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Uncommon and peculiar soft tissue sarcomas: Multidisciplinary review and practical recommendations. Spanish Group for Sarcoma research (GEIS -GROUP). Part II.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 Jul 16;99:102260. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Hospital Vall D'Hebron, Medical Oncology Department, Barcelona, Spain.

Among all Soft Tissue sarcomas there are some subtypes with low incidence and/or peculiar clinical behaviour, that need to be consider separately. Most of them are orphan diseases, whose biological characteristics imply a clearly different diagnostic and therapeutic approach from other more common sarcoma tumors. We present a brief and updated multidiciplinary review, focused on practical issues, aimed at helping clinicians in decision making. Read More

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Identifying the Molecular Mechanisms Contributing to Progression, Metastasis, and Death in Low-grade Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: A Case Report.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2021 May 18;27:29-32. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Urology, Helios Hospital, Bad Saarow, Germany.

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy with an estimated 549 393 new cases occurring in 2018 alone. Both non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) show high recurrence and progression rates, and therefore impose a great burden on patients and health care systems. Current risk stratification and therapy strategies are predominantly based on clinical and histopathological findings for tumor stage and grade. Read More

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Phenotypic diversity of genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a histo-molecular-based classification.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Ospedale Bellaria, Via Altura 1/8, 40139, Bologna, Italy.

The current classification of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) includes six major clinicopathological subtypes defined by the physicochemical properties of the protease-resistant core of the pathologic prion protein (PrP), defining two major PrP types (i.e., 1 and 2), and the methionine (M)/valine (V) polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP). Read More

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Somatostatin Receptors and Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 in Lymphomas: A Histopathological Review of Six Lymphoma Subtypes.

Front Oncol 2021 8;11:710900. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Background: Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) and chemokine receptor CXCR4 are expressed in lymphomas, while the abundance is known to be heterogeneous in different subtypes of lymphomas. Targeting tumor cells expressing these receptors might add to therapeutic opportunities while radiolabeled ligands for both imaging and therapy have been developed. The aim of this study was to establish SSTR subtype 2, 3 and 5 and also CXCR4 status immunohistochemically in six different lymphoma subtypes: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), mucosa-associated marginal B-cell lymphoma (MALT), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). Read More

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Treatment and Survival of Malignant Extracranial Germ Cell Tumours in the Paediatric Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 16;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Princess Máxima Center for Paediatric Oncology, Heidelberglaan 25, 3584CS Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to explore overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) rates internationally over the past two decades and to define specific subgroups with inferior outcomes which may demand different treatment strategies.

Methods: The search focused on malignant extracranial germ cell tumours (GCTs) in the paediatric population. The initial database search identified 12,556 articles; 32 articles were finally included in this review, comprising a total of 5095 patients. Read More

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Landscape of EBV-positive gastric cancer.

Gastric Cancer 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Gastrointestinal Tract Surgery, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, 1, Hikarigaoka, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan.

Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancer [EBV (+) GC] is associated with EBV infection and is one of the GC subtypes defined by the Cancer Genome Atlas. EBV (+) GC has several distinct genomic or epigenomic features and clinicopathological characteristics compared with other molecular subtypes of GC. Here, we summarize the unique features of EBV (+) GC including the clinical and histopathological features, and discuss associated genetic and epigenetic aberrations. Read More

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Advances in the management of alveolar soft part sarcoma.

Curr Probl Cancer 2021 Jul 8:100775. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Early Clinical Trials Development Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Electronic address:

Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma is one of the less commonly diagnosed soft tissue sarcoma subtypes, an infrequent subtype within the already rare category of human malignancy of sarcoma. In this article we will summarize the histopathological features, natural history and distinct molecular and biological features that have become increasingly appreciated with newer technologies and precision oncology. We will discuss the contemporary management of this disease as well as emerging treatment options. Read More

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68Ga-PSMA Uptake Patterns of Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma Across Different Histopathological Subtypes.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

From the Departments of Nuclear Medicine Pathology Urology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Abstract: 68Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT is a well-established imaging modality in patients with prostate cancer; however, PSMA expression is also reported in the tumor-associated neovasculature, including but not limited to hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. Herein, we present 2 patients diagnosed with different histopathological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma who underwent 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT before surgery. Both cases have different PSMA expression characteristics and are presented along with pathological findings. Read More

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Molecular Update and Evolving Classification of Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 3;13(13). Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Osakidetza Basque Health Service, Araba University Hospital, Pathology Department, 01070 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) are aggressive B-cell neoplasms with considerable clinical, biologic, and pathologic diversity. The application of high throughput technologies to the study of lymphomas has yielded abundant molecular data leading to the identification of distinct molecular identities and novel pathogenetic pathways. In light of this new information, newly refined diagnostic criteria have been established in the fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) consensus classification of lymphomas, which was revised in 2016. Read More

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BrcaSeg: A Deep Learning Approach for Tissue Quantification and Genomic Correlations of Histopathological Images.

Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA; Department of Biostatistics and Health Data Science, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA; Regenstrief Institute, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. Electronic address:

Epithelial and stromal tissues are components of the tumor microenvironment and play a major role in tumor initiation and progression. Distinguishing stroma from epithelial tissues is critically important for spatial characterization of the tumor microenvironment. We propose BrcaSeg, an image analysis pipeline based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) model to classify epithelial and stromal regions in whole-slide hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained histopathological images. Read More

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The WHO 2018 Classification of Cutaneous Melanocytic Neoplasms: Suggestions From Routine Practice.

Front Oncol 2021 2;11:675296. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Dermatology, 'Luigi Vanvitelli' University School of Medicine, Naples, Italy.

The "multidimensional" World Health Organization (WHO) classification 2018 of melanocytic tumors encompasses nine melanoma pathways (seven of which for cutaneous melanoma) according to a progression model in which morphologically intermediate melanocytic tumors are cosidered as simulators and/or precursors to melanoma. These "intermediates" can be subclassified into: i) a "classical" subgroup (superficial/thin compound: dysplastic nevus), which is placed within the morphologic and molecular progression spectrum of classical (Clark's and McGovern's) melanoma subtypes (superficial spreading and, possibly, nodular); and ii) a "non-classical" subgroup (thick compound/dermal: "melanocytomas") whose genetic pathways diverge from classical melanoma subtypes. Such a progression model is aimed at giving a conceptual framework for a histopathological classification; however, routine clinicopathological practice strongly suggests that most melanomas arise and that the vast majority of nevi are clinically stable or even involuting over time. Read More

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Integration of histopathological images and multi-dimensional omics analyses predicts molecular features and prognosis in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Biotherapy, Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Objective: This study used histopathological image features to predict molecular features, and combined with multi-dimensional omics data to predict overall survival (OS) in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC).

Methods: Patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were distributed into training set (n = 115) and test set (n = 114). In addition, we collected tissue microarrays of 92 patients as an external validation set. Read More

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Intratumor morphologic and transcriptomic heterogeneity in BRAF-mutated metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas.

ESMO Open 2021 Jul 13;6(4):100211. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Medicine (DIMED), Surgical Pathology Unit, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Padua, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) is described as the presence of various clones within one tumor, each with their own unique features in terms of morphology, inflammation, genetics or transcriptomics. Heterogeneity provides the fuel for drug resistance; therefore, an accurate assessment of tumor heterogeneity is essential for the development of effective therapies. The purpose of this study was to dissect morphologic and molecular ITH in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Read More

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Gastric epithelial neoplasm of fundic-gland mucosa lineage: proposal for a new classification in association with gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic-gland type.

J Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, National Hospital Organization Hakodate National Hospital, Hokkaido, Japan.

Background: Gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic-gland type (GA-FG) is a rare variant of gastric neoplasia. However, the etiology, classification, and clinicopathological features of gastric epithelial neoplasm of fundic-gland mucosa lineage (GEN-FGML; generic term of GA-FG related neoplasm) are not fully elucidated. We performed a large, multicenter, retrospective study to establish a new classification and clarify the clinicopathological features of GEN-FGML. Read More

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[Ampullary neoplasms: surgical management].

Chirurg 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Klinik für Allgemein‑, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 420, 69120, Heidelberg, Deutschland.

Background: Endoscopically unresectable adenomas and carcinomas of the greater duodenal papilla and ampulla of the bile duct necessitate surgical resection. The surgical techniques need to be adapted to local tumor expansion and patterns of infiltrative growth.

Objective: Based on the current scientific data and developments this article provides an overview of indications for surgical resection, surgical strategies and dissection techniques for ampullary tumors. Read More

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Efficacy of expressions of Arg-1, Hep Par-1, and CK19 in the diagnosis of the primary hepatocellular carcinoma cubtypes and exclusion of the metastases.

Authors:
Ihab Shafek Atta

Histol Histopathol 2021 Jul 13:18361. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Pathology Department, faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar university, Assuit, Egypt.

Many conflicts arise using immunohistochemistry of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), some of these conflicts arise from the biliary part within the tumor itself or from liver metastasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of Arg-1, HepPar-1, and CK-19 expressions in the primary HCC subtypes as well as studying of some metastatic cases to find a distinctive immunohistochemical panel utilizing it to differentiate between these entities.

Material And Methods: A paraffin-embedded block including 62 cases of primary HCC, and 18 cases diagnosed as metastatic tumors, were subjected for this study using Anti-liver Arginase antibody (ab125134 Cambridge, USA, polyclonal antibody, 3. Read More

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Outcomes and prognostic factors in canine epitheliotropic and nonepitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.

Vet Comp Oncol 2021 Jul 11. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Canine cutaneous lymphoma is an uncommon lymphoma in dogs. Most canine cutaneous lymphoma cases have a T-cell origin. Canine cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is classified into epitheliotropic and nonepitheliotropic cutaneous lymphomas, and each type of lymphoma is subclassified into several histological subtypes. Read More

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A subregion-based positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) radiomics model for the classification of non-small cell lung cancer histopathological subtypes.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Jul;11(7):2918-2932

Research Center for Healthcare Data Science, Zhejiang Lab, Hangzhou, China.

Background: This study classifies lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) using subregion-based radiomics features extracted from positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images.

Methods: In this study, the standard F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT images of 150 patients with lung ADC and 100 patients with SCC were retrospectively collected from the PET Center of the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University. First, the 3D feature vector of each tumor voxel (whose basis is PET value, CT value, and CT local dominant orientation) was extracted. Read More

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Jejunal Ectopic Pancreas: A Rare Cause of Small Intestinal Mass.

Cureus 2021 Jun 2;13(6):e15409. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Surgery, Northwell Health, New York, USA.

Ectopic pancreas (EP) is defined as the presence of pancreatic tissue outside the pancreas with no anatomical connection to the pancreas. It is also known as pancreatic heterotopia, accessory pancreas, aberrant pancreas, or pancreatic rest. The first case of EP was described in 1727 when pancreatic tissue was identified in the ileal diverticulum. Read More

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[Epidemiologic and histopathologic characteristics of 1280 uterine cervical cancers in Kinshasa].

Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Département d'anatomie pathologique, faculté de médecine, université de Kinshasa, BP834, Kinshasa XI, République démocratique du Congo.

Objective: Due to the lack of both cancer registry and large scale cervical screening in most african countries, only theoretical studies are available. The objective of our work was to provide epidemiological and histopathological characteristics of cervical cancer based on concrete observations.

Methods: This study was carried out on all cancers (n=5801) collected in the last 10 years from 5 pathology laboratories of Kinshasa; the histologic slides of the cervical cancers (n=1280) were reviewed by at least two pathologists and classified according to the 2014 OMS classification. Read More

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More than just acral melanoma: the controversies of defining the disease.

J Pathol Clin Res 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Program of Immunology and Tumour Biology, Brazilian National Cancer Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Acral melanoma (AM) is a malignant cutaneous melanocytic tumour specifically located on the palms, soles, and nail apparatus, which are areas of glabrous (hairless) skin. Acral lentiginous melanoma, a subtype of AM, represents a histopathological subtype diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma with unique morphological and structural features. Despite clear definitions, the misuse of these terms and the inconsistency in reporting the histopathological features of AM cases have become a major obstacle to the study of the disease. Read More

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Systematic Scoring of Tubular Injury Patterns Reveals Interplay between Distinct Tubular and Glomerular Lesions in ANCA-Associated Glomerulonephritis.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 18;10(12). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Nephrology and Rheumatology, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen, Germany.

Background: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a small vessel vasculitis, most frequently presenting as microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) or granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Acute tubular injury with the presence of tubulitis was previously reported to be of prognostic value in ANCA glomerulonephritis (GN). In particular, distinct tubular injury lesions were associated with the deterioration of kidney function at AAV disease onset, as well as renal resistance to treatment, and higher risk of progression to composite outcome in patients with AAV. Read More

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Toward a refined genotype-phenotype classification scheme for the international consensus classification of Focal Cortical Dysplasia.

Brain Pathol 2021 Jul;31(4):e12956

Epilepsy Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) is the most common cause of drug-resistant focal epilepsy in children and young adults. The diagnosis of currently defined FCD subtypes relies on a histopathological assessment of surgical brain tissue. The many ongoing challenges in the diagnosis of FCD and their various subtypes mandate, however, continuous research and consensus agreement to develop a reliable classification scheme. Read More

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Ceramide expression in relation to breast cancer molecular subtypes in Saudi women.

Saudi Pharm J 2021 Jun 24;29(6):609-615. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Nanobiotechnology Unit, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia.

Background/introduction: Despite advances in the diagnosis and management of breast cancer (BC), it is still associated with high mortality rates. New biomarkers are being developed for the diagnosis, treatment, and prediction of responses of BC. Ceramide (CER), a bioactive sphingolipid, has emerged recently as a useful diagnostic tool in several types of tumors. Read More

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Comparative analysis of histopathological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma in the Middle East compared to other world regions.

Urol Ann 2021 Apr-Jun;13(2):130-133. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology and Renal Transplantation, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Introduction: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has various histopathological tumor subtypes which have a significant implication on the oncological outcome of these patients. We aimed to evaluate the distribution of RCC subtypes presenting at a tertiary care center in the Middle East, in comparison to the distribution reported in different geographic areas worldwide.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on all patients who underwent partial or radical nephrectomy for RCC at the American University of Beirut Medical Center between January 2012 and January 2018. Read More

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Clinicopathological characteristics of young versus older patients with breast cancer: A retrospective comparative study from the Madinah region of Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Med J 2021 Jul;42(7):769-775

From the Department of Pathology, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: To compare the clinicopathological, histological and immunohistochemical features of breast cancer (BC) in between young (≤40 years) and older (>40 years) patients.

Methods: This retrospective study included histopathological reports of all patients with primary BC diagnose at the King Fahad Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia between January 2006 and November 2020.

Results: During the study period, a total of 708 patients with BC were identified; 173 cases (24. Read More

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Oral cancer histopathological subtypes in association with risk factors: a 5-year retrospective study.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2020 Oct-Dec;61(4):1213-1220

Department of Anesthesiology and Oral Surgery, Multidisciplinary Center for Research, Evaluation, Diagnosis and Therapies in Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Victor Babeş University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timişoara, Romania;

Background: Oral cancer is a worldwide public health problem, being the sixth most common neoplasm. The high mortality rate of this type of cancer is due to a delayed diagnosis, a fast evolution and metastasis, no primary symptomatology, the multitude of risk factors and the lack of awareness among the population concerning oral malignancy.

Aim: The aim of this 5-year retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence of oral cancer patients in the Clinic of Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Emergency County Hospital, Timişoara, Romania and quantify the histopathological (HP) subtypes, localization, age, gender, tumor staging and differentiation, positive loco-regional lymph nodes and risk factors. Read More

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Calvarial Lesions: A Tertiary Centre's Experience Over Fifteen Years.

Neurol India 2021 May-Jun;69(3):650-658

Department of Pathology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: The human calvaria harbors a variety of pathology and majority of them are incidentally noticed as painless swelling. The aim of the present study is to describe the histopathological subtypes of calvarial lesions, their management and factors affecting their surgical outcome at a tertiary care referral center.

Material And Methods: All patients who underwent excision of the calvarial lesions over the last 15 years (from January 2005 to July 2019) were included in this study. Read More

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Basal Cell Adenoma of the Parotid Gland.

Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) 2020 Oct.-Dec.;18(72):434-436

Department of ENT, Indira Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Pondicherry, India.

Basal Cell Adenoma (BCA) known as monomorphic adenoma is a rare type of benign epithelial salivary neoplasm that mostly occurs in the parotid gland. Clinically BCA appears as a firm, mobile, slow-growing mass and is usually diagnosed during the histopathological examination of the resected surgical specimen. Histological differential diagnosis ranges from benign to malignant neoplasms such as pleomorphic adenoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Read More

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Pathological and immunohistochemical features of 45 cases of feline meningioma.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo.

Meningioma is the most common primary brain tumor in cats, although there are few reports about their pathological features. To investigate the histopathological subtypes and immunohistochemical features including expression of cytokeratin and cell adhesion molecules, 45 cases of feline meningioma were examined. The mean age was 12. Read More

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