3,106 results match your criteria summarize preclinical

Emerging contrast agents for multispectral optoacoustic imaging and their biomedical applications.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Luminescence from Molecular Aggregates, College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Wushan Road 381, Guangzhou, 510640, China.

Optoacoustic imaging is a hybrid biomedical imaging modality which collects ultrasound waves generated via photoexciting contrast agents in tissues and produces images of high resolution and penetration depth. As a functional optoacoustic imaging technique, multispectral optoacoustic imaging, which can discriminate optoacoustic signals from different contrast agents by illuminating samples with multi-wavelength lasers and then processing the collected data with specific algorithms, assists in the identification of a specific contrast agent in target tissues and enables simultaneous molecular and physiological imaging. Moreover, multispectral optoacoustic imaging can also generate three-dimensional images for biological tissues/samples with high resolution and thus holds great potential in biomedical applications. Read More

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CAR T Cell-Based Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Glioblastoma.

Front Neurosci 2021 25;15:662064. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Current treatment options typically consist of surgery followed by chemotherapy or more frequently radiotherapy, however, median patient survival remains at just over 1 year. Therefore, the need for novel curative therapies for GBM is vital. Read More

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Metastasis-associated fibroblasts: an emerging target for metastatic cancer.

Biomark Res 2021 Jun 10;9(1):47. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, #305, East Zhongshan Road, 210002, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Metastasis suggests a poor prognosis for cancer patients, and treatment strategies for metastatic cancer are still very limited. Numerous studies have shown that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), a large component of the tumor microenvironment, contribute to tumor metastasis. Stromal fibroblasts at metastatic sites are different from CAFs within primary tumors and can be termed metastasis-associated fibroblasts (MAFs), and they also make great contributions to the establishment of metastatic lesions and the therapeutic resistance of metastatic tumors. Read More

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Stem cells in the treatment of renal fibrosis: a review of preclinical and clinical studies of renal fibrosis pathogenesis.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Jun 10;12(1):333. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Nephrology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, No. 69 Dongsha Road, Shantou, 515041, China.

Renal fibrosis commonly leads to glomerulosclerosis and renal interstitial fibrosis and the main pathological basis involves tubular atrophy and the abnormal increase and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). Renal fibrosis can progress to chronic kidney disease. Stem cells have multilineage differentiation potential under appropriate conditions and are easy to obtain. Read More

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Bench-to-Bedside in Vascular Medicine: Optimizing the Translational Pipeline for Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease.

Circ Res 2021 Jun 10;128(12):1927-1943. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA (T.A., N.J.L.).

Peripheral arterial disease is a growing worldwide problem with a wide spectrum of clinical severity and is projected to consume >$21 billion per year in the United States alone. While vascular researchers have brought several therapies to the clinic in recent years, few of these approaches have leveraged advances in high-throughput discovery screens, novel translational models, or innovative trial designs. In the following review, we discuss recent advances in unbiased genomics and broader omics technology platforms, along with preclinical vascular models designed to enhance our understanding of disease pathobiology and prioritize targets for additional investigation. Read More

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Secretory Phospholipase A Enzymes in Acute Lung Injury.

Cell Biochem Biophys 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

The secretory phospholipase A (sPLA) group of secreted enzymes hydrolyze phospholipids and lead to the production of multiple biologically active lipid mediators. sPLAs and their products (e.g. Read More

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Combination of molecularly targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors in the new era of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma treatment.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2021 24;13:17588359211018026. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of General Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University, No. 3, East Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310016, China.

Multikinase inhibitors (MKIs) have been the only first-line treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for more than a decade, until the approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Moreover, the combination regimen of atezolizumab (anti-programmed cell death protein ligand 1 antibody) plus bevacizumab (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody) has recently been demonstrated to have superior efficacy when compared with sorafenib monotherapy. The remarkable efficacy has made this combination therapy the new standard treatment for advanced HCC. Read More

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N-acetylcysteine in substance use disorder: a lesson from preclinical and clinical research.

Pharmacol Rep 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Maj Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Drug Addiction Pharmacology, Smętna 12, 31-343, Kraków, Poland.

Substance use disorder (SUD) is a chronic brain condition, with compulsive and uncontrollable drug-seeking that leads to long-lasting and harmful consequences. The factors contributing to the development of SUD, as well as its treatment settings, are not fully understood. Alterations in brain glutamate homeostasis in humans and animals implicate a key role of this neurotransmitter in SUD, while the modulation of glutamate transporters has been pointed as a new strategy to diminish the excitatory glutamatergic transmission observed after drugs of abuse. Read More

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Transgenic mouse models of breast cancer.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jun 6;516:73-83. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, 1 Medical Center Blvd., Winston-Salem, NC, USA; Breast Cancer Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, 1 Medical Center Blvd., Winston-Salem, NC, USA; Wake Forest Baptist Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, 1 Medical Center Blvd., Winston-Salem, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Transgenic breast cancer mouse models are critical tools for preclinical studies of human breast cancer. Genetic editing of the murine mammary gland allows for modeling of abnormal genetic events frequently found in human breast cancers. Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of breast cancer employ tissue-specific genetic manipulation for tumorigenic induction within the mammary tissue. Read More

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Preclinical models as patients' avatars for precision medicine in colorectal cancer: past and future challenges.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 5;40(1):185. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Candiolo Cancer Institute, FPO - IRCCS, Strada Provinciale 142, Km 3.95, 10060, Candiolo, TO, Italy.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex and heterogeneous disease, characterized by dismal prognosis and low survival rate in the advanced (metastatic) stage. During the last decade, the establishment of novel preclinical models, leading to the generation of translational discovery and validation platforms, has opened up a new scenario for the clinical practice of CRC patients. To bridge the results developed at the bench with the medical decision process, the ideal model should be easily scalable, reliable to predict treatment responses, and flexibly adapted for various applications in the research. Read More

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Sex differences in the auditory functions of rodents.

Hear Res 2021 May 7:108271. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, Texas, 77555, USA. Electronic address:

Background: In humans, it is well known that females have better hearing than males. The mechanism of this influence of sex on auditory function in humans is not well understood. Testing the hypothesis of underlying mechanisms often relies on preclinical research, a field in which sex bias still exists unconsciously. Read More

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AdipoRon and Other Adiponectin Receptor Agonists as Potential Candidates in Cancer Treatments.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 25;22(11). Epub 2021 May 25.

Dipartimento di Medicina di Precisione, Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", 80138 Napoli, Italy.

The high mortality rate together with an ever-growing number of annual cases have defined neoplastic disorders as "the real 21st-century disease". Its dubious distinction also results from conventional therapy failure, which has made cancer an orphan disease. Therefore, innovative and alternative therapeutic strategies are mandatory. Read More

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Compelling Evidence for the Activity of Antiviral Peptides against SARS-CoV-2.

Viruses 2021 05 14;13(5). Epub 2021 May 14.

Institute for Insect Biotechnology, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Multiple outbreaks of epidemic and pandemic viral diseases have occurred in the last 20 years, including those caused by Ebola virus, Zika virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The emergence or re-emergence of such diseases has revealed the deficiency in our pipeline for the discovery and development of antiviral drugs. One promising solution is the extensive library of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by all eukaryotic organisms. Read More

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From Laboratory Studies to Clinical Trials: Temozolomide Use in IDH-Mutant Gliomas.

Cells 2021 May 17;10(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

Neurology Clinic and National Center for Tumor Diseases, University Hospital Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

In this review, we discuss the use of the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) in the treatment of IDH-mutant gliomas. We describe the challenges associated with TMZ in clinical (drug resistance and tumor recurrence) and preclinical settings (variabilities associated with in vitro models) in treating IDH-mutant glioma. Lastly, we summarize the emerging therapeutic targets that can potentially be used in combination with TMZ. Read More

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Potential Therapeutic Strategies and Substances for Facial Nerve Regeneration Based on Preclinical Studies.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 6;22(9). Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Despite advances in microsurgical technology and an improved understanding of nerve regeneration, obtaining satisfactory results after facial nerve injury remains a difficult clinical problem. Among existing peripheral nerve regeneration studies, relatively few have focused on the facial nerve, particularly how experimental studies of the facial nerve using animal models play an essential role in understanding functional outcomes and how such studies can lead to improved axon regeneration after nerve injury. The purpose of this article is to review current perspectives on strategies for applying potential therapeutic methods for facial nerve regeneration. Read More

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Programmed Death-Ligand 1 as a Regulator of Tumor Progression and Metastasis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 20;22(10). Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15772 Athens, Greece.

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint has long been implicated in modeling antitumor immunity; PD-1/PD-L1 axis inhibitors exert their antitumor effects by relieving PD-L1-mediated suppression on tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes. However, recent studies have unveiled a distinct, tumor-intrinsic, potential role for PD-L1. In this review, we focus on tumor-intrinsic PD-L1 signaling and delve into preclinical evidence linking PD-L1 protein expression with features of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition program, cancer stemness and known oncogenic pathways. Read More

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Proteolytic α-Synuclein Cleavage in Health and Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 21;22(11). Epub 2021 May 21.

Flechsig Institute for Brain Research, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

In Parkinson's disease, aggregates of α-synuclein within Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites represent neuropathological hallmarks. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggering oligomeric and fibrillary α-synuclein aggregation are not fully understood. Recent evidence indicates that oxidative stress induced by metal ions and post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, nitration, glycation, and SUMOylation affect α-synuclein conformation along with its aggregation propensity and neurotoxic profiles. Read More

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Hyperthermia and Tumor Immunity.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 21;13(11). Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Interventional Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Thermal ablation is a cornerstone in the management of cancer patients. Typically, ablation procedures are performed for patients with a solitary or oligometastatic disease with the intention of eradicating all sites of the disease. Ablation has traditionally played a less prominent role for patients with a widely metastatic disease. Read More

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Stem Cell Therapy for Modulating Neuroinflammation in Neuropathic Pain.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 3;22(9). Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, CHA University, CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam-si 13496, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Neuropathic pain (NP) is a complex, debilitating, chronic pain state, heterogeneous in nature and caused by a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system. Its pathogenesis involves a wide range of molecular pathways. NP treatment is extremely challenging, due to its complex underlying disease mechanisms. Read More

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Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Prostate Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 2;13(9). Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Internal Medicine, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.

Metastatic prostate cancer is a lethal disease with limited treatment options. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have dramatically changed the treatment landscape of multiple cancer types but have met with limited success in prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the preclinical studies providing the rationale for the use of immunotherapy in prostate cancer and underlying biological barriers inhibiting their activity. Read More

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Statins as Potential Therapeutics for Esophageal Cancer.

J Gastrointest Cancer 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Esophageal cancer is a malignancy that has a poor prognosis, which is mainly due to patients presenting once the cancer is in the advances stages. Chemotherapy has been the mainstay for treating esophageal cancer. However, these agents are not consistently effective and fail to differentiate between the different subtypes of esophageal cancers. Read More

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Challenges and Issues of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 14;8:664179. Epub 2021 May 14.

Immunology Department, APHP, Sorbonne Université CIMI (Inserm U1135), Hôpital Pitie Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

At the beginning of 2021, anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaigns had been launched in almost 60 countries with more than 500 million doses having been distributed. In addition to the few vaccines already in use, many other candidates are in preclinical phases or experimental stages in humans. Despite the fact that the availability of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine constitutes a major advance and appear to be the only way to control the pandemic, some investigation remains to be carried out, and this is notably concerning the impact on transmissibility, the duration of the conferred protection in the mid- and long term, the effectiveness against present and future viral mutants, or the ideal schedule that should be applied. Read More

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Power-assisted pedicle screws placement: Is it as safe and as effective as manual technique? Narrative review of the literature and our technique.

Musculoskelet Surg 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Science-DIBINEM, 1St Orthopaedic and Traumatologic Clinic, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Pedicle screws are the gold standard in spine surgery, allowing a solid tricolumnar fixation which is unmatched by hooks and wires. The freehand technique is the most widely adopted for pedicle screws placing. While freehand technique has been classically performed with manual tools, there has been a recent trend toward the use of power tools. Read More

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Species: Bridging Phytochemistry Knowledge, Pharmacological Properties and Toxicological Safety for Health Benefits.

Front Pharmacol 2021 11;12:600139. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Physiology, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.

The genus includes a number of plant species largely used as food, food additives and spices for a long time. Different traditional healing systems have used these plants as herbal remedies to cure diverse ailments. The aim of this comprehensive and updated review is to summarize the biodiversity of the genus , its bioactive compounds, the mechanisms that underlie the pharmacological activities and molecular targets and toxicological safety. Read More

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Low-Temperature Photothermal Therapy: Strategies and Applications.

Research (Wash D C) 2021 7;2021:9816594. Epub 2021 May 7.

State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, 2 Sipailou Road, Nanjing 210096, China.

Although photothermal therapy (PTT) with the assistance of nanotechnology has been considered as an indispensable strategy in the biomedical field, it still encounters some severe problems that need to be solved. Excessive heat can induce treated cells to develop thermal resistance, and thus, the efficacy of PTT may be dramatically decreased. In the meantime, the uncontrollable diffusion of heat can pose a threat to the surrounding healthy tissues. Read More

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Whether erythropoietin can be a neuroprotective agent against premature brain injury: cellular mechanisms and clinical efficacy.

Xueling Ma Yuan Shi

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University; National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders; Chongqing 400014, China.

Preterm infants are at high risk of brain injury. With more understanding of the preterm brain injury's pathogenesis, neuroscientists are looking for more effective methods to prevent and treat it, among which erythropoietin (Epo) is considered as a prime candidate. This review tries to clarify the possible mechanisms of Epo in preterm neuroprotection and summarize updated evidence considering Epo as a pharmacological neuroprotective strategy in animal models and clinical trials. Read More

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Targeting DNA Damage Repair for Immune Checkpoint Inhibition: Mechanisms and Potential Clinical Applications.

Front Oncol 2021 7;11:648687. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

DNA damage repair (DDR) pathways play an essential role in maintaining genomic integrity. DDR dysfunction leads to accumulated DNA damage, predisposition to cancer, and high sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies have demonstrated that DDR status is associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Read More

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Immunomodulatory Effects of BRAF, MEK, and CDK4/6 Inhibitors: Implications for Combining Targeted Therapy and Immune Checkpoint Blockade for the Treatment of Melanoma.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:661737. Epub 2021 May 7.

Cancer Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

The recent advent of targeted and immune-based therapies has revolutionized the treatment of melanoma and transformed outcomes for patients with metastatic disease. The majority of patients develop resistance to the current standard-of-care targeted therapy, dual BRAF and MEK inhibition, prompting evaluation of a new combination incorporating a CDK4/6 inhibitor. Based on promising preclinical data, combined BRAF, MEK and CDK4/6 inhibition has recently entered clinical trials for the treatment of BRAF melanoma. Read More

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Large-scale pharmacogenomic studies and drug response prediction for personalized cancer medicine.

J Genet Genomics 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

CAS Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. Electronic address:

The response rate of most anti-cancer drugs is limited because of the high heterogeneity of cancer and the complex mechanism of drug action. Personalized treatment that stratifies patients into subgroups using molecular biomarkers is promising to improve clinical benefit. With the accumulation of preclinical models and advances in computational approaches of drug response prediction, pharmacogenomics has made great success over the last 20 years and is increasingly used in the clinical practice of personalized cancer medicine. Read More

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Recent advances in understanding cognitive and behavioural alterations after early-in-life anaesthesia exposure and new mitigation/alternative strategies in preclinical studies.

Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Long-term behavioural and cognitive impairments after exposure to general anaesthetics during infancy is an intensely investigated and controversial topic. Recent clinical studies with prospective assessments associate exposure with long-term behavioural alterations rather than cognitive impairments. This review aims to provide an understanding of the long-term cognitive impairments and behavioural alterations found in recent animal studies and to summarize latest advances in strategies to protect against anaesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity (AIDN). Read More

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