114 results match your criteria subtype adhd-c


Efficacy and safety of guanfacine extended-release in Japanese adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Exploratory post hoc subgroup analyses of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2021 03 10;41(1):26-39. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Psychiatry, Showa University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim: Previously, we reported on the efficacy and safety of guanfacine extended-release (GXR) in Japanese adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. In this exploratory post hoc analysis, we assessed the efficacy and/or safety of GXR in the following subgroups: ADHD-combined (ADHD-C) and ADHD-predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I) subtypes, age (≥31, <31 years), sex (male, female), and body weight (≥50, <50 kg).

Methods: The primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline in the Japanese version of the investigator-rated ADHD-Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) with adult prompts (total scores) at week 10. Read More

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ADHD subtypes are associated differently with circadian rhythms of motor activity, sleep disturbances, and body mass index in children and adolescents: a case-control study.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2020 Oct 15. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Nutrition, Food Science, and Gastronomy, University of Barcelona, Av. Prat de la Riba 171. Recinte Torribera. Edifici Verdaguer, Santa Coloma de Gramenet, 08921, Barcelona, Spain.

To date, few studies have examined the circadian pattern of motor activity in children and adolescents newly diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective was to study the circadian pattern of motor activity in subjects with ADHD (medication naïve) and to investigate the relationships between alterations in circadian patterns, the ADHD subtype (combined or inattentive), sleep disturbances and body mass index (BMI). One-hundred twenty children and adolescents (60 medication naïve ADHD and 60 controls) were included in a gender- and age-matched case-control study. Read More

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October 2020

ADHD subtype-specific cognitive correlates and association with self-esteem: a quantitative difference.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 10 12;20(1):502. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Psychology and Neurosciences, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund, Germany.

Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a major neurodevelopmental disorder with heterogeneous symptoms, subtypes, and cognitive deficits. Cognitive deficits are central to ADHD pathophysiology and one potential source of heterogeneity in ADHD. Subtype-specific cognitive correlates are not, however, well-studied. Read More

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October 2020

Symptom Level Associations Between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and School Performance.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2020 09 22;59(9-10):874-884. Epub 2020 May 22.

Vermont Department of Health, Burlington, VT, USA.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with reduced school performance. To determine which ADHD symptoms and subtypes have the strongest association, we used type and frequency of symptoms on the 2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome (NS-DATA) to create symptom scores for inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity and define subtypes (ADHD-Inattentive [ADHD-I], ADHD-Hyperactive-Impulsive, ADHD-Combined [ADHD-C]). Regression methods were used to examine associations between symptoms and subtype and a composite measure of school performance. Read More

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September 2020

Epidemiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ann Gen Psychiatry 2020 13;19:21. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Paulo's Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood and adolescence, affecting 2.2 to 17.8% of all school-aged children and adolescents. Read More

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Neurofeedback trains a superordinate system relevant for seemingly opposing behavioral control deficits depending on ADHD subtype.

Dev Sci 2020 11 17;23(6):e12956. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Cognitive Neurophysiology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine of the TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

ADHD is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood, but symptoms vary considerably between individuals. Therefore, different ADHD subtypes can be distinguished. Yet, it is widely elusive whether the specific subtype is critical to consider when examining treatment effects. Read More

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November 2020

Fine motor deficits and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in primary school children.

S Afr J Psychiatr 2019 22;25:1232. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Behavioural Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Background: Many children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display motor deficiencies during their daily routine, which may have impact on their developmental course. Children with ADHD who experience motor deficiencies often display deficits in tasks requiring movements, such as handwriting.

Aim: This study investigated deficiencies in fine motor skills in primary school children with ADHD. Read More

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January 2019

Randomized control study of the effects of executive function training on peer difficulties of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder C subtype.

Appl Neuropsychol Child 2020 Jan-Mar;9(1):41-55. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Chinese Language and Literature, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder C subtype (ADHD-C) is associated with social rejection and peer difficulties. The present study evaluates the comparative efficacy of group executive function training (GEFT) with social skills training (SST) in children with ADHD-C in China. A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study that comprised of 52 boys and 29 girls (age range: 9-12years old) was conducted. Read More

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October 2020

Large-scale brain functional network topology disruptions underlie symptom heterogeneity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 19;21:101600. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Neuroscience & Behavioral Disorders Program, Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857, Singapore; Clinical Imaging Research Centre, The Agency for Science, Technology and Research-National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Accumulating evidence suggests brain network dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whether large-scale brain network connectivity patterns reflect clinical heterogeneity in ADHD remains to be fully understood. This study aimed to characterize the differential within- and between-network functional connectivity (FC) changes in children with ADHD combined (ADHD-C) or inattentive (ADHD-I) subtypes and their associations with ADHD symptoms. Read More

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December 2019

Behavior problems in children with epilepsy and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Central China.

Epilepsy Behav 2018 12 31;89:79-83. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China. Electronic address:

In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with epilepsy in Central China and compare the behavioral problems in children with epilepsy combined with and without ADHD. Children with epilepsy aged between 6 and 16 years were recruited for this study. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria were administered for the diagnosis of ADHD and ADHD subtype in children with epilepsy. Read More

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December 2018

Junior temperament character inventory together with quantitative EEG discriminate children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined subtype from children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined subtype plus oppositional defiant disorder.

Int J Psychophysiol 2018 08 19;130:9-20. Epub 2018 May 19.

Institute of Neurobiology, UNAM, Mexico. Electronic address:

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is frequently associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) but no clear neurophysiological evidence exists that distinguishes the two groups. Our aim was to identify biomarkers that distinguish children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder combined subtype (ADHD_C) from children with ADHD_C + ODD, by combining the results of quantitative EEG (qEEG) and the Junior Temperament Character Inventory (JTCI). 28 ADHD_C and 22 ADHD_C + ODD children who met the DSMV criteria participated in the study. Read More

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Attention profiles in autism spectrum disorder and subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2018 Nov 6;27(11):1433-1447. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Attention problems are observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Most neuropsychological studies that compared both disorders focused on complex executive functions (EF), but missed to contrast basic attention functions, as well as ASD- and ADHD subtypes. The present study compared EF as well as basic attention functioning of children with the combined subtype (ADHD-C), the predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-I), and autism spectrum disorder without ADHD (ASD-) with typically developing controls (TD). Read More

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November 2018

Sluggish Cognitive Tempo as a Possible Predictor of Methylphenidate Response in Children With ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Clin Psychiatry 2018 Mar/Apr;79(2)

Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Objective: To examine whether sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptomatology moderates dose response to methylphenidate and whether the impact of SCT on medication response is distinct from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtype effects.

Methods: Stimulant-naive children with ADHD predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 126) or ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 45) aged 7-11 years were recruited from the community from September 2006 to June 2013 to participate in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, 4-week crossover trial of long-acting methylphenidate. ADHD diagnosis and subtype were established according to DSM-IV criteria using a structured interview and teacher ADHD symptom ratings. Read More

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Comparative Analysis of the WISC between Two ADHD Subgroups.

Psychiatry Investig 2018 Feb 21;15(2):172-177. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Osaka Medical College, Osaka, Japan.

Objective: The prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school-age children is 7.2%, and ADHD is divided into clinical subtypes.

Methods: The current study explored whether specific cognitive profiles as assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)-IV could be obtained for each clinical ADHD subtype (ADHD-Inattentive type and ADHD-Combined type) and investigated the correlation between WISC scores and parental age at their children's birth or birthweight. Read More

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February 2018

Neurophysiological mechanisms of interval timing dissociate inattentive and combined ADHD subtypes.

Sci Rep 2018 02 1;8(1):2033. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Cognitive Neurophysiology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine of the TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

It is far from conclusive what distinguishes the inattentive (ADD) and the combined (ADHD-C) subtype of ADHD on the neuronal level. Theoretical considerations suggest that especially interval timing processes may dissociate these subtypes from each other. Combining high-density EEG recordings with source localization analyses, we examine whether there are ADHD-subtype specific modulations of neurophysiological processes subserving interval timing in matched groups of ADD (n = 16), ADHD-C (n = 16) and controls (n = 16). Read More

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February 2018

Childhood ADHD and Negative Self-Statements: Important Differences Associated With Subtype and Anxiety Symptoms.

Behav Ther 2017 11 16;48(6):793-807. Epub 2017 May 16.

Louisiana State University.

The current study examined the role negative self-statements have on the comorbidity between anxious symptomatology and ADHD-combined presentation (ADHD-C) and ADHD-predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I). A total of 114 children and adolescents with ADHD (M age = 10.15; SD = 2. Read More

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November 2017

Neuronal Intra-Individual Variability Masks Response Selection Differences between ADHD Subtypes-A Need to Change Perspectives.

Front Hum Neurosci 2017 28;11:329. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Cognitive Neurophysiology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität DresdenDresden, Germany.

Due to the high intra-individual variability in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there may be considerable bias in knowledge about altered neurophysiological processes underlying executive dysfunctions in patients with different ADHD subtypes. When aiming to establish dimensional cognitive-neurophysiological constructs representing symptoms of ADHD as suggested by the initiative for Research Domain Criteria, it is crucial to consider such processes independent of variability. We examined patients with the predominantly inattentive subtype (attention deficit disorder, ADD) and the combined subtype of ADHD (ADHD-C) in a flanker task measuring conflict control. Read More

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Differential brain activations in adult attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder subtypes: a counting Stroop functional MRI study.

Brain Imaging Behav 2018 Jun;12(3):882-890

Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, 10002, Taiwan.

Although previous functional neuroimaging studies have found abnormal brain activations in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little was known about distinct brain dysfunctions across different ADHD subtypes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the abnormal brain activations associated with two ADHD subtypes, predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI) and combined (ADHD-C) subtypes. Twenty-five adults with ADHD-PI, 25 with ADHD-C, and 30 healthy controls (HC) participated in this study. Read More

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Regional brain network organization distinguishes the combined and inattentive subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Neuroimage Clin 2017 22;15:383-390. Epub 2017 May 22.

Brain Dynamics Centre, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Australia; The Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Sydney Medical School: Western, Westmead Hospital, Australia. Electronic address:

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized clinically by hyperactive/impulsive and/or inattentive symptoms which determine diagnostic subtypes as Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive (ADHD-HI), Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-I), and Combined (ADHD-C). Neuroanatomically though we do not yet know if these clinical subtypes reflect distinct aberrations in underlying brain organization. We imaged 34 ADHD participants defined using DSM-IV criteria as ADHD-I ( = 16) or as ADHD-C ( = 18) and 28 matched typically developing controls, aged 8-17 years, using high-resolution T1 MRI. Read More

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Variation in the Oxytocin Receptor Gene Is Associated With Social Cognition and ADHD.

J Atten Disord 2019 May 6;23(7):702-711. Epub 2017 May 6.

2 Ege University, İzmir, Turkey.

Objective: Children with ADHD show substantial deficits in social cognitive abilities. Oxytocin, mediated through its specific receptor (OXTR), is involved in the regulation of social behavior and social cognition.

Method: The entire coding sequence of the human OXT and OXTR genes were sequenced to identify mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 151 children with ADHD (ADHD-combined, n = 51; inattentive subtype, n = 50; ADHD-C plus conduct disorder [CD], n = 50; 11-18 years) and 100 healthy controls. Read More

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The Impact of Pharmacotherapy on Substance Use in Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Variations Across Subtypes.

Subst Use Misuse 2017 08 21;52(10):1266-1274. Epub 2017 Mar 21.

a Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes & Policy , University of Houston , Houston , Texas , USA.

Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) pharmacotherapy on the risk of substance use within each ADHD subtype.

Methods: The study used data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent supplement, a nationally representative sample of US adolescents (ages 13-18) collected from 6,483 adolescent-parent interviews conducted between 2001 and 2004. ADHD was categorized into three subtypes: ADHD-predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-H); ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I); and ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. Read More

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Stimulus control in two rodent models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Behav Processes 2017 Feb 15;135:16-24. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

St. Lawrence University, United States.

The spontaneously hypertensive (SHR/NCrl) rat from Charles River is one of the most widely used models of the combined subtype of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-C). Although often used as its control strain, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NCrl) from Charles River has been proposed as a model of the predominately inattentive subtype of ADHD (ADHD-PI). In Experiment 1 SHR/NCrl, WKY/NCrl, and Wistar (WI; the progenitor strain for the two models) rats were trained on a left→right lever-press sequence in the presence of light discriminative stimuli that signaled the active lever in the sequence. Read More

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February 2017

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Val66Met Polymorphism Is a Risk Factor for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Turkish Sample.

Psychiatry Investig 2016 Sep 30;13(5):518-525. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Ege University Medical Faculty, Izmir Turkey.

Objective: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that negatively affects different areas of life. We aimed to evaluate the associations between the Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ADHD and to assess the effect of the BDNF polymorphism on the neurocognitive profile and clinical symptomatology in ADHD.

Methods: Two hundred one ADHD cases and 99 typically developing subjects (TD) between the ages of 8 and 15 years were involved in the study. Read More

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September 2016

Global and local grey matter reductions in boys with ADHD combined type and ADHD inattentive type.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2016 Aug 20;254:119-26. Epub 2016 Jun 20.

Academic Child Psychiatry Unit, Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville Australia; Developmental Imaging, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Australia. Electronic address:

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reliably been associated with global grey matter reductions but local alterations are largely inconsistent with perhaps the exception of the caudate nucleus. The aim of this study was to examine local and global brain volume differences between typically developing children (TD) and children with a diagnosis of ADHD. We also addressed whether these parameters would differ between children with the ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) and those with the ADHD-inattentive type (ADHD-I). Read More

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Specific cognitive-neurophysiological processes predict impulsivity in the childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined subtype.

Psychol Med 2016 Apr 25;46(6):1277-87. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,Faculty of Medicine of the TU Dresden,Cognitive Neurophysiology,Dresden,Germany.

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood. Besides inattention and hyperactivity, impulsivity is the third core symptom leading to diverse and serious problems. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying impulsivity in ADHD are still not fully understood. Read More

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Cognition, Emotion and Behavior in Children with Tourette's Syndrome and Children with ADHD-Combined Subtype-A Two-Year Follow-Up Study.

PLoS One 2015 16;10(12):e0144874. Epub 2015 Dec 16.

Innlandet Hospital Trust, Division Mental Health Care, Lillehammer, Norway.

Objective: This two-year follow-up study investigates the course of and association among measures of cognitive control, focused attention, decision-making and symptom severity (anxiety, depression and behavior) in children and adolescents with Tourette's Syndrome (TS) or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined subtype (ADHD-C).

Method: 19 children with TS, 33 with ADHD-C, and 50 typically developing children (TDC) were examined with a battery of psychometric measures and rating forms at baseline and two-years later.

Results: All three groups improved likewise in measures of cognitive control over time, whereas only the TDC improved in focused attention. Read More

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Clinical Effects of ADHD Subtypes in Patients With Social Anxiety Disorder.

J Atten Disord 2019 Oct 4;23(12):1464-1469. Epub 2015 Dec 4.

3 Istanbul University, Turkey.

Our aim in this study is to evaluate the impacts of inattentive and combined types of childhood ADHD (ADHD-I, ADHD-C) in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). A total of 142 adult outpatients with a primary diagnosis of SAD were included. All patients were assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), ADHD module and a clinical and sociodemographic data form and scales were filled out. Read More

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October 2019

Executive Functioning in Subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Noro Psikiyatr Ars 2015 Dec 1;52(4):386-392. Epub 2015 Dec 1.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, İstanbul University İstanbul Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey.

Introduction: This study aims to evaluate executive functions (EF), such as inhibition, planning, working memory, and set shifting, in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by comparing three ADHD subtype groups (ADHD-Inattentive, ADHD-Combined, and ADHD-Comorbid) and a normal control group.

Methods: Participants included 147 children. In total, 111 children were assigned to the ADHD groups of the study. Read More

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December 2015

Putative therapeutic targets for symptom subtypes of adult ADHD: D4 receptor agonism and COMT inhibition improve attention and response inhibition in a novel translational animal model.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2015 Apr 18;25(4):454-67. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

Manchester Pharmacy School, University of Manchester, Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PT, UK. Electronic address:

Prefrontal cortical dopamine plays an important role in cognitive control, specifically in attention and response inhibition; the core deficits in ADHD. We have previously shown that methylphenidate and atomoxetine differentially improve these deficits dependent on baseline performance. The present study extends this work to investigate the effects of putative therapeutic targets in our model. Read More

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Microstructural abnormalities in the combined and inattentive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

Sci Rep 2014 Nov 3;4:6875. Epub 2014 Nov 3.

Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China.

Previous research has demonstrated that there are specific white matter abnormalities in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the results of these studies are not consistent, and one of the most important factors that affects the inconsistency of previous studies maybe the ADHD subtype. Different ADHD subtypes may have some overlapping microstructural damage, but they may also have unique microstructural abnormalities. Read More

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November 2014