592 results match your criteria substantial underestimation


Challenges in identifying indigenous peoples in population oral health surveys: a commentary.

BMC Oral Health 2021 Apr 28;21(1):216. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Post-Graduate Program in Public Health, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.

There are currently 370 million persons identifying as indigenous across 90 countries globally. Indigenous peoples generally face substantial exclusion/marginalization and poorer health status compared with non-indigenous majority populations; this includes poorer oral health status and reduced access to dental services. Population-level oral health surveys provide data to set priorities, inform policies, and monitor progress in dental disease experience/dental service utilisation over time. Read More

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Actual Racial/Ethnic Disparities in COVID-19 Mortality for the Non-Hispanic Black Compared to Non-Hispanic White Population in 35 US States and Their Association with Structural Racism.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Community Health Sciences, Boston University School of Public Health, 801 Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, MA, 02118, USA.

Introduction: While the increased burden of COVID-19 among the Black population has been recognized, most attempts to quantify the extent of this racial disparity have not taken the age distribution of the population into account. In this paper, we determine the Black-White disparity in COVID-19 mortality rates across 35 states using direct age standardization. We then explore the relationship between structural racism and differences in the magnitude of this disparity across states. Read More

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A robust approach to deriving long-term daily surface NO levels across China: Correction to substantial estimation bias in back-extrapolation.

Environ Int 2021 Apr 23;154:106576. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065, China; National Engineering Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065, China; Yibin Institute of Industrial Technology, Sichuan University Yibin Park, Yibin 644000, China. Electronic address:

Background: Long-term surface NO data are essential for retrospective policy evaluation and chronic human exposure assessment. In the absence of NO observations for Mainland China before 2013, training a model with 2013-2018 data to make predictions for 2005-2012 (back-extrapolation) could cause substantial estimation bias due to concept drift.

Objective: This study aims to correct the estimation bias in order to reconstruct the spatiotemporal distribution of daily surface NO levels across China during 2005-2018. Read More

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["The effect of healthy worker" in various areas of occupational medicine: the publications review].

Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med 2021 Mar;29(2):254-259

Saratov Medical Scientific Center of Hygiene of the Federal budget institution of science «Federal Scientific Center of Medical and Preventive Technologies of Public Health Risk Management», 410022, Saratov, Russian Federation.

The article considers "the effect of healthy worker" as a source of systematic errors that makes epidemiological studies in occupational medicine less reliable and this is a significant problem. It is very important to analyze the professions and work conditions under which the phenomenon of self-selection and artificial «health improvement» of working population is to be expected. The scientific publications from open databases and other sources, discussing effect of self-selection under various work conditions and in various professions were analyzed. Read More

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Contour prognostic model for predicting survival after resection of colorectal liver metastases: development and multicentre validation study using largest diameter and number of metastases with RAS mutation status.

Br J Surg 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: Most current models for predicting survival after resection of colorectal liver metastasis include largest diameter and number of colorectal liver metastases as dichotomous variables, resulting in underestimation of the extent of risk variation and substantial loss of statistical power. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new prognostic model for patients undergoing liver resection including largest diameter and number of colorectal liver metastases as continuous variables.

Methods: A prognostic model was developed using data from patients who underwent liver resection for colorectal liver metastases at MD Anderson Cancer Center and had RAS mutational data. Read More

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Statistical approaches to identifying lapses in psychometric response data.

Psychon Bull Rev 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Otolaryngology-Head&Neck Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43212, USA.

Psychometric curve fits relate physical stimuli to an observer's performance. In experiments an observer may "lapse" and respond with a random guess, which may negatively impact (e.g. Read More

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Genotyping Strategies Using ddRAD Sequencing in Farmed Arctic Charr ().

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 21;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7090, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.

Incorporation of genomic technologies into fish breeding programs is a modern reality, promising substantial advances regarding the accuracy of selection, monitoring the genetic diversity and pedigree record verification. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays are the most commonly used genomic tool, but the investments required make them unsustainable for emerging species, such as Arctic charr (), where production volume is low. The requirement to genotype a large number of animals for breeding practices necessitates cost effective genotyping approaches. Read More

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Xylem transport of root-derived CO caused a substantial underestimation of belowground respiration during a growing season.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Previous research has indicated that a potentially large portion of root-respired CO can move internally through tree xylem, but these reports are relatively scarce and have generally been limited to short observations. Our main objective was to provide a continuous estimate of the quantity and variability of root-respired CO that moves either internally through the xylem (F ) or externally through the soil to the atmosphere (F ) over most of a growing season. Nine trees were measured in a Populus deltoides stand for 129 days from early June to mid-October. Read More

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The impact of temporary deferrals on future blood donation behavior across the donor life cycle.

Transfusion 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Hamburg Center for Health Economics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Donor retention is essential for blood banks because acquiring new donors is more expensive than retaining existing ones. Previous studies show that the temporary deferral of donors negatively impacts future donation likelihood. In this study, we analyze the impact of temporary deferrals on future donation behavior while correcting for potential endogeneity, depending on the level of donor experience and number of previous deferrals. Read More

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Evaluating and improving the reliability of the UV-persulfate method for the determination of TOC/DOC in surface waters.

Water Res 2021 May 10;196:116918. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. Electronic address:

The UV-persulfate oxidation method is widely used for determining the total organic carbon concentration of aqueous samples (denoted for convenience as UVP-TOC). However, for some surface water samples, the measurement of TOC by this method can be unreliable, deviating significantly from the true carbon content. In this study, the performance of the UVP-TOC method has been investigated by comparing the results from the analysis of a variety of aqueous samples that included two kinds of surface water samples and related surface water model substances: bovine serum albumin (BSA), sodium alginate (SA), humic acid (HA), tannic acid (TA), benzoic acid (BA) and citric acid (CA), with those from a high-temperature combustion method (elemental analysis); the latter providing the true carbon content value. Read More

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Public and private tapwater: Comparative analysis of contaminant exposure and potential risk, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA.

Environ Int 2021 07 19;152:106487. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Humans are primary drivers of environmental contamination worldwide, including in drinking-water resources. In the United States (US), federal and state agencies regulate and monitor public-supply drinking water while private-supply monitoring is rare; the current lack of directly comparable information on contaminant-mixture exposures and risks between private- and public-supplies undermines tapwater (TW) consumer decision-making.

Methods: We compared private- and public-supply residential point-of-use TW at Cape Cod, Massachusetts, where both supplies share the same groundwater source. Read More

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Offsetting unabated agricultural emissions with CO2 removal to achieve ambitious climate targets.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(3):e0247887. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute for Environmental Decisions, ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Zurich, Switzerland.

The Representative Concentration Pathway 2.6 (RCP2.6), which is broadly compatible with the Paris Agreement's temperature goal by 1. Read More

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Diameter change in completely remodelled proximal descending aorta after acute type I dissection repair: implications for estimating the pre-dissection size.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: Pre-dissection diameter of the proximal descending thoracic aorta (p-DTA), if available, would be the reference for determining the size of the stent graft or elephant trunk. Acute type B dissection is known to increase p-DTA diameter by 23% (Rylski factor). This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of estimating post-remodelling diameter of the p-DTA based on the Rylski factor and other post-dissection morphological parameters in acute type I dissection, based on the assumption that the post-remodelling diameter is similar to the pre-dissection diameter. Read More

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Heroin use cannot be measured adequately with a general population survey.

Addiction 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

University of Maryland, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, College Park, MD, USA.

Background: Globally, heroin and other opioids account for more than half of deaths and years-of-life-lost due to drug use and comprise one of the four major markets for illegal drugs. Having sound estimates of the number of problematic heroin users is fundamental to formulating sound health and criminal justice policies. Researchers and policymakers rely heavily upon general population surveys (GPS), such as the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), to estimate heroin use, without confronting their limitations. Read More

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Investigating sex differences in the accuracy of dietary assessment methods to measure energy intake in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May;113(5):1241-1255

The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: To inform the interpretation of dietary data in the context of sex differences in diet-disease relations, it is important to understand whether there are any sex differences in accuracy of dietary reporting.

Objective: To quantify sex differences in self-reported total energy intake (TEI) compared with a reference measure of total energy expenditure (TEE).

Methods: Six electronic databases were systematically searched for published original research articles between 1980 and April 2020. Read More

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Comparison of Correction Techniques for the Spill in Effect in Emission Tomography.

IEEE Trans Radiat Plasma Med Sci 2020 Jul 12;4(4):422-432. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Biomedical Imaging Science Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, UK; Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY.

In positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, accurate clinical assessment is often affected by the partial volume effect (PVE) leading to overestimation (spill-in) or underestimation (spill-out) of activity in various small regions. The spill-in correction, in particular, can be very challenging when the target region is close to a hot background region. Therefore, this study evaluates and compares the performance of various recently developed spill-in correction techniques, namely: background correction (BC), local projection (LP), and hybrid kernelized (HKEM) methods. Read More

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Frequency and influence of "not relevant" responses on the Dermatology Life Quality Index among adults with atopic dermatitis.

Qual Life Res 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Purpose: "Not relevant" responses (NRRs) on the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) are common among adults with psoriasis and may be associated with underestimation of disease burden. Little is known about "not relevant" responses among adults with atopic dermatitis. We aimed to examine the frequency of NRRs on the DLQI and to determine whether NRRs are associated with underestimation of disease burden among adults with atopic dermatitis. Read More

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February 2021

Emissions of particulate PAHs from solid fuel combustion in indoor cookstoves.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 26;771:145411. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Residential solid fuel combustion is a major emission source of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in most developing countries, including China; however, accurate estimates of PAH emissions are often challenged by limited real-world emission factors (EFs) under field conditions, which can hardly be repeated in laboratory-controlled tests. In this study, a series of field measurements was conducted to determine the emissions of 28 PAHs from different fuel-stove combinations. A total of 14 fuel-stove combinations were studied. Read More

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Underestimation of risk for large babies in rural and remote Australia: Time to change plasma glucose collection protocols.

J Clin Transl Endocrinol 2021 Mar 1;23:100247. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Kimberley Aboriginal Medical Services, 12 Napier Terrace, Broome 6725, Australia.

Aims: Preanalytical glycolysis in oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) leads to substantial underestimation of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hence risk for large-for-gestational-age (LGA) babies. This paper quantified the impact of glycolysis on identification of LGA risk in a prospective rural and remote Australian cohort.

Methods: For 495 women, OGTT results from room temperature fluoride-oxalate (FLOX) tubes were algorithmically corrected for estimated glycolysis compared to 1) the Hyperglycaemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO) study protocol (FLOX tubes in ice-slurry); and 2) room temperature fluoride-citrate (FC) tubes. Read More

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Impact of diffuse layer processes on contaminant forward and back diffusion in heterogeneous sandy-clayey domains.

J Contam Hydrol 2021 Feb 17;237:103754. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej, Building 115, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address:

Low-permeability aquitards can significantly affect the transport, distribution, and persistence of contaminant plumes in subsurface systems. Although such low-permeability materials are often charged, the key role of charge-induced electrostatic processes during contaminant transport has not been extensively studied. This work presents a detailed investigation exploring the coupled effects of heterogeneous distribution of physical, chemical and electrostatic properties on reactive contaminant transport in field-scale groundwater systems including spatially distributed clay zones. Read More

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February 2021

Early Childhood Education and Adult Depression: An Attrition Reanalysis With Inverse Propensity Score Weighting.

Eval Rev 2020 10 14;44(5-6):379-409. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Human Capital Research Collaborative, 5635University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

In a previous study of the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) education program, preschool participation was linked to a 4.6 percentage point reduction (26%) in depressive symptoms at ages 22-24 over the matched comparison group enrolling the usual programs. The present study reanalyzed these data in the Chicago Longitudinal Study to address potential attrition bias since more than a quarter of the sample was missing on the outcome. Read More

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October 2020

Interrater Agreement and Reliability of Burn Size Estimations between Emergency Physicians and Burn Unit.

J Burn Care Res 2020 Dec 11. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Brooke Army Medical Center, Roger Brooke Dr, Fort Sam Houston, Texas.

Objective: The initial approach to burn injuries has remained essentially unchanged over the past several decades and revolves around trauma assessment and fluid resuscitation, frequently occurring in the emergency department (ED). While previous research suggests that emergency physicians (EP) are poor estimators at total body surface area (TBSA) affected, we believe that estimation differences are improving drastically. This study investigated the interrater agreement and reliability of burn size estimations at an academic ED and its cohabiting burn unit. Read More

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December 2020

Systematic identification of microplastics in abyssal and hadal sediments of the Kuril Kamchatka trench.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 18;269:116095. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Microbial Ecology, Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Kurpromenade 201, 27498, Helgoland, Germany.

The occurrence of microplastics throughout marine environments worldwide, from pelagic to benthic habitats, has become serious cause for concern. Hadal zones were recently described as the "trash bins of the oceans" and ultimate sink for marine plastic debris. The Kuril region covers a substantial area of the North Pacific Ocean and is characterised by high biological productivity, intense marine traffic through the Kuril straits, and anthropogenic activity. Read More

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January 2021

Absorption properties and forcing efficiency of light-absorbing water-soluble organic aerosols: Seasonal and spatial variability.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 18;272:115932. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Civil Engineering and APTL at Center for Environmental Science and Engineering (CESE), Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, 208 016, India.

Light-absorbing organic aerosols, also known as brown carbon (BrC), enhance the warming effect of the Earth's atmosphere. The seasonal and spatial variability of BrC absorption properties is poorly constrained and accounted for in the climate models resulting in a substantial underestimation of their radiative forcing estimates. This study reports seasonal and spatial variability of absorption properties and simple forcing efficiency of light-absorbing water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, SFE) by utilizing current and previous field-based measurements reported mostly from Asia along with a few observations from Europe, the USA, and the Amazon rainforest. Read More

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Simulation of primary and secondary particles in the streets of Paris using MUNICH.

Faraday Discuss 2021 Mar 25;226:432-456. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

CEREA, Joint Laboratory École des Ponts ParisTech/EDF R&D, Université Paris-Est, Champs-sur-Marne, France.

High particle concentrations are observed in the streets. Regional-scale chemistry-transport models are not able to reproduce these high concentrations, because their spatial resolution is not fine enough. Local-scale models are usually employed to simulate the high concentrations in street networks, but they often adopt substantial simplifications to determine background concentrations and use simplified chemistry. Read More

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An international multi-center investigation on the accuracy of radionuclide calibrators in nuclear medicine theragnostics.

EJNMMI Phys 2020 Nov 23;7(1):69. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, P.O. Box 5800, 6202, AZ, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Personalized molecular radiotherapy based on theragnostics requires accurate quantification of the amount of radiopharmaceutical activity administered to patients both in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This international multi-center study aims to investigate the clinical measurement accuracy of radionuclide calibrators for 7 radionuclides used in theragnostics: Tc, In, I, I, I, Lu, and Y.

Methods: In total, 32 radionuclide calibrators from 8 hospitals located in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany were tested. Read More

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November 2020

Impact of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction-V on Coronary Artery Calcium Scores Obtained From Low-Tube-Voltage Computed Tomography - A Patient Study.

Acad Radiol 2020 Nov 10. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

University Hospital Zürich, Rämistrasse 100, 8091 Zürich, SWITZERLAND. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the impact of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-V (ASIR-V) on the accuracy of ultra-low-dose coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring.

Materials And Method: One-hundred-and-three patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) for CAC scoring were prospectively included. All underwent standard scanning with 120-kilovolt-peak (kVp) and with 80- and 70-kVp tube voltage. Read More

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November 2020

Association of Optic Nerve Head Prelaminar Schisis With Glaucoma.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 03 6;223:246-258. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Discoveries in Sight Research Laboratories, Devers Eye Institute, Legacy Research Institute, Legacy Health, Portland, Oregon, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare the frequency of observing optic nerve head (ONH) prelaminar schisis by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in glaucoma and glaucoma suspect (GL/S) eyes vs healthy control (HC) eyes and to assess its association with other markers of glaucoma severity.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 298 eyes of 150 GL/S patients and 88 eyes of 44 HCs. OCT scans were obtained, including 24 radial B-scans, each composed of 768 A-lines spanning 15°, centered on the ONH. Read More

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Living with covid-19.

Authors:
D Ploumpidis

Psychiatriki 2020 Jul-Sep;31(3):197-200

Emeritus professor of Psychiatry, President of the Hellenic Psychiatric Association.

From the beginning of 2020, the alarming news from Italy and the first known cases arrived in Greece, along with travelers from the Holy Land. Spain, France and all other countries followed. From the first week of March, restrictive measures began in Greece and then confinement in order to limit the spread of the pandemic and not drown the National Health System by serious cases. Read More

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October 2020

Estimating the lifetime incidence of induced abortion and understanding abortion practices in a Northeastern Tanzania community through a household survey.

Contraception 2021 Feb 21;103(2):127-131. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Objectives: All Tanzanian abortion estimates rely on health facility data that do not take into account completely the incidence of abortion. This papers aims to estimate the lifetime incidence of induced abortion in Arusha, Tanzania via direct and double list-experiment methods using community data and evaluate outcomes and behaviors of women who had an abortion.

Methods: From January to May 2018, a face-to-face interview survey was conducted on a representative sample of sexually active women (n = 3658) living in Arusha, Tanzania. Read More

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February 2021