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Neuropathological findings from COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms argue against a direct brain invasion of SARS-CoV-2: a critical systematic review.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Neuropathological studies can elucidate the mechanisms of nervous system damage associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Despite literature on this topic is rapidly expanding, correlations between neurological symptoms and brain pathology findings in COVID-19 patients remain largely unknown.

Methods: We performed a systematic literature review on neuropathological studies in COVID-19, including 438 patients from 45 papers published by April 22, 2021. Read More

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Fear of Recurrence in Prostate Cancer Patients: A Cross-sectional Study After Radical Prostatectomy or Active Surveillance.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2021 Mar 3;25:44-51. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Urology, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Tønsberg, Norway.

Background: Fear of recurrence (FoR) is a distressing consequence of cancer. Little is known about the prevalence of FoR in different treatment groups and factors associated with FoR among prostate cancer (PCa) survivors.

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of high FoR among PCa survivors after radical prostatectomy (RP) or under active surveillance (AS) and to explore clinical and psychological factors potentially associated with FoR. Read More

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Initial Observation of a Large Proportion of Patients Presenting with Clinical Stage T1 Renal Masses: Results from the MUSIC-KIDNEY Statewide Collaborative.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2021 Jan 4;23:13-19. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Spectrum Health Hospital System, Grand Rapids, MI, USA.

Background: While surgical excision remains the principal management strategy for clinical T1 renal masses (cT1RMs), the rates of noninterventional approaches are not well known. Most single-institution and population-based series suggest rates below 10%.

Objective: To evaluate the use of observation for newly diagnosed cT1RM patients in academic and community-based practices across a statewide collaborative. Read More

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January 2021

24-Hydroxylase Deficiency Due to Sequence Variants: Comparison With Other Vitamin D-mediated Hypercalcemia Disorders.

J Endocr Soc 2021 Sep 2;5(9):bvab119. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Context: CYP24A1 encodes 24-hydroxylase, which converts 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)D to inactive metabolites. Loss-of-function variants in CYP24A1 are associated with 24-hydroxylase deficiency (24HD), characterized by hypercalcemia, nephrolithiasis, and nephrocalcinosis. We retrospectively reviewed laboratory, imaging, and clinical characteristics of patients with suspected or confirmed 24HD and patients with other vitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia disorders: sarcoidosis, lymphoma, and exogenous vitamin D toxicity (EVT). Read More

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September 2021

When the kids get guns - The effects of lowering the minimum age of firearm possession in Alabama.

Prev Med Rep 2021 Sep 12;23:101481. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

University of Alabama Birmingham, Children's of Alabama, United States.

At this time, the relationship between firearm minimum age laws and pediatric injury rates remains unclear. In September 2015, Alabama implemented Act 2015-341 (Act 341) which allowed minors to carry guns with parental permission. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect that Act 341 had on firearm injury rates. Read More

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September 2021

Intraoperative trans-laryngeal ultrasound (LUSG) of the vocal cord is a novel method of confirming the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) integrity during thyroid and neck surgery.

Surgery 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Surgery, the University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Background: Eliciting a normal electromyography signal has been the usual method to confirm the functional integrity of the recurrent laryngeal nerve during intraoperative nerve monitoring. Given that oscillations of the vocal cord can be detected with trans-laryngeal ultrasound when the ipsilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve is stimulated with the endotracheal tube in situ, we aimed to compare the accuracy and cost of this novel method with the conventional electromyography method.

Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent elective thyroid, parathyroid or neck dissection procedures were included. Read More

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Detecting mechanical breakpoints during treadmill-based graded exercise test: Relationships to ventilatory thresholds.

Eur J Sport Sci 2021 Jul 31:1-23. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

School of Human Sciences (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia.

Background: While changes in cardiorespiratory variables during graded exercise tests (GXTs) are well described, less is known about running mechanical alterations.

Purpose: We determined mechanical breakpoints during GXT and compared their temporal location with thresholds in ventilation.

Methods: Thirty-one recreational male runners completed continuous GXT on an instrumented treadmill, starting at 2. Read More

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[Genetic and clinical analysis of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2021 Aug;59(8):678-683

Department of Endocrinology, Genetics and Metabolism, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing 100045, China.

To investigate the clinical and genetic features, and treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH). In this retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records of 25 pediatric patients with XLH who were admitted to Department of Endocrinology Genetics and Metabolism,Beijing Children's Hospital from January 2010 to January 2020. The clinical characteristics, PHEX gene variants, as well as clinical outcome of the patients were summarized. Read More

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Effectiveness of photodynamic therapy on bonding strength and failure modes of fiber-posts in c-shaped treated root canals.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jul 29:102469. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Dental Health Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, P.O Box 10219, Riyadh 11433, Saudi Arabia.

Aim: The present study aimed to assess the push-out bond strength (PBS) and failure modes of fiber-posts after photodynamic therapy (PDT) and Erbium yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) in c-shaped canals.

Methods: Sixty molars with c-shaped root configuration were studied. The endodontic prepared teeth specimen were equally randomized into four groups: i) photodynamic therapy (PDT); ii) Er,Cr:YSGG; iii) chlorhexidine and; iv) control group. Read More

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Assessment of a digital game as a neuropsychological test for postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Associação MentalPlus, Barueri, SP, Brazil.

Objective: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction may result from worsening in a condition of previous impairment. It causes greater difficulty in recovery, longer hospital stays, and consequent delay in returning to work activities. Digital games have a potential neuromodulatory and rehabilitation effect. Read More

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Role of Coptis chinensis in antibiotic susceptibility of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Rd, Taichung City, 40402, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: The incidence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) has rapidly increased. This study aimed to assess the effect of Coptis chinensis and its compounds on the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of eight antibiotics against CRKP.

Methods: Cell cultures were used to investigate the effects of C. Read More

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Development of an inherent system safety index (ISSI) for ranking of chemical processes at the concept development stage.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 10;421:126590. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Marine Technology, Norwegian University of Science & Technology, NTNU, Norway.

Inherently safer design is the most proactive approach to manage risk, as referred by scientists and experts. Researchers have adopted various methods in evaluating inherent safety indices like parameter-based indexing, risk-based indexing, consequence-based indexing, etc. However, the existing approaches have their limitations. Read More

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Dural Tear Does Not Increase the Rate of Venous Thromboembolic Disease in Patients Undergoing Elective Lumbar Decompression with Instrumented Fusion.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Objective: Evaluate if dural tears (DT) are an indirect risk factor for venous thromboembolic disease through increased recumbency in patients undergoing elective lumbar decompression and instrumented fusion.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients undergoing elective lumbar decompression and instrumented fusion at a single institution between 2016 and 2019. Patients were divided into cohorts: those who sustained a dural tear and those who did not. Read More

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Overlooked contributions of biochar-derived dissolved organic matter on the adsorption of Pb (Ⅱ): Impacts of fractionation and interfacial force.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 19;420:126692. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, PR China. Electronic address:

Comprehensive understanding of how the release of biochar-derived dissolved organic matter (BDOM) affects the immobilization of heavy metals when biochar (BC) is applied for long-term soil remediation is extremely important. In this study, BCs prepared under different pyrolysis temperatures were fractionated into residual BC (RBC), nano-sized BC (NBC), and BDOM, in order to clarify the contribution of BDOM for lead (Pb(II)) adsorption on BC and to explore the interfacial mechanisms. Results demonstrated that the adsorption capacity (Q) of Pb(II) on BC improved from 166. Read More

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Trends in regional enterococci levels at marine beaches and correlations with environmental, global oceanic changes, community populations, and wastewater infrastructure.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 24;793:148641. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146, USA. Electronic address:

An increase in the number of advisories issued for recreational beaches across south Florida (due to the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci) has been observed in recent years. To evaluate the possible reasons for this increase, we reviewed weekly monitoring data for 18 beaches in Miami-Dade County, Florida, for the years 2000-2019. Our objective was to evaluate this dataset for trends in enterococci levels and correlations with various factors that might have influenced enterococci levels at these beaches. Read More

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SCU-Net: A deep learning method for segmentation and quantification of breast arterial calcifications on mammograms.

Med Phys 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Dept. of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University.

Purpose: Measurements of breast arterial calcifications (BAC) can offer a personalized, noninvasive approach to risk-stratify women for cardiovascular disease such as heart attack and stroke. We aim to detect and segment breast arterial calcifications in mammograms accurately and suggest novel measurements to quantify detected BAC for future clinical applications.

Methods: To separate BAC in mammograms, we propose a light-weight fine vessel segmentation method Simple Context U-Net (SCU-Net). Read More

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[Significance of patient-specific risk factors for regional cerebral oxygen saturation in beach chair position].

Anaesthesist 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Klinik für Anaesthesiologie, operative Intensivmedizin und Schmerztherapie, München Klinik Bogenhausen, Lehrkrankenhaus der technischen Universität München, Englschalkinger Straße 77, 81925, München, Deutschland.

Background: Despite numerous studies on the regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO) measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in orthopedic patients in the beach chair position, it is still unclear whether patient-specific factors, such as concomitant cardiovascular diseases, are more frequently associated with the occurrence of cerebral desaturation events (CDE).

Objective: The aim of the present study was therefore to identify possible patient-specific risk factors that enable prediction of CDE.

Methods: Data were collected on 397 orthopedic patients undergoing shoulder surgery in the beach chair position. Read More

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Association between thiamine decrease and neuropsychiatric symptoms in gastrointestinal and hematological cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 15;141:111929. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Departmentof Pharmacy, The IMSUT Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

Background: Clinical evidence of thiamine-related neuropsychiatric symptoms, including the initial stage, is limited because serum thiamine levels tend to be evaluated only for patients who develop severe neuropsychiatric symptoms suspected to be related to severe thiamine deficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between thiamine decline and neuropsychiatric symptoms, including initial symptoms, and the effect of chemotherapy on serum thiamine levels in gastrointestinal and hematological cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

Method: We retrospectively identified 87 patients who were diagnosed with gastrointestinal and hematological cancers at our hospital. Read More

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Inflammatory breast cancer appearance at presentation is associated with overall survival.

Cancer Med 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a clinical diagnosis. Here, we examined the association of a "classic" triad of clinical signs, swollen involved breast, nipple change, and diffuse skin change, with overall survival (OS).

Method: Breast medical photographs from patients enrolled on a prospective IBC registry were scored by two independent reviewers as classic (triad above), not classic, and difficult to assign. Read More

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Development and Validation of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Machine Learning Model for TMJ Pathologies.

Biomed Res Int 2021 5;2021:6656773. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Huiying Medical Technology Co., Ltd., Room C103, B2, Dongsheng Science and Technology Park, HaiDian District, Beijing City 100192, China.

The purpose of this study was to propose a machine learning model and assess its ability to classify TMJ pathologies on magnetic resonance (MR) images. This retrospective cohort study included 214 TMJs from 107 patients with TMJ signs and symptoms. A radiomics platform was used to extract (Huiying Medical Technology Co. Read More

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Impact of SARS-CoV-2 on training and mental well-being of surgical gynecological oncology trainees.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London, UK

Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 global pandemic has caused a crisis disrupting health systems worldwide. While efforts are being made to determine the extent of the disruption, the impact on gynecological oncology trainees/training has not been explored. We conducted an international survey of the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on clinical practice, medical education, and mental well-being of surgical gynecological oncology trainees. Read More

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Investigating the causality of metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism with the risk and age at onset of Parkinson's disease: A two-sample mendelian randomization study.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Jul 4. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Cell Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Ministry of Public Health, China; Key Laboratory of Medical Cell Biology, Ministry of Education, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, China. Electronic address:

With the aging population and increasing life expectancy, Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurological disorder rapidly increasing in morbidity and mortality, is causing a huge burden on society and the economy. Several studies have suggested that one-carbon metabolites, including homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and folate acid, are associated with PD risk. However, the results remain inconsistent and controversial. Read More

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Developmental variation in testosterone:cortisol ratio alters cortical- and amygdala-based cognitive processes.

J Dev Orig Health Dis 2021 Jul 29:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Research Institute of the McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada, H4A3J1.

Testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) are the end products of neuroendocrine axes that interact with the process of shaping brain structure and function. Relative levels of T:C (TC ratio) may alter prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity in adulthood. What remains unclear is whether TC-related effects are rooted to childhood and adolescence. Read More

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Circulating angiogenic factors and HIV among pregnant women in Zambia: a nested case-control study.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Jul 28;21(1):534. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Global Women's Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Maternal HIV increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes including preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, and stillbirth, but the biological mechanism(s) underlying this increased risk are not well understood. We hypothesized that maternal HIV may lead to adverse birth outcomes through an imbalance in angiogenic factors involved in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway.

Methods: In a case-control study nested within an ongoing cohort in Zambia, our primary outcomes were serum concentrations of VEGF-A, soluble endoglin (sEng), placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1). Read More

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Visuomotor Synchronization: Military Normative Performance.

Mil Med 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Brain Trauma Foundation, Palo Alto, CA 94301, USA.

Introduction: Cognitive processes such as perception and reasoning are preceded and dependent on attention. Because of the close overlap between neural circuits of attention and eye movement, attention may be objectively quantified with recording of eye movements during an attention-dependent task. Our previous work demonstrated that performance scores on a circular visual tracking task that requires dynamic synchronization of the gaze with the target motion can be impacted by concussion, sleep deprivation, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Read More

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The rheological, mechanical and heavy metal leaching properties of cemented paste backfill under the influence of anionic polyacrylamide.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 21;286(Pt 1):131630. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, China. Electronic address:

Anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) has widely been employed in backfill mining to accelerate the sedimentation of fine tailings particles and increase the concentration of tailings slurry. However, APAM inevitably remains in thickened tailings, leading to a nonnegligible influence on the rheological, mechanical, and heavy metal leaching properties of tailings-based cemented paste backfill (CPB). In an effort to solve these issues, the influences of APAM on CPB properties were examined in the present study. Read More

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Genetically determined selenium concentrations and risk for autoimmune diseases.

Nutrition 2021 Jun 24;91-92:111391. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Epidemiology, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University School of Public Health, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Observational epidemiologic studies have reported a relationship between selenium status and risk for autoimmune diseases. However, the associations are susceptible to confounding or reverse causality. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential causal associations of selenium concentrations with the risk for common autoimmune diseases using a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) design. Read More

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Immediate Effects of a Continuous Peripheral Nerve Block on Postamputation Phantom and Residual Limb Pain: Secondary Outcomes From a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

Anesth Analg 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Departments of General Anesthesia and Outcomes Research, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: We recently reported that a 6-day continuous peripheral nerve block reduced established postamputation phantom pain 3 weeks after treatment ended. However, the immediate effects of perineural infusion (secondary outcomes) have yet to be reported.

Methods: Participants from 5 enrolling academic centers with an upper or lower limb amputation and established phantom pain received a single-injection ropivacaine peripheral nerve block(s) and perineural catheter insertion(s). Read More

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Hyperpolarized Xe MRI and Spectroscopy of Gas-Exchange Abnormalities in Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia.

Radiology 2021 Jul 27:204149. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

From the Department of Radiology (D.G.M., J.K., B.D., J.G.M.), Center for In Vivo Microscopy (D.G.M., B.D.), Department of Biomedical Engineering (E.A.B., Z.W., B.D.), Department of Medicine (L.M., C.B., H.P.M., R.T.), and Department of Medical Physics (B.D.), Duke University, DUMC Box 3302, Durham, NC 27710.

Background Recent studies demonstrate that antifibrotic drugs previously reserved for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) may slow progression in other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), creating an urgent need for tools that can sensitively assess disease activity, progression, and therapy response across ILDs. Hyperpolarized xenon 129 (Xe) MRI and spectroscopy have provided noninvasive measurements of regional gas-exchange abnormalities in IPF. Purpose To assess gas exchange function using Xe MRI in a group of study participants with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) compared with healthy control participants. Read More

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Competitiveness for Nodule Colonization in Sinorhizobium meliloti: Combined -Tagged Strain Competition and Genome-Wide Association Analysis.

mSystems 2021 Jul 27:e0055021. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Biology, University of Bari Aldo Morogrid.7644.1, Bari, Italy.

Associations between leguminous plants and symbiotic nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are a classic example of mutualism between a eukaryotic host and a specific group of prokaryotic microbes. Although this symbiosis is in part species specific, different rhizobial strains may colonize the same nodule. Some rhizobial strains are commonly known as better competitors than others, but detailed analyses that aim to predict rhizobial competitive abilities based on genomes are still scarce. Read More

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