is classically considered from the perspective of the motor syndrome, the cognitive changes in HD are prominent and often an early manifestation of disease. As such, investigating the underlying pathophysiology of cognitive changes may give insight into important and early neurodegenerative events. In this review, we first discuss evidence from both HD patients and animal models that cognitive changes correlate with early pathological changes at the synapse, an observation that is similarly made in other neurodegenerative conditions that primarily affect cognition. Read More

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From cassava to gari: mapping of quality characteristics and end-user preferences in Cameroon and Nigeria.

Int J Food Sci Technol 2021 Mar 6;56(3):1223-1238. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

CIRAD UMR Qualisud Montpellier F-34398 France.

User's preferences of cassava and cassava products along the value chain are supported by specific root quality characteristics that can be linked to root traits. Therefore, providing an evidence base of user preferred characteristics along the value chain can help in the functional choice of cassava varieties. In this respect, the present paper presents the results from focus group discussions and individual interviews on user preferred quality characteristics of raw cassava roots and the derived product, , - one of the major cassava products in Sub-Saharan Africa - in major production and consumption areas of Cameroon and Nigeria. Read More

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Attitudes and Engagement of Pregnant and Postnatal Women With a Web-Based Emotional Health Tool (Mummatters): Cross-sectional Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Mar 26;23(3):e18517. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Perinatal & Women's Mental Health Unit, St John of God Burwood Hospital & School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Burwood, Australia.

Background: Mummatters is a web-based health tool that allows women to self-assess the symptoms of depression and the presence of psychosocial risk factors throughout pregnancy and the postnatal period. It aims to increase women's awareness of their own symptoms or risk factors and their knowledge of the available support options, to encourage engagement with these support options (as appropriate), and to facilitate communication about emotional health issues between women and their health care providers.

Objective: The aim of this study is to report the uptake of mummatters; the sociodemographic and psychosocial risk profiles of a subsample of users; and the acceptability, credibility, perceived effect, and motivational appeal of the tool. Read More

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Flexible FeS@FeO/CNT composite films as self-supporting anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 26;32(28). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China.

The transition metal sulfides/oxides have been considered as promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries due to their high theoretical capacities but have suffered limits from the unsatisfactory electronic conductivity and limited lifespan. Here, FeS micro-flowers are synthesized by hydrothermal treatment and are wared and grafted into layer-by-layer carbon nanotubes (CNT). Subsequently, FeS@FeO/CNT composite films are obtained by annealing, during which the FeS micro-flowers are partially oxidized to core-shell FeS@FeOmicro-flowers. Read More

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Association of the microbiome with colorectal cancer development (Review).

Int J Oncol 2021 May 24;58(5). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Biosciences, Manipal University Jaipur, Jaipur, Rajasthan 303007, India.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common malignancy causing cancer‑related mortality globally. It is the third most common type of cancer detected worldwide. The recent concept of the human body supporting a diverse community of microbes has revealed the important role these microbes play synergistically in maintaining normal homeostasis. Read More

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Association between parental control and subclinical depressive symptoms in a sample of college freshmen: Roles of empathy and gender.

J Affect Disord 2021 05 8;286:301-308. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, China; Research Center for Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: College freshmen are at high-risk for depressive symptoms after experiencing drastic transitions in a new environment. Perceived parental control has proved as a prominent role in an adolescent's mental health. However, the further understandings of the mechanisms underlying the relation between perceived parental control and freshmen's depressive symptoms are urgent. Read More

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Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; From a Leading Role in Pathogenesis to Potential Therapeutic Saviors?

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:643170. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

The pathogenesis of the autoimmune rheumatological diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is complex with the involvement of several immune cell populations spanning both innate and adaptive immunity including different T-lymphocyte subsets and monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. Despite therapeutic advances in RA and SLE, some patients have persistent and stubbornly refractory disease. Herein, we discuss stromal cells' dual role, including multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) also used to be known as mesenchymal stem cells as potential protagonists in RA and SLE pathology and as potential therapeutic vehicles. Read More

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February 2021

Public Epistemologies and Intellectual Interventions in Contemporary Italy.

Int J Polit Cult Soc 2021 21;34(1):47-68. Epub 2019 Dec 21.

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Building on recent work in the sociology of intellectual interventions, the study of cultural boundaries of science, and the role of ideas in politics, the article develops a theory of public epistemologies as argumentative tools people use to support or oppose political positions. Two prominent public epistemologies that have recently crystallized in Italian politics are taken as illustrations, with special attention paid to the role of two academics (an economist and an immunologist) turned public intellectuals. The article argues that the rise of populism in Italy has contributed to unusual alignments between political and epistemological positions, which has made questions about science and expert knowledge much more relevant in contesting and supporting political decisions. Read More

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December 2019