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Evolution and Plasticity of Genome-Wide Meiotic Recombination Rates.

Annu Rev Genet 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Plant Evolutionary Genetics, Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Department of Biology, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland; email:

Sex, as well as meiotic recombination between homologous chromosomes, is nearly ubiquitous among eukaryotes. In those species that use it, recombination is important for chromosome segregation during gamete production, and thus for fertility. Strikingly, although in most species only one crossover event per chromosome is required to ensure proper segregation, recombination rates vary considerably above this minimum and show variation within and among species. Read More

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Attractor dynamics of elite performance: the high bar longswing.

Sports Biomech 2021 Jul 26:1-14. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter UK.

Combining biomechanics and motor control, the aim of this study was to investigate the limit cycle dynamics during the high bar longswing across the UK elite gymnastics pathway age groupings. Senior, junior and development gymnasts (N = 30) performed three sets of eight consecutive longswings on the high bar. The centre of mass motion was examined through Poincaré plots and recurrence quantification analysis exploring the limit cycle dynamics of the longswing. Read More

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Response to Comment on "Eppur si Muove: Proton Diffusion in Halide Perovskite Single Crystals": Measure What is Measurable, and Make Measurable What is Not So: Discrepancies between Proton Diffusion in Halide Perovskite Single Crystals and Thin Films.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 26:e2102822. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl Street, Rehovot, 7610001, Israel.

Buffeteau et al. note that the proton diffusion coefficient in MAPbI that is deduced (by the authors) from results, obtained by a suite of complementary techniques, on a large number of single crystals (Adv. Mater. Read More

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Evaluating the Leucine Trigger Hypothesis to Explain the Post-prandial Regulation of Muscle Protein Synthesis in Young and Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

Front Nutr 2021 8;8:685165. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

The "leucine trigger" hypothesis was originally conceived to explain the post-prandial regulation of muscle protein synthesis (MPS). This hypothesis implicates the magnitude (amplitude and rate) of post-prandial increase in blood leucine concentrations for regulation of the magnitude of MPS response to an ingested protein source. Recent evidence from experimental studies has challenged this theory, with reports of a disconnect between blood leucine concentration profiles and post-prandial rates of MPS in response to protein ingestion. Read More

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The effects of adaptation to urea on feeding rates and growth in larvae.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 21;11(14):9516-9529. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of California, Irvine Irvine CA USA.

A collection of forty populations were used to study the phenotypic adaptation of larvae to urea-laced food. A long-term goal of this research is to map genes responsible for these phenotypes. This mapping requires large numbers of populations. Read More

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Wired to punish? Electroencephalographic study of the resting-state neuronal oscillations underlying third-party punishment.

Neuroscience 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience, International Laboratory of Social Neuroscience, HSE University, Moscow, Russian Federation. Electronic address:

For over a decade, neuroimaging and brain stimulation studies have investigated neural mechanisms of third-party punishment, a key instrument for social norms enforcement. However, the neural dynamics underlying these mechanisms are still unclear. Previous electroencephalographic studies on third-party punishment have shown that inter-brain connectivity is linked to punishment behavior. Read More

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General anesthesia disrupts complex cortical dynamics in response to intracranial electrical stimulation in rats.

eNeuro 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

The capacity of human brain to sustain complex cortical dynamics appears to be strongly associated with conscious experience and consistently drops when consciousness fades. For example, several recent studies in humans found a remarkable reduction of the spatiotemporal complexity of cortical responses to local stimulation during dreamless sleep, general anesthesia, and coma. However, this perturbational complexity has never been directly estimated in non-human animals previously, and the mechanisms that prevent neocortical neurons to engage in complex interactions are still unclear. Read More

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Can Physical Activity Reduce the Risk of Cognitive Decline in Apolipoprotein e4 Carriers? A Systematic Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 6;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Physiatry and Nursing, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain.

Physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of cognitive decline (CD) in the general population. However, little is known about whether the presence of the apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele () could modify this beneficial effect. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze and synthetize the scientific evidence related to PA levels and CD risk in cognitively healthy carriers. Read More

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Color discrimination in anomalous trichromacy: Experiment and theory.

Vision Res 2021 Jul 20;188:85-95. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

In anomalous trichromacy, the color signals available from comparing the activities of the two classes of cone sensitive in the medium and long wavelength parts of the spectrum are much reduced from those available in normal trichromacy, and color discrimination thresholds along the red-green axis are correspondingly elevated. Yet there is evidence that suprathreshold color perception is relatively preserved; this has led to the suggestion that anomalous trichromats post-receptorally amplify their impoverished red-green signals. To test this idea, we measured chromatic discrimination from white and from saturated red and green pedestals. Read More

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Hidden costs of anticipated workload for individuals and partners: Exploring the role of daily fluctuations in workaholism.

J Occup Health Psychol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Hankamer School of Business, Baylor University.

The present study advances a within-person approach to the study of workaholism in line with whole trait theory, arguing that individuals have general workaholic tendencies as well as daily fluctuations in workaholism. We tested this model using an experience sampling study of 121 U.S. Read More

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The articulatory in-out effect: Driven by consonant preferences?

J Pers Soc Psychol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Consumer and Economic Psychology, University of Mannheim.

The articulatory in-out effect describes the preference for stimuli with an inward-wandering consonant order (e.g., BODIKA) as opposed to an outward-wandering consonant order (e. Read More

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Foragers and Their Tools: Risk, Technology and Complexity.

Kim Sterelny

Top Cogn Sci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Philosophy, RSSS, Australian National University.

The subsistence technology of forager communities has varied greatly over space and time. This paper (i) reviews briefly the main causal factors the literature identifies as responsible for this variation; (ii) analyzes in some detail the most prominent idea in the literature on spatial variation:Complex technology is an adaptive response to elevated risks of subsistence failure; (iii) it argues that the alleged empirical support for this hypothesis depends on dubious proxies of risk; (iv) it argues that it fails to explain the subsistence technologies of desert foragers, who generally live with simple technologies in high-risk environments; (v) it offers an alternative analysis, based on the reduced opportunity costs of complex technologies in highly seasonal environments, on the high value of typical forager targets in those environments and their relatively predictable location in space and time; and (v) the paper concludes with a conjecture about the role of environmental variation in toolkit change over deep time. Read More

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An Optimization Algorithm for Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Based on Support Vector Machine.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 5;9:698390. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Network Information Center, Tianjin Baodi Hospital, Tianjin, China.

As one of the most vulnerable cancers of women, the incidence rate of breast cancer in China is increasing at an annual rate of 3%, and the incidence is younger. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the risk of breast cancer, including the cause of disease and the prediction of breast cancer risk based on historical data. Data based statistical learning is an important branch of modern computational intelligence technology. Read More

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Prior Night Sleep Affects Next-Day Pain Interference Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Lower Extremity Chronic Pain.

Res Gerontol Nurs 2021 Jul-Aug;14(4):173-179. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Emergent work suggests that sleep is a robust biobehavioral predictor of pain; however, it remains unclear how sleep is prospectively linked to pain on a day-to-day basis among older adults. The current prospective study examined how sleep duration (total sleep time), quality (sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset), and late and irregular sleep timing influenced next-day pain perception among community-dwelling older adults ( = 10; 65 matched observations) with lower extremity chronic pain over 1 week. Multilevel modeling estimated the association between sleep (Actigraph GT9X Link) and pain perception (Brief Pain Inventory Short Form). Read More

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Commodification of biomaterials and data when funding is contingent to transfer in biobank research.

Mantombi Maseme

Med Health Care Philos 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), Biobank, 25 Hospital Street, Constitution Hill, Johannesburg, South Africa.

It is common practice for biobanks and biobank researchers to seek funding from agencies that are independent of the biobank that often stipulate conditions requiring researchers to grant access and share biomaterials and data as part of the agreement, in particular, in international collaborative health research. As yet, to the author's knowledge, there has been no study conducted to examine whether these conditions could result in the commercialization of biomaterials and data and whether such practice is considered ethical. This paper therefore seeks to answer the question of whether such sharing of biomaterials and data for biobank research in exchange for funding from sponsors and funders in collaborative health research is ethically justified. Read More

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Chronic Pain is Associated With Reduced Sympathetic Nervous System Reactivity During Simple and Complex Walking Tasks: Potential Cerebral Mechanisms.

Chronic Stress (Thousand Oaks) 2021 Jan-Dec;5:24705470211030273. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Pain Research & Intervention Center of Excellence, University of Florida, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Background: Autonomic dysregulation may lead to blunted sympathetic reactivity in chronic pain states. Autonomic responses are controlled by the central autonomic network (CAN). Little research has examined sympathetic reactivity and associations with brain CAN structures in the presence of chronic pain; thus, the present study aims to investigate how chronic pain influences sympathetic reactivity and associations with CAN brain region volumes. Read More

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Reconceptualising health security in post-COVID-19 world.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 07;6(7)

Political Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

While drawing upon the existing literature and policy documents on health security and its practice at the national and global levels, this article shows that the idea of health security has mostly remained rhetoric or at the most conceptualised and operationalised within the narrow Westphalian tradition of protecting nation states from external threats. By undertaking a critical examination of the national security strategies of some powerful G-20 countries, we show that non-traditional threats such as infectious diseases and pandemics are either absent from the list of potential threats or are accorded a weak priority and addressed within the state and military-centric notion of security. This approach has shortcomings that are laid bare by the ongoing pandemic. Read More

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Stimulus variability and task relevance modulate binding-learning.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708, USA.

Classical theories of attention posit that integration of features into object representation (or feature binding) requires engagement of focused attention. Studies challenging this idea have demonstrated that feature binding can happen outside of the focus of attention for familiar objects, as well as for arbitrary color-orientation conjunctions. Detection performance for arbitrary feature conjunction improves with training, suggesting a potential role of perceptual learning mechanisms in the integration of features, a process called "binding-learning". Read More

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Spatial attention shifts contribute to the size congruity effect.

Anqi Wang Yi Pan

Atten Percept Psychophys 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Psychology, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 311121, China.

The size congruity effect in a numerical Stroop task shows that magnitude judgments of two numbers are faster and more accurate when the numerically larger number also appears in a physically larger size, indicating the interaction between numerical and physical magnitudes. It has recently been suggested that spatial shifts of attention between the two numbers may contribute to the size congruity effect. However, a complete line of evidence for the attentional attribution to the size congruity effect remains to be established. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 antibody dynamics and transmission from community-wide serological testing in the Italian municipality of Vo'.

Nat Commun 2021 07 19;12(1):4383. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

In February and March 2020, two mass swab testing campaigns were conducted in Vo', Italy. In May 2020, we tested 86% of the Vo' population with three immuno-assays detecting antibodies against the spike and nucleocapsid antigens, a neutralisation assay and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Subjects testing positive to PCR in February/March or a serological assay in May were tested again in November. Read More

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Evaluation of the level of serum Interleukins (IL-2, IL-4, IL-15 andIL-17) and its relationship with disease severity in patients with alopecia areata.

An Bras Dermatol 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a hair disease that causes hair loss without scarring. The etiopathogenesis of AA has not been fully understood yet.

Objective: To determine serum interleukin levels (IL-2, IL-4, IL-15, and IL-17) in patients diagnosed with alopecia areata and to investigate the relationship of IL levels with the duration and severity of alopecia areata and the response to tofacitinib therapy. Read More

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The role of Doppler ultrasonography in vascular access surveillance-controversies continue.

J Vasc Access 2021 Jul 20:1129729820928174. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Nephrology Department, Parc Taulí University Hospital, Parc Taulí Research and Innovation Institute (I3PT), Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Chronic hemodialysis therapy required regular entry into the patient's blood stream with adequate flow. The use of arteriovenous fistulas and grafts is linked with lower morbidity and mortality than the use of catheters. However, these types of accesses are frequently affected by stenoses, which decrease the flow and lead to both inadequate dialysis and access thrombosis. Read More

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EVOO Polyphenols Relieve Synergistically Autophagy Dysregulation in a Cellular Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 5;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Biomedical, Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University of Firenze, 50134 Firenze, Italy.

(1) Background: Autophagy, the major cytoplasmic process of substrate turnover, declines with age, contributing to proteostasis decline, accumulation of harmful protein aggregates, damaged mitochondria and to ROS production. Accordingly, abnormalities in the autophagic flux may contribute to many different pathophysiological conditions associated with ageing, including neurodegeneration. Recent data have shown that extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols stimulate cell defenses against plaque-induced neurodegeneration, mainly, through autophagy induction. Read More

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Compliance, practices, and attitudes towards VTIs (Vehicle Technical Inspections) in Spain: What prevents Spanish drivers from checking up their cars?

PLoS One 2021 19;16(7):e0254823. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

DATS (Development and Advising in Traffic Safety) Research Group, INTRAS (Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Objective: Mechanical conditions of vehicles may play a determinant role in driving safety, the reason why vehicle periodical technical inspections (VTIs) are mandatory in many countries. However, the high number of drivers sanctioned for not complying with this regulation is surprisingly high, and there is not much evidence on what kind(s) of motives may explain this concerning panorama. This study aimed to identify the aspects that modulate the relationship between complying (or not) with VTI's standards in a nationwide sample of Spanish drivers. Read More

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Discriminant value of repetitive behaviors in families with autism spectrum disorder and obsessional compulsive disorder probands.

Autism Res 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Robert Debré Hospital, APHP, Paris, France.

Repetitive behaviors (RB) represent a wide spectrum of symptoms ranging from sensory-motor stereotypies to complex cognitive rituals, frequently dichotomized as low- and high-order sub-groups of symptoms. Even though these subgroups are considered as phenomenologically distinct in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), brain imaging and genetic studies suggest that they have common mechanisms and pathways. This discrepancy may be explained by the frequent intellectual disability reported in ASD, which blurs the RB expressivity. Read More

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Mouse Spexin: (I) NMR Solution Structure, Docking Models for Receptor Binding, and Histological Expression at Tissue Level.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 2;12:681646. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Spexin (SPX), a highly conserved neuropeptide, is known to have diverse functions and has been implicated/associated with pathological conditions, including obesity, diabetes, anorexia nervosa, and anxiety/mood disorders. Although most of the studies on SPX involved the mouse model, the solution structure of mouse SPX, structural aspects for SPX binding with its receptors GalR2/3, and its cellular expression/distribution in mouse tissues are largely unknown. Using CD and NMR spectroscopies, the solution structure of mouse SPX was shown to be in the form of a helical peptide with a random coil from Asn to Pro in the N-terminal followed by an α-helix from Gln to Gln in the C-terminus. Read More

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Leismanicidal Activity of Propolis Collected in the Semiarid Region of Brazil.

Front Pharmacol 2021 1;12:702032. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Phytochemical Bioprospecting Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Rural Federal University of Pernambuco, Pernambuco, Brazil.

The aim of the current study is to investigate the chemical composition, cytotoxic effect, and leishmanicidal activity of propolis collected in the semi-arid region of Bahia, Brazil. EtOH extract, hexane, EtOAc and MeOH fractions from propolis were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The identification was based on the exact mass, general fragmentation behaviors and UV absorption of the flavonoids. Read More

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New but for whom? Discourses of innovation in precision agriculture.

Agric Human Values 2021 Jul 14:1-19. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Geography, Environment and Geomatics, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, ON N1G2W1 Canada.

We describe how the set of tools, practices, and social relations known as "precision agriculture" is defined, promoted, and debated. To do so, we perform a critical discourse analysis of popular and trade press websites. Promoters of precision agriculture champion how big data analytics, automated equipment, and decision-support software will optimize yields in the face of narrow margins and public concern about farming's environmental impacts. Read More

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T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging as a novel predictor of surgical remission in newly diagnosed pituitary macroadenomas presenting as acromegaly.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Aug 7;90:105-111. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey; Pituitary Center, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Background: Any preoperative diagnostic assessment that can predict the success of the operation in acromegaly will provide a positive impact on overall remission rates. The aim of this study is to reveal whether the signal intensity in T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging can predict postoperative results in acromegaly patients with macroadenoma.

Methods: We analyzed our surgical results in regard to T2-weighted images in newly diagnosed consecutive 124 patients with acromegaly, operated between 2014 and 2019. Read More

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Overexpression of the PLK4 Gene as a Novel Strategy for the Treatment of Autosomal Recessive Microcephaly by Improving Centrosomal Dysfunction.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Center of Prenatal Diagnosis, Women and Children's Hospital, Xiamen University, Siming District, 10 Zhenhai Road, 361001, P.R. China, Xiamen, Fujian.

Autosomal recessive microcephaly and chorioretinopathy (MCCRP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, growth retardation with dwarfism, and ocular abnormalities, and its occurrence has been found to be closely related to variants of the gene encoding centrosomes. However, the association between centrosomal duplication defects and the etiology of microcephaly syndromes is poorly understood. It is well known that polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) is a key regulator of centriole duplication, and the abnormalities of centrosomal function caused by its protein variation need to be further explored in the pathogenesis of microcephaly. Read More

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