2,836 results match your criteria sulfur mustard


Global warming potential and energy dynamics of conservation tillage practices for different rabi crops in the Indo-Gangetic Plains.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 3;296:113182. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Division of Environment Science, NRL Building, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110 012, India. Electronic address:

A field experiment was conducted during 2007-2019 under various rabi (winter) crops (viz., wheat, maize, barley and mustard) on a Vertisol in sub-tropical Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) with different tillage systems to assess energy indices, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and carbon sustainability index in assured irrigated fields. The tillage systems were: no tillage sown by a zero till drill (NT), no tillage with retention of previous crop residues at 6 t ha and sowing by a happy turbo seeder (HT), and conventional tillage (CT) where sowing was performed by a multi-crop zero till drill after twice harrowing + twice tilling + once rotavator operations. Read More

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Alkylated albumin-derived dipeptide C(-HETE)P derivatized by propionic anhydride as a biomarker for the verification of poisoning with sulfur mustard.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Aug 2;413(19):4907-4916. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Neuherbergstrasse 11, 80937, Munich, Germany.

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a banned chemical warfare agent recently used in the Syrian Arab Republic conflict causing erythema and blisters characterized by complicated and delayed wound healing. For medical and legal reasons, the proof of exposure to SM is of high toxicological and forensic relevance. SM reacts with endogenous human serum albumin (HSA adducts) alkylating the thiol group of the cysteine residue C, thus causing the addition of the hydroxyethylthioethyl (HETE) moiety. Read More

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Ethylene Supplementation Combined with Split Application of Nitrogen and Sulfur Protects Salt-Inhibited Photosynthesis through Optimization of Proline Metabolism and Antioxidant System in Mustard ( L.).

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jun 27;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India.

In the present study, the potential of ethylene as ethephon (an ethylene source) was investigated individually and in combination with split doses of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) soil treatments for removal of the damaging effects of salt stress (100 mM NaCl) in mustard ( L.). Plants were grown with 50 mg N plus 50 mg S kg soil at sowing time and an equivalent dose at 20 days after sowing [N50 + S50]. Read More

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Reduced polyoxomolybdate immobilized on reduced graphene oxide for rapid catalytic decontamination of a sulfur mustard simulant.

Dalton Trans 2021 Jul;50(28):9796-9803

Key Laboratory of Cluster Science Ministry of Education, Beijing Key Laboratory of Photoelectroic/Electrophotonic Conversion Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 102488, People's Republic of China.

Keggin-type polyoxometalates (POMs) were immobilized on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by a facile and broad-spectrum hydrothermal method. The prepared [email protected] composites (POM = H3PMo12O40, H3PW12O40, H5PMo10V2O40) have been thoroughly characterized using a series of techniques. The three composites can catalyze the oxidative decontamination of a sulfur mustard simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) in the order of [email protected] > [email protected] > [email protected] Read More

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The effect of -acetyl cysteine and doxycycline on TNF-α-Rel-a inflammatory pathway and downstream angiogenesis factors in the cornea of rats injured by 2-chloroethyl-ethyl sulfide.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2021 Aug 25;43(4):452-460. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Chemical Injuries Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Cornea injury of sulfur mustard (SM) is considered as the most devastating injuries to the eye. This study aimed to evaluate the single and combined effects of -acetyl cysteine (NAC) and doxycycline on the inflammatory pathway and cornea neovascularization (CNV) in the rat model of SM-injured cornea.

Materials And Methods: The right cornea of male Sprague-Dawley rats was subjected to 2-chloroethyl-ethyl sulfide (CEES). Read More

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Effect of supersaturated oxygen emulsion treatment on chloropicrin-induced chemical injury in ex vivo rabbit cornea.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Oct 18;349:124-133. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University, 1355 Bogue Street, East Lansing, MI, 48824, United States. Electronic address:

With a possibility for the use of chemical weapons in battlefield or in terrorist activities, effective therapies against the devastating ocular injuries, from their exposure, are needed. Oxygen plays a vital role in ocular tissue preservation and wound repair. We tested the efficacy of supersaturated oxygen emulsion (SSOE) in reducing ex vivo corneal and keratocyte injury from chloropicrin (CP). Read More

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October 2021

Evidence of sulfur mustard poisoning by detection of the albumin-derived dipeptide biomarker C(-HETE)P after nicotinylation.

Drug Test Anal 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich, Germany.

Sulfur mustard (SM, bis[2-chloroethyl]-sulfide) is a banned chemical warfare agent that was frequently used in recent years and led to numerous poisoned victims who developed painful erythema and blisters. Post-exposure analysis of SM incorporation can be performed by the detection of human serum albumin (HSA)-derived peptides. HSA alkylated by SM contains a hydroxyethylthioethyl (HETE)-moiety bound to the cysteine residue C yielding the dipeptide biomarker C(-HETE)P after pronase-catalyzed proteolysis. Read More

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Rapid Detection of Sulfur Mustard Hydrolysis Products based on Microextraction by Packed Sorbent combined with Nano-ESI Mass Spectrometry.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2021 Jun 7:e9137. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

State Key Laboratory of NBC Protection for Civilian, 102205, Beijing, China.

Rationale: Sulfur mustard is a blister agent prohibited by the Chemical Weapons Convention, and the detection of its hydrolysis product, thiodiglycol (TDG), is an important indicator of blister agent contamination. Due to the poor volatility and low extraction efficiency of thiodiglycol, derivatization-gas chromatography or liquid chromatography are required for conventional methods, and the detection process is cumbersome and time-consuming.

Method: Microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) device and nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) device was carried out. Read More

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Characterization of the rabbit conjunctiva: Effects of sulfur mustard.

Exp Mol Pathol 2021 Jun 1;121:104656. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health and Justice, Rutgers University School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ 08854, United States.

Sulfur mustard (SM; bis (2-chloroethyl) sulfide) is a potent vesicant which causes irritation of the conjunctiva and damage to the cornea. In the present studies, we characterized the ocular effects of SM in New Zealand white rabbits. Within one day of exposure to SM, edema and hazing of the cornea were observed, followed by neovascularization which persisted for at least 28 days. Read More

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Occupational Exposures and Environmental Health Hazards of Military Personnel.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 18;18(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy.

Background: Military personnel are frequently exposed to environmental pollutants that can cause a variety of diseases.

Methods: This review analyzed publications regarding epidemiological and biomonitoring studies on occupationally-exposed military personnel.

Results: The exposures include sulfur mustard, organ chlorines, combustion products, fuel vapors, and ionizing and exciting radiations. Read More

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Photosynthetic Linear Electron Flow Drives CO Assimilation in Maize Leaves.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 5;22(9). Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Biological and Environmental Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.

Photosynthetic organisms commonly develop the strategy to keep the reaction center chlorophyll of photosystem I, P700, oxidized for preventing the generation of reactive oxygen species in excess light conditions. In photosynthesis of C plants, CO concentration is kept at higher levels around ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) by the cooperation of the mesophyll and bundle sheath cells, which enables them to assimilate CO at higher rates to survive under drought stress. However, the regulatory mechanism of photosynthetic electron transport for P700 oxidation is still poorly understood in C plants. Read More

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Systematic Development and Characterization of Novel, High Drug-Loaded, Photostable, Curcumin Solid Lipid Nanoparticle Hydrogel for Wound Healing.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 May 5;10(5). Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India.

The study aims to develop high drug-loaded (about 15% lipid matrix) curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles (CSLNs) for wound healing. CSLNs prepared by hot, high-pressure homogenization, without using organic solvents, were optimized using the Taguchi design followed by the central composite design. The optimized CSLNs exhibited a high assay/drug content (0. Read More

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Plasmonic MOF Thin Films with Raman Internal Standard for Fast and Ultrasensitive SERS Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents in Ambient Air.

ACS Sens 2021 06 27;6(6):2241-2251. Epub 2021 May 27.

Instituto de Nanociencia y Materiales de Aragón (INMA), CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain.

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful spectroscopic technique for selective detection and quantification of molecules at extremely low concentrations. However, practical SERS applications for gaseous chemicals with small cross section is still in its early stages. We herein report a plasmonic-sorbent thin-film platform with integrated Raman internal standard with outstanding SERS sensing capabilities for chemical warfare agents (CWA) simulants. Read More

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Non-contact detection of thiodiglycol vapors and associated degradation products using atmospheric flow tube mass spectrometry.

Analyst 2021 May;146(10):3263-3272

Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.

Thiodiglycol (TDG) is a synthetic precursor and an environmental degradation product of sulfur mustard (HD). Consequently, its presence can be indicative of illicit preparation or historical presence of chemical weapons, but its lower toxicity lends itself to use as an HD simulant for testing and method development. Detection of TDG vapor often proves elusive with existing techniques exhibiting undesirably high detection limits in the gas phase (>ppm). Read More

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Photo-assisted enhancement performance for rapid detoxification of chemical warfare agent simulants over versatile ZnInS/UiO-66-NH nanocomposite catalysts.

J Hazard Mater 2021 09 7;417:126056. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Safety Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454003, China.

Constructing versatile materials with self-detoxification properties are highly desired for emergency destruction of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Herein, we first reported in-situ fabrication of ZnInS/UiO-66-NH nanocomposites (ZnInS/UiO) and their application in catalytic detoxification of two CWA simulants. For nerve agent simulant dimethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate (DMNP), the optimal ZnInS/UiO-23. Read More

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September 2021

Investigation of electrical properties of eco-friendly vegetable oil blended with bioactive compound.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA Deemed University, Thanjavur, 613 401, India.

Oxidative stability of prototypical groundnut oil (GO) and mustard oil (MO) blended with a significant characteristic addition of antioxidants, α-tocopherol (α-T) and TBHQ (tert-butyl hydroquinone), at different concentrations was analysed. α-T (natural) and TBHQ (synthetic) antioxidants at a different concentrations from 0 to 20 mg/L were blended with GO and MO to prepare 18 samples. Compositional analysis of groundnut oil and mustard oil was carried out using gas chromatography and mass spectra (GCMS). Read More

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Efficient solar light facilitated photo-oxidative detoxification of gaseous 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide on ZrO-doped g-CN under dry and humid air.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 27;280:130685. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Photo-oxidation of chemical warfare agents is considered a promising strategy to cope with threats from accidental or intentional release. In this study, heterostructure photocatalysts comprising different amounts of zirconium oxide (ZrO) over carbon nitride (CN) were synthesized via simple thermal exfoliation, followed by a precipitation method. The successful photocatalytic detoxification activity of the as-prepared photocatalyst was analyzed against 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) under simulated solar light and natural sunlight irradiation in dry and humid air. Read More

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October 2021

Toxicology of Blister Agents: Is Melatonin a Potential Therapeutic Option?

Diseases 2021 Apr 10;9(2). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Centro Militar de Farmacia de la Defensa (CEMILFARDEF), Base Logística de San Pedro, Colmenar Viejo, 28770 Madrid, Spain.

Blister or vesicant chemical warfare agents (CWAs) have been widely used in different military conflicts, including World War I and the Iran-Iraq War. However, their mechanism of action is not fully understood. Sulfur and nitrogen mustard exert toxic effects not only through the alkylation of thiol-bearing macromolecules, such as DNA and proteins, but also produce free radicals that can develop direct toxic effects in target organs such as the eyes, skin, and respiratory system. Read More

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Immunomodulatory Effect of Curcumin in the Upregulation of Inflammasome Pathway Genes Induced by Sulfur Mustard Analog: An In-vitro Study.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 Apr 17;20(2):169-177. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Chemical Injuries Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Sulfur Mustard (SM) induces cell injury via exerting oxidative stress, protease-anti protease imbalance, and inflammation. Inflammasome as one part of innate immunity has a critical role in the recognition of cell injuries and the initiation of the inflammation process by releasing IL-1β. Hence, the present study investigated the effects of the sub-lethal doses of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) as SM analog on the gene expression level of inflammasome-related genes as well as the potential protective effects of curcumin on this process. Read More

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Mass spectrometric analysis of adducts of sulfur mustard analogues to human plasma proteins: approach towards chemical provenancing in biomedical samples.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Jun 26;413(15):4023-4036. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of CBRN Protection, TNO Defence, Safety & Security, P.O. Box 45, 2280 AA, Rijswijk, The Netherlands.

The primary aim of this study was to identify biomarkers of exposure to some so-called Schedule 1 sulfur mustard (HD) analogues, in order to facilitate and expedite their retrospective analysis in case of alleged use of such compounds. Since these HD analogues can be regarded as model compounds for possible impurities of HD formed during synthesis processes, the secondary aim was to explore to which extent these biomarkers can be used for chemical provenancing of HD in case biomedical samples are available. While the use of chemical attribution signatures (CAS) for neat chemicals or for environmental samples has been addressed quite frequently, the use of CAS for investigating impurities in biomedical samples has been addressed only scarcely. Read More

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Sensitive and selective detections of mustard gas and its analogues by 4-mercaptocoumarins as fluorescent chemosensors in both solutions and gas phase.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 6;416:125789. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, PR China. Electronic address:

Mustard gas has been used as a chemical warfare agent for a century, and is the most likely chemical weapon used in wars or by terrorists. Thus, it is important to develop a facile, rapid and highly selective method for the detection of mustard gas. In this paper, two fluorescent probe molecules, 4-mercaptocoumarins, have been developed for rapid and sensitive detections of SM and its analogues (CEES and NH1) in both solutions and gas phase. Read More

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Melatonin Enhances the Tolerance and Recovery Mechanisms in (L.) Czern. Under Saline Conditions.

Front Plant Sci 2021 1;12:593717. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.

Melatonin has been recently known to stimulate plant growth and induce protective responses against different abiotic stresses. However, the mechanisms behind exogenous melatonin pretreatment and restoration of plant vigor from salinity stress remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to understand the effects of exogenous melatonin pretreatment on salinity-damaged green mustard ( L. Read More

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Quinoline-2-thione-based fluorescent probes for selective and sensitive detections of mustard gas and its analogues.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 May 23;1159:338440. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, PR China. Electronic address:

Sulfur mustard (SM, also called as mustard gas (HD)) is a persistent and highly toxic gas used as chemical weapon in wars and military conflicts. Moreover, owing to its simple structure and easy synthesis, it is the most likely chemical agent used by terrorists. For this reason, it is vital important to develop a facile, rapid and reliable detection system for SM. Read More

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Effective degradation of sulfur mustard simulant using novel sulfur-doped mesoporous zinc oxide under ambient conditions.

J Hazard Mater 2021 06 14;411:125144. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Materials Architecturing Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea; Division of Nano and Information Technology, KIST School, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Sulfur doped metal oxides were synthesized using a two-step precipitation method. When reacted against neat 2-CEES (2-chloroethyl-ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas simulant) under ambient conditions, sulfur doped mesoporous zinc oxide (MS-Zn) showed higher catalytic activity than the other metal oxides with 92.7% overall conversion in 24 h for a 2. Read More

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A novel approach for the detection and identification of sulfur mustard using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry based on its selective oxidation to sulfur mustard monoxide with N-iodosuccinimide.

J Mass Spectrom 2021 May;56(5):e4721

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR), Ness Ziona, Israel.

A new derivatization strategy for the detection and identification of sulfur mustard (HD) via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) is developed. The method incorporates selective oxidation of the sulfide group by the electrophilic iodine reagent N-iodosuccinimide (NIS) to produce sulfur mustard monoxide (HDSO). The derivatization reaction efficiencies were evaluated with acetonitrile extracts of soil, asphalt, cloth, Formica, and linoleum spiked with HD at concentrations of 50-5000 pg/ml and found to be similar to that with pure acetonitrile. Read More

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Combination therapy of N-acetyl-L-cysteine and S-2(2-aminoethylamino) ethylphenyl sulfide for sulfur mustard induced oxidative stress in mice.

Toxicol Rep 2021 17;8:599-606. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Division of CBRN, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Timarpur, Delhi, 110054, India.

Introduction: Sulfur mustard (SM) is chemically, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide and a strong alkylating agent that causes cytotoxicity and blisters on skin. In laboratory animal models, SM is extremely lethal. Since no specific antidote has been proposed, decontamination upon contact is the recommended procedure. Read More

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Streptomyces pactum and sulfur mediated the rhizosphere microhabitats of potherb mustard after a phytoextraction trial.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 24;281:116968. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

College of Natural Resources & Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China. Electronic address:

To explore the performance of Streptomyces pactum (Act12) alone (A) and jointly with sulfur (SA) in the phytoextraction practice of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) (Cd and Zn), as well as their effects on soil chemical properties and microbial community composition, this paper selected potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) as the test plant to assess the feedback of soil-plant ecosystems. Metal uptake values in lone Act12 treatments were higher than that of Act12 + sulfur treatments, and showed dose dependent with Act12 due to the higher biomass production. Read More

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The effect of atorvastatin on inflammatory markers in sulfur mustard gas induced bronchitis: a randomized double-blinded, placebo-control clinical trial.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 Apr 1;21(1):112. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: This study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of atorvastatin in patients with chronic bronchitis, exposed to sulfur mustard gas.

Methods: In this randomized double-blinded clinical trial we recruited patients with chronic bronchitis after exposure to sulfur mustard gas. Ninety men 45-75 years old diagnosed with chronic bronchitis after exposure to mustard gas during the Iran-Iraq war, were randomly assigned to receive either atorvastatin (40 mg) or placebo once a day for 3 months. Read More

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Covalent Organic Frameworks toward Diverse Photocatalytic Aerobic Oxidations.

Chemistry 2021 May 30;27(28):7738-7744. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institute of Catalysis for Energy and Environment, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenyang Normal University, 110034, Shenyang, P. R. China.

Photoactive two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2D-COFs) have become promising heterogenous photocatalysts in visible-light-driven organic transformations. Herein, a visible-light-driven selective aerobic oxidation of various small organic molecules by using 2D-COFs as the photocatalyst was developed. In this protocol, due to the remarkable photocatalytic capability of hydrazone-based 2D-COF-1 on molecular oxygen activation, a wide range of amides, quinolones, heterocyclic compounds, and sulfoxides were obtained with high efficiency and excellent functional group tolerance under very mild reaction conditions. Read More

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Maturity indices as an index to evaluate the quality of sulphur enriched municipal solid waste compost using variable byproduct of sulphur.

Waste Manag 2021 May 23;126:180-190. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

ICAR-Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard Research, Sewar, Bharatpur 321303, Rajasthan, India.

The aim of this study was to assess the maturity indicators of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) enrichment with different byproduct of (sugar and fertilizer industry) sulphur (S). The concentration of total S (TS), water-soluble S (WSS), HCl extractable S and available S were significantly different in composts prepared through different byproduct of S with MSW. WSS varied from 4. Read More

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