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Variational hysteresis and photoresponse behavior of MAPbX(X=I, Br, Cl) perovskite single crystals.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Faculty of Science, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China., Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310018, CHINA.

High-quality MAPbX(X=I, Br, Cl) single crystals with a desirable size were grown through an inverse temperature crystallization method. Systematically measurements of current-voltage (-) hysteresis show that the hysteresis is strongly dependent on the measuring protocol, including scan rate and light illumination condition, which reveals the competition of three main factors that influence the charge dynamics in different regimes, defect trap, MAdipoles rotation, and ion migration. In the dark, defect trapping is the dominant charge transport dynamics at low bias in the MAPbI, while the MAdipole rotation is significant in MAPbBr, and ion migration occurs in MAPbCl. Read More

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Psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospital workers over time: Relationship to occupational role, living with children and elders, and modifiable factors.

Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2021 May 5;71:88-94. Epub 2021 May 5.

Sinai Health, Toronto, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to have a sustained psychological impact on healthcare workers. We assessed individual characteristics related to changes in emotional exhaustion and psychological distress over time.

Methods: A survey of diverse hospital staff measured emotional exhaustion (Maslach Burnout Inventory) and psychological distress (K6) in Fall 2020 (T) and Winter 2021 (T). Read More

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Assessing the needs of caregivers of children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Results from a survey among families and professionals in Germany.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 May 3;33:1-8. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Pediatric Neurology and Developmental Medicine, LMU Center for Development and Children with Medical Complexity, German FASD Competence Centre Bavaria, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, LMU University Hospital Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Introduction: Caring for individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) puts a substantial and often life-long burden on affected families. Caregivers' specific needs and demands are, however, not well understood so far. We thus aimed at systematically collecting data on the needs of individuals caring for children and adolescents with FASD. Read More

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The role of local therapy in the treatment of solitary melanoma progression on immune checkpoint inhibition: A multicentre retrospective analysis.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 7;151:72-83. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Medical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Division of Molecular Oncology and Immunology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 AZ Leiden, the Netherlands.

Introduction: In patients with metastatic melanoma, progression of a single tumour lesion (solitary progression) after response to immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) is increasingly treated with local therapy. We evaluated the role of local therapy for solitary progression in melanoma.

Patients And Methods: Patients with metastatic melanoma treated with ICI between 2010 and 2019 with solitary progression as first progressive event were included from 17 centres in 9 countries. Read More

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Intranasal administration of transforming growth factor-β1 elicits rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects in a chronic social defeat stress model: A role of TrkB signaling.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 May 7;50:55-63. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chiba 260-8670, Japan. Electronic address:

(R,S)-ketamine causes rapid-acting and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant patients with depression although the precise molecular mechanisms underlying its antidepressant action remain unclear. We recently reported that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 might contribute to the antidepressant-like effects of (R)-ketamine that is a more potent enantiomer in rodents. Although TrkB signaling plays a role in the antidepressant-like actions of (R,S)-ketamine and its enantiomers, the role of TrkB signaling in the antidepressant effects of TGF-β1 remains unclear. Read More

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Protein expression and purification of G-protein coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6), toward structure-based drug design and discovery for multiple myeloma.

Protein Expr Purif 2021 May 7:105890. Epub 2021 May 7.

Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85281, USA; School of Molecular Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287, USA. Electronic address:

Human G-protein coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6) belongs to the GRK4 kinase subfamily of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase family which comprises of GRK1, GRK2, and GRK4. These kinases phosphorylate ligand-activated G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), driving heterotrimeric G protein coupling, desensitization of GPCR, and β-arrestin recruitment. This reaction series mediates cellular signal pathways for cell survival, proliferation, migration and chemotaxis. Read More

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Glucocorticoids and androgens protect from gastric metaplasia by suppressing group 2 innate lymphoid cell activation.

Gastroenterology 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Molecular Endocrinology Group; Signal Transduction Laboratory. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The immune compartment is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis. A weak immune response increases susceptibility to infection, but immune hyperactivation causes tissue damage, and chronic inflammation may lead to cancer development. In the stomach, inflammation damages the gastric glands and drives the development of potentially pre-neoplastic metaplasia. Read More

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Nur77 Attenuates Inflammasome Activation by Inhibiting Caspase-1 Expression in Pulmonary Vascular Endothelial Cells.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Thomas Jefferson University, 6559, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States;

Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that help trigger and maintain the inflammatory response as part of the innate immune system. Recently, it has been increasingly recognized that aberrant inflammasome activation is critically involved endothelial dysfunction in a variety of human diseases, such as atherosclerosis, acute lung injury (ALI), and type 2 diabetes. The molecular mechanisms underlying endothelial inflammasome activation, however, are not completely elucidated. Read More

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Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Language Following Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy Primed with Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation in 13 Patients with Post-Stroke Aphasia.

Med Sci Monit 2021 May 10;27:e930100. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

BACKGROUND Aphasia is a debilitating consequence of stroke. This study aimed to investigate the role of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation changes during overt language tasks in promoting language improvements following constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT) primed with intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) in 13 patients with aphasia following ischemic stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS Participants with post-stroke aphasia participated in CIAT primed with iTBS on 10 consecutive weekdays. Read More

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Training diabetes healthcare practitioners in motivational interviewing: a systematic review.

Health Psychol Rev 2021 May 10:1-27. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Diabetes presents significant self-care challenges that require sustained motivation. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has substantial support in enhancing motivation for behavioral change, but its effective application in routine healthcare requires practitioners to acquire and use related skills. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the impact of MI training on MI-related skills of practitioners who provide diabetes healthcare. Read More

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The role of non-genetic information in evolutionary frameworks.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2021 May 10:1-29. Epub 2021 May 10.

Cell Plasticity & Epigenetics Lab, Cancer Research UK - Manchester Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

The evolution of organisms has been a subject of paramount debate for hundreds of years and though major advances in the field have been made, the precise mechanisms underlying evolutionary processes remain fragmentary. Strikingly, the majority of the core principles accepted across the many fields of biology only consider genetic information as the major - if not exclusive - biological information carrier and thus consider it as the main evolutionary avatar. However, the real picture appears far more complex than originally anticipated, as compelling data suggest that nongenetic information steps up when highly dynamic evolutionary frameworks are explored. Read More

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Sociodemographic Characteristics and Physical Activity in Patients with COPD: A 3-Month Cohort Study.

COPD 2021 May 10:1-13. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Decreased physical activity (PA) is associated with morbidity and mortality in COPD patients. In this secondary analysis of data from a 12-week longitudinal study, we describe factors associated with PA in COPD. Participants completed the Physical Activity Checklist (PAC) daily for a 7- to 8-day period. Read More

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Accessing Targeted Therapies: A Potential Roadblock to Implementing Precision Oncology?

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 May 10:OP2000927. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division on Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Purpose: Advances in genomic techniques have led to increased use of next-generation sequencing (NGS). We evaluated the extent to which these tests guide treatment decisions.

Methods: We developed and distributed a survey assessing NGS use and outcomes to a survey pool of ASCO members. Read More

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The physiology of fish in acidic waters rich in dissolved organic carbon, with specific reference to the Amazon basin: Ionoregulation, acid-base regulation, ammonia excretion, and metal toxicity.

J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Although blackwaters, named for their rich content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), are often very poor in ions and very acidic, they support great fish biodiversity. Indeed, about 8% of all freshwater fish species live in the blackwaters of the Rio Negro watershed in the Amazon basin. We review how native fish survive these harsh conditions that would kill most freshwater fish, with a particular focus on the role of DOC, a water quality parameter that has been relatively understudied. Read More

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Home-care robots - Attitudes and perceptions among older people, carers and care professionals in Ireland: A questionnaire study.

Health Soc Care Community 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Frontier Medical Engineering, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Many countries face major challenges to ensure that their health and social care systems are ready for the growing numbers of older people (OP). As a way of realising ageing in place, assistive technologies such as home-care robots are expected to play a greater role in the future. In Asia and Europe, robots are gradually being adopted as a public policy solution to the workforce shortage. Read More

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Surfactant therapy via thin catheter in preterm infants with or at risk of respiratory distress syndrome.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 May 10;5:CD011672. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Paediatrics, Royal Hobart Hospital, Hobart, Australia.

Background: Non-invasive respiratory support is increasingly used for the management of respiratory dysfunction in preterm infants. This approach runs the risk of under-treating those with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), for whom surfactant administration is of paramount importance. Several techniques of minimally invasive surfactant therapy have been described. Read More

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Sad Eyes, Crooked Crosses: Religious Struggles, Psychological Distress and the Mediating Role of Psychosocial Resources.

J Relig Health 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Sociology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA.

In this paper, we employed data from the 2011 Miami-Dade Health Survey (n = 444) to formally test whether the association between religious struggles and psychological distress is mediated by psychosocial resources. We found that religious struggles were associated with lower levels of social support, self-esteem, the sense of control, and self-control. We also observed that religious struggles were associated with higher levels of non-specific emotional distress, depression, and anxiety, but not somatization. Read More

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Mural granulosa cells support to maintain the viability of growing porcine oocytes and its developmental competence after insemination.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

HORAC Grand Front Osaka Clinic, Osaka, 530-0011, Japan.

Purpose: To enhance the in vitro growth of porcine oocytes, we studied the effect of mural granulosa cells (MGCs) on the viability of oocytes attached to granulosa cells (oocyte-granulosa cell complexes, OGCs) that were obtained from early antral follicles.

Methods And Results: When OGCs were cultured with MGCs for 12 days, there were significant improvement (P < 0.05) in the robustness of gap junctional communication between the oocyte and the granulosa cells (82% vs. Read More

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Estrogen normalizes maternal HFD induced cardiac hypertrophy in offspring by regulating AT2R.

J Endocrinol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Q Xue, Department of Pharmacology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182, China.

Our previous study has demonstrated maternal high-fat diet (HFD) caused a sex-dependent cardiac hypertrophy in adult male, but not female offspring. The present study tested the hypothesis that estrogen normalizes maternal HFD-induced cardiac hypertrophy by regulating angiotensin II receptor (ATR) expression in adult female offspring. Pregnant rats were divided into normal diet (ND) and HFD (60% kcal fat) groups. Read More

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The emerging role of FTY720 as a sphingosine 1-phosphate analog for the treatment of ischemic stroke: The cellular and molecular mechanisms.

Brain Behav 2021 May 10:e02179. Epub 2021 May 10.

Histomorphometry and Stereology Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Finding novel and effective drugs for the treatment of ischemic stroke is warranted because there is not a definitive treatment for this prevalent disease. Due to the relevance between the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor and several neurological diseases including ischemic stroke, it seems that fingolimod (FTY720), as an agonist of S1P receptor, can be a useful therapeutic strategy in these patients. FTY720 is the first oral drug approved by the US food and drug administration for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Read More

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Collectively coping with coronavirus: Local community identification predicts giving support and lockdown adherence during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Br J Soc Psychol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Università Degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

The role of shared identity in predicting both ingroup helping behaviour and adherence to protective norms during COVID-19 has been extensively theorized, but remains largely under-investigated. We build upon previous Social Identity research into community resilience by testing the role of pre-existing local community (or 'neighbourhood') identity as a predictor of these outcomes, via the mediator of perceived social support. Community residents in the UK completed a longitudinal online survey four months before lockdown (T1; N = 253), one month before lockdown (T2; N = 217), and two months into lockdown (T3; N = 149). Read More

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The extracellular matrix protein agrin is essential for epicardial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition during heart development.

Development 2021 May 10;148(9). Epub 2021 May 10.

Burdon-Sanderson Cardiac Science Centre, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT, UK.

During heart development, epicardial cells residing within the outer layer undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migrate into the underlying myocardium to support organ growth and morphogenesis. Disruption of epicardial EMT results in embryonic lethality, yet its regulation is poorly understood. Here, we report epicardial EMT within the mesothelial layer of the mouse embryonic heart at ultra-high resolution using scanning electron microscopy combined with immunofluorescence analyses. Read More

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Untangling interactivity's effects: The role of cognitive absorption, perceived visual informativeness, and cancer information overload.

Patient Educ Couns 2021 May 13;104(5):1059-1065. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Health Outcomes and Behavior, Moffit Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, 33612, United States.

Objective: Learning about clinical trials is as stressful and challenging for cancer patients as it is for the clinical staff who provide education to patients. Information aids (IAs) can support both discussions and patients' decision-making, especially when IAs offer interactive features that provide information based on individuals' needs and experiences. However, it is not clear which factors contribute to interactive IAs' effectiveness. Read More

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Upregulation of Inflammatory Cytokines in Pulmonary Embolism Using Biochip-Array Profiling.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2021 Jan-Dec;27:10760296211013107

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL, USA.

The complex pathophysiology of pulmonary embolism (PE) involves hemostatic activation, inflammatory processes, cellular dysfunction, and hemodynamic derangements. Due to the heterogeneity of this disease, risk stratification and diagnosis remains challenging. Biochip-array technology provides an integrated high throughput method for analyzing blood plasma samples for the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers for potential risk stratification. Read More

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Interdisciplinary Differences in Patient Safety Culture within a Teaching Hospital in a South East Asia.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 May 10:e14333. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya.

Background: Patient safety represents a global issue which leads to potentially avoidable morbidity and mortality. The healthcare providers perception and their role are utmost important in delivering quality care and patient safety. This study aimed to determine the interdisciplinary differences in patient safety culture in a tertiary university hospital. Read More

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Salt glands play a pivotal role in the salt resistance of four recretohalophyte Limonium Mill. species.

Plant Biol (Stuttg) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Stress, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Ji'nan Shandong, 250014, P.R. China.

Limonium Mill. plants are typical recretohalophytes, as they withstand salt stress by secreting excess salt onto the leaf surface through salt glands. However, it's known little on the salinity thresholds of these plants and function of their salt glands in salt tolerance. Read More

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The Landmark Series: Surgical Treatment of Colorectal Cancer Peritoneal Metastases.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Digestive and Oncological Surgery, Hôpital Saint-Louis - APHP, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Background: Peritoneal metastases (PM) are a form of metastatic spread affecting approximately 5-15% of colon cancer patients. The attitude towards management of peritoneal metastases has evolved from therapeutic nihilism towards a more comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, in large part due to the development of cytoreductive surgery (CRS), usually coupled with heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), along with the constant improvement of systemic chemotherapy of colorectal cancer. Several landmark studies, including 5 randomized controlled trials have marked the development and refinement of surgical approaches to treating colorectal cancer peritoneal metastases. Read More

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Sox11 regulates mammary tumour-initiating and metastatic capacity in Brca1-deficient mouse mammary tumour cells.

Dis Model Mech 2021 May 10;14(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

The Breast Cancer Now Toby Robins Research Centre, Division of Breast Cancer Research, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, SW3 6JB, UK.

Little is known about the role of Sox11 in the regulation of mammary progenitor cells. Sox11 is expressed by mammary bud epithelial cells during embryonic mammary gland development and is not detected in mammary epithelial cells after birth. As Sox11 is an oncofetal gene, we investigated the effects of reducing Sox11 levels in embryonic mammary progenitor cells and found that Sox11 regulates proliferative state, stem cell activity and lineage marker expression. Read More

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Divergent and self-reactive immune responses in the CNS of COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms.

Cell Rep Med 2021 May 3:100288. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

COVID-19 patients frequently develop neurological symptoms, but the biological underpinnings of these phenomena are unknown. Through single cell RNA-seq and cytokine analyses of CSF and blood from COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms, we find compartmentalized, CNS specific T cell activation and B cell responses. All COVID-19 cases had CSF anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies whose target epitopes diverged from serum antibodies. Read More

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Alpha 1 Antitrypsin is an Inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2-Priming Protease TMPRSS2.

Pathog Immun 2021 26;6(1):55-74. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH.

Background: Host proteases have been suggested to be crucial for dissemination of MERS, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses, but the relative contribution of membrane versus intracellular proteases remains controversial. Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) is regarded as one of the main proteases implicated in the coronavirus S protein priming, an important step for binding of the S protein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor before cell entry.

Methods: We developed a cell-based assay to identify TMPRSS2 inhibitors. Read More

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