40,570 results match your criteria suggesting immune


Canine mast cell tumour cells regulate tryptophan catabolism via the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Apr 30;137:159-162. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Comparative Animal Medicine, Division of Animal Life Science, Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan.

Indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase (IDO) produced by cancer cells catabolizes tryptophan (TRP) to kynurenine (KYN) in the environment, resulting induction of cancer immune escape through induction of T cell anergy and enhancement of regulatory T cells. Recently, inhibition of IDO has been recognized as one of therapeutic strategies for human neoplastic diseases. However, there have been few reports about IDO-expressing cancers in dogs. Read More

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Outbreak investigation of symptomatic SARS-COV-2 VOC 202012/01-lineage B.1.1.7 infection in healthcare workers, Italy.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology-Hygiene Section, University of Bari, Bari, Italy. Electronic address:

Objectives: In December 2020, Italy began a national immunization campaign using the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, prioritizing healthcare workers (HCWs). Immune serum from vaccinated subjects seems to (largely) retain titres of neutralizing antibodies, even against SARS-CoV-2 VOC 202012/01-lineage B.1. Read More

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IFN-β, but not IFN-α, is Responsible for the Pro-Bacterial Effect of Type I Interferon.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2021 May;55(3):256-264

Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA,

Background/aims: During an immune response, type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling induces a wide range of changes, including those which are required to overcome viral infection and those which suppress cytotoxic T cells to avoid immunopathology. During certain bacterial infections, IFN-I signaling exerts largely detrimental effects. Although the IFN-I family of proteins all share one common receptor, biologic responses to signaling vary depending on IFN-I subtype. Read More

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Serum cytokine patterns are modulated in infants fed formula with probiotics or milk fat globule membranes: A randomized controlled trial.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251293. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Proteins and lipids of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and probiotics are immunomodulatory. We hypothesized that Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei strain F19 (F19) would augment vaccine antibody and T helper 1 type immune responses whereas MFGM would produce an immune response closer to that of breastfed (BF) infants. Read More

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Estrogen-induced hsa-miR-10b-5p is elevated in T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and downregulates splicing factor SRSF1.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: Autoimmune diseases afflict women disproportionately more than men. Estrogen is implicated in immune cell dysfunction, yet its precise molecular roles are not fully known. We recently uncovered new roles for serine/arginine-rich splicing factor (SRSF)1 in T cell function and autoimmunity. Read More

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The TIR-NBS protein TN13 associates with the CC-NBS-LRR resistance protein RPS5 and contributes to RPS5-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis.

Plant J 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Control of Fujian-Taiwan Crop Pests, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Plant Immunity Center, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

Nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NLR) proteins play important roles in plant innate immunity by recognizing pathogen effectors. The TIR-NBS (TN) proteins belong to a subtype of the atypical NLRs, but their function in plant immunity is poorly understood. The well-characterized Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) typical CC-NBS-LRR (CNL) protein RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE 5 (RPS5) is activated after recognizing the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector AvrPphB. Read More

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Real-world evidence of cytomegalovirus reactivation in non-Hodgkin lymphomas treated with bendamustine-containing regimens.

Open Med (Wars) 2021 21;16(1):672-682. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Hematology and Transplant Center, University Hospital "San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d'Aragona", Salerno, 84131, Italy.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation during chemotherapy or after organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and the risk of reactivation increases with patients' age. Bendamustine, an alkylating agent currently used for treatment of indolent and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas, can augment the risk of secondary infections including CMV reactivation. In this real-world study, we described an increased incidence of CMV reactivation in older adults (age >60 years old) with newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory indolent and aggressive diseases treated with bendamustine-containing regimens. Read More

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Typhimurium Triggers Extracellular Traps Release in Murine Macrophages.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 26;11:639768. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Departamento de Microbiología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Uruguay.

comprises two species and more than 2500 serovars with marked differences in host specificity, and is responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases, ranging from localized gastroenteritis to severe life-threatening invasive disease. The initiation of the host inflammatory response, triggered by many Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) that possesses, recruits innate immune cells in order to restrain the infection at the local site. Neutrophils are known for killing bacteria through oxidative burst, amid other mechanisms. Read More

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Glycosylation of Anti-Thyroglobulin IgG1 and IgG4 Subclasses in Thyroid Diseases.

Eur Thyroid J 2021 Apr 27;10(2):114-124. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Endocrinology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: Thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), principally comprising immunoglobulin G (IgG), are frequently found in healthy individuals. Previously, we showed that the glycosylation levels of TgAb IgG differed across various thyroid diseases, suggesting an important role of glycosylation on antibodies in the pathogenesis of thyroid diseases. Since IgG1 and IgG4 are the primary TgAb IgG subclasses, this study aimed to investigate the glycosylation of TgAb IgG1 and IgG4 subclasses in thyroid diseases. Read More

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Comprehensive co-expression analysis reveals TMC8 as a prognostic immune-associated gene in head and neck squamous cancer.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jul 27;22(1):498. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Stomatological Center, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518036, P.R. China.

The occurrence and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSC) is closely associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Transmembrane channel-like 8 (TMC8) is a key gene affecting the susceptibility of HPV and that plays an important role in T cell regulation. However, the mechanism by which TMC8 affects T cells and whether it further affects the prognosis of patients with HNSC remains unclear. Read More

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A Recombinant BCG Vaccine Is Safe and Immunogenic in Neonatal Calves and Reduces the Clinical Disease Caused by the Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:664212. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventative Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States.

The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) constitutes a major health burden, causing millions of hospitalizations in children under five years old worldwide due to acute lower respiratory tract infections. Despite decades of research, licensed vaccines to prevent hRSV are not available. Development of vaccines against hRSV targeting young infants requires ruling out potential vaccine-enhanced disease presentations. Read More

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Polyvalent Bacterial Lysate Protects Against Pneumonia Independently of Neutrophils, IL-17A or Caspase-1 Activation.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:562244. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Laboratory for Vaccine Research, Departamento de Desarrollo Biotecnológico, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Higiene, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Polyvalent bacterial lysates have been in use for decades for prevention and treatment of respiratory infections with reported clinical benefits. However, besides claims of broad immune activation, the mode of action is still a matter of debate. The lysates, formulated with the main bacterial species involved in respiratory infections, are commonly prepared by chemical or mechanical disruption of bacterial cells, what is believed influences the biological activity of the product. Read More

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S-acylation of P2K1 mediates extracellular ATP-induced immune signaling in Arabidopsis.

Nat Commun 2021 May 12;12(1):2750. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Biochemistry, C.S. Bond Life Science Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

S-acylation is a reversible protein post-translational modification mediated by protein S-acyltransferases (PATs). How S-acylation regulates plant innate immunity is our main concern. Here, we show that the plant immune receptor P2K1 (DORN1, LecRK-I. Read More

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Selective BCL-X Antagonists Eliminate Infected Cells from a Primary Cell Model of HIV Latency but not from Reservoirs.

J Virol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York NY, USA.

HIV persists, despite immune responses and antiretroviral therapy, in viral reservoirs that seed rebound viremia if therapy is interrupted. Previously, we showed that the BCL-2 protein contributes to HIV persistence by conferring a survival advantage to reservoir-harboring cells. Here, we demonstrate that many of the BCL-2 family members are overexpressed in HIV-infected CD4 T-cells, indicating increased tension between pro-apoptotic and pro-survival family members - and suggesting that inhibition of pro-survival members may disproportionately affect the survival of HIV-infected cells. Read More

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MafF is an antiviral host factor that suppresses transcription from Hepatitis B Virus core promoter.

J Virol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan.

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a stealth virus that exhibits only minimal induction of the interferon system that is required for both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, 90% of acutely infected adults can clear the virus, suggesting the presence of additional mechanisms that facilitate viral clearance. Herein, we report that Maf bZIP transcription factor F (MafF) promotes host defense against infection with HBV. Read More

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Two-year survival with nivolumab in previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: A real-world pooled analysis of patients from France, Germany, and Canada.

Lung Cancer 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

University Hospital, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Frankfurt, Germany. Electronic address:

Objectives: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have become the standard of care for metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progressing during or after platinum-based chemotherapy. Real-world clinical practice tends to represent more diverse patient characteristics than randomized clinical trials. We sought to evaluate overall survival (OS) outcomes in the total study population and in key subsets of patients who received nivolumab for previously treated advanced NSCLC in real-world settings in France, Germany, or Canada. Read More

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Early response of monocyte-derived macrophages from vaccinated and non-vaccinated goats against in vitro infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Vet Res 2021 May 12;52(1):69. Epub 2021 May 12.

Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de León, Campus de Vegazana s/n, 24007, León, Spain.

Paratuberculosis is a disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). Vaccination is the most cost-effective control method. Read More

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Vaccination strategy and anti - SARS-CoV-2 S titers in healthcare workers of the INT - IRCCS "Fondazione Pascale" Cancer Center (Naples, Italy).

Infect Agent Cancer 2021 May 12;16(1):32. Epub 2021 May 12.

Istituto Nazionale Tumori - IRCCS Fondazione Pascale, Napoli, Italy.

Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the resulting disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have spread to millions of people globally, requiring the development of billions of different vaccine doses. The SARS-CoV-2 spike mRNA vaccine (named BNT162b2/Pfizer), authorized by the FDA, has shown high efficacy in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection after administration of two doses in individuals 16 years of age and older. In the present study, we retrospectively evaluated the differences in the SARS-CoV-2 humoral immune response after vaccine administration in the two different cohorts of workers at the INT - IRCCS "Fondazione Pascale" Cancer Center (Naples, Italy): previously infected to SARS-CoV-2 subjects and not infected to SARS-CoV-2 subjects. Read More

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Endogenous level of abscisic acid down-regulated by brassinosteroids signaling via BZR1 to control the growth of .

Plant Signal Behav 2021 May 13:1926130. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Life Science, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The increased level of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) in brassinosteroid (BR)-deficient mutants, such as and ×, suggests that ABA synthesis is inhibited by endogenous BRs in . Expression of the ABA biosynthesis gene () was negatively regulated by exogenously applied BR but up-regulated by the application of brassinazole and in and ×. In addition, expression decreased in , showing that ABA biosynthesis is inhibited by BR signaling via BZR1, intermediated by , in . Read More

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Blocking FcγRIIB in Smooth Muscle Cells Reduces Hypertension.

Circ Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Pathophysiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, CHINA.

Hypertension is a common chronic disease and its prevalence is increasing. Immunoglobulins (Igs) play crucial roles in adaptive immune response and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. However, which Igs and receptors as well as underlying mechanisms participating in hypertension remains unknown. Read More

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Glyphosate inhibits melanization and increases susceptibility to infection in insects.

PLoS Biol 2021 May 12;19(5):e3001182. Epub 2021 May 12.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Melanin, a black-brown pigment found throughout all kingdoms of life, has diverse biological functions including UV protection, thermoregulation, oxidant scavenging, arthropod immunity, and microbial virulence. Given melanin's broad roles in the biosphere, particularly in insect immune defenses, it is important to understand how exposure to ubiquitous environmental contaminants affects melanization. Glyphosate-the most widely used herbicide globally-inhibits melanin production, which could have wide-ranging implications in the health of many organisms, including insects. Read More

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Gateway reflexes, neuronal circuits that regulate the gateways for autoreactive T cells in organs that have blood barriers.

Int Immunol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Molecular Psychoimmunology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University.

Gateway reflexes are neural circuits that maintain homeostasis of the immune system. They form gateways for autoreactive T cells to infiltrate the central nervous system in a noradrenaline-dependent manner despite the blood-brain barrier. This mechanism is critical not only for maintaining organ homeostasis but also for inflammatory disease development. Read More

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Non organ-specific autoimmunity in adult 47,XXY Klinefelter patients and higher-grade X-chromosome aneuploidies.

Clin Exp Immunol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Center of Rare Diseases, Section of Medical Pathophysiology, Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Current literature on systemic autoimmune diseases in X-chromosome aneuploidies is scarce and limited to case reports. Our aim was to evaluate the frequency of anti-nuclear(ANAs)-, extractable nuclear(ENA)-, anti-double-strandedDNA(dsDNAs)-, anti-smooth muscle(ASMAs)-, and anti-mitochondrial(AMAs)-antibodies in a large cohort of adults with Klinefelter's syndrome(KS, 47,XXY) and rare higher-grade sex chromosome aneuploidies(HGAs) for the first time. Sera from 138 X-chromosome aneuploid patients [124 adult patients with 47,XXY KS and 14 patients with HGA (six children, eight adults)] and 50 age-matched 46,XY controls were recruited from the Sapienza University of Rome(2007-2017) and tested for ANAs,ENAs,anti-dsDNAs,ASMAs and AMAs. Read More

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Comparative immune profiling of acute respiratory distress syndrome patients with or without SARS-CoV2 infection.

Cell Rep Med 2021 May 6:100291. Epub 2021 May 6.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes, SITI, Pôle Biologie, F-35033, Rennes, France.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the main complication of COVID-19, requiring admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Despite extensive immune profiling of COVID-19 patients, to what extent COVID-19-associated ARDS differs from other causes of ARDS remains unknown. To address this question, we build 3 cohorts of patients categorize in COVID-19ARDS, COVID-19ARDS, and COVID-19ARDS, and compare their immune landscape analyze by high-dimensional mass cytometry on peripheral blood. Read More

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Heterogeneous magnitude of immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 in recovered individuals.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 6;10(5):e1281. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine University of Florence Florence Italy.

Objective: Although the adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 has been characterised in the acute and early convalescent phase of the disease, few studies explore whether natural infection elicits long-lasting immunological memory in recovered individuals. In this work, we aimed to assess the maintenance of immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: We evaluated the long-term virus-specific cellular and humoral immune response in the members of an Italian Serie A football team, who experienced a cluster of COVID-19 in March 2020, which was strictly evaluated in the following months. Read More

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Beneficial autoimmunity improves cancer prognosis.

Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Gustave Roussy Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Villejuif, France.

Many tumour antigens that do not arise from cancer cell-specific mutations are targets of humoral and cellular immunity despite their expression on non-malignant cells. Thus, in addition to the expected ability to detect mutations and stress-associated shifts in the immunoproteome and immunopeptidome (the sum of MHC class I-bound peptides) unique to malignant cells, the immune system also recognizes antigens expressed in non-malignant cells, which can result in autoimmune reactions against non-malignant cells from the tissue of origin. These autoimmune manifestations include, among others, vitiligo, thyroiditis and paraneoplastic syndromes, concurrent with melanoma, thyroid cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer, respectively. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 gene content and COVID-19 mutation impact by comparing 44 Sarbecovirus genomes.

Nat Commun 2021 05 11;12(1):2642. Epub 2021 May 11.

MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Despite its clinical importance, the SARS-CoV-2 gene set remains unresolved, hindering dissection of COVID-19 biology. We use comparative genomics to provide a high-confidence protein-coding gene set, characterize evolutionary constraint, and prioritize functional mutations. We select 44 Sarbecovirus genomes at ideally-suited evolutionary distances, and quantify protein-coding evolutionary signatures and overlapping constraint. Read More

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4-Ethylguaiacol modulates neuroinflammation and Th1/Th17 differentiation to ameliorate disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 May 11;18(1):110. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 2101 E. Coliseum Boulevard, Fort Wayne, IN, 46805, USA.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive autoimmune disease characterized by the accumulation of pathogenic inflammatory immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that subsequently causes focal inflammation, demyelination, axonal injury, and neuronal damage. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established murine model that mimics the key features of MS. Presently, the dietary consumption of foods rich in phenols has been reported to offer numerous health benefits, including anti-inflammatory activity. Read More

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Neutralizing Anti-Interleukin-1 Receptor-Antagonist Autoantibodies Induce Inflammatory and Fibrotic Mediators in IgG4-Related Disease.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

the Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Stanford University; Institute for Immunity, Transplant and Infection, Stanford University, Stanford, CA; VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto. Electronic address:

Background: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibro-inflammatory condition involving loss of B cell tolerance and production of autoantibodies. However, the relevant targets and role of these aberrant humoral immune responses are not defined.

Objective: To identify novel autoantibodies and autoantigen targets that promote pathogenic responses in IgG4-RD. Read More

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The dynamics of human bone marrow adipose tissue in response to feeding and fasting.

JCI Insight 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, United States of America.

Adipocytes were long considered to be inert components of the bone marrow niche, but both mouse and human models suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is dynamic and responsive to hormonal and nutrient cues. In this study of healthy volunteers, we investigated how BMAT responds to acute nutrient changes, including analyses of endocrine determinants and paracrine factors from marrow aspirates. Study participants underwent a 10-day high-calorie protocol followed by a 10-day fast. Read More

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