30,440 results match your criteria substantial reduction


Challenges and Opportunities for Preexposure Prophylaxis.

Top Antivir Med 2021 Oct-Nov;29(4):399-406

University of California Los Angeles, Lose Angeles, CA, USA.

Despite major advances in the HIV prevention toolbox in the past decade, there remain substantial social, economic, and structural barriers to access to preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) that prevent a universal, population-level reduction in HIV incidence. Daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) has been the flagship PrEP regimen, and data support a pericoital/on-demand "2-1-1" dosing schedule for men who have sex with men. Daily oral PrEP with tenofovir alafenamide combined with emtricitabine (TAF/FTC) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2019 for all routes of exposure other than vaginal exposures. Read More

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December 2021

HIV incidence, viremia, and the national response in Eswatini: Two sequential population-based surveys.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(12):e0260892. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

ICAP at Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, United States of America.

With the highest HIV incidence and prevalence globally, the government of Eswatini started a substantial scale-up of HIV treatment and prevention services in 2011. Two sequential large population-based surveys were conducted before and after service expansion to assess the impact of the national response. Cross-sectional, household-based, nationally representative samples of adults, ages 18 to 49 years, were sampled in 2011 and 2016. Read More

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December 2021

Transient Hypoperfusion to Ischemic/Anoxic Spreading Depolarization is Related to Autoregulatory Failure in the Rat Cerebral Cortex.

Neurocrit Care 2021 Dec 2. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Research Group, Hungarian Centre of Excellence for Molecular Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.

Background: In ischemic stroke, cerebral autoregulation and neurovascular coupling may become impaired. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to spreading depolarization (SD) is governed by neurovascular coupling. SDs recur in the ischemic penumbra and reduce neuronal viability by the insufficiency of the CBF response. Read More

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December 2021

Value appropriation in hepatitis C.

Eur J Health Econ 2021 Dec 2. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: In 2015, the Swedish government in an unprecedented move decided to allocate 150 million € to provide funding for new drugs for hepatitis C. This was triggered by the introduction of the first second generation of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) promising higher cure rates and reduced side effects. The drugs were cost-effective but had a prohibitive budget impact. Read More

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December 2021

A model for estimating the health economic impact of earlier diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Jul 6;7(3). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Dept of Medicine - Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Diagnostic delay of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) exceeds 1 year, contributing to higher mortality. Health economic consequences of late CTEPH diagnosis are unknown. We aimed to develop a model for quantifying the impact of diagnosing CTEPH earlier on survival, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and healthcare costs. Read More

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Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on road safety in Tamil Nadu, India.

Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2021 Dec 1:1-11. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Department of Management Studies, and Robert Bosch Centre for Data Science and AI, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India.

This study uses structured literature mapping to review worldwide trends in traffic safety following the phenomenon of the COVID-19 pandemic. Motivated by dissimilar findings globally and a lack of evidence from emerging nations which have been significantly more affected by road traffic crashes, the study examines the impact of the pandemic-induced lockdown on road traffic deaths and injuries in Tamil Nadu, India. Using a holistic approach, methods such as ARIMA, Holt-Winters, Bayesian Structural Time Series, and Generalized Additive Model are employed for counterfactual prediction, to draw a causal inference of lockdown on traffic safety. Read More

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December 2021

Electron Delocalization in Spectroelectrochemically and Computationally Characterized [Pt{(-BrCF)NCH═C(Cl)NEt}Cl(py)] Formed by Electrochemical Oxidation of [Pt{(-BrCF)NCH═C(Cl)NEt}Cl(py)].

Inorg Chem 2021 Dec 1. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.

[Pt{(-BrCF)NCH═C(Cl)NEt}Cl(py)] () is the product of the hydrogen peroxide oxidation of the Pt anticancer agent [Pt{(-BrCF)NCHCHNEt}Cl(py)] (). Insights into electron delocalization and bonding in [Pt{(-BrCF)NCH═C(Cl)NEt}Cl(py)] () obtained by electrochemical oxidation of have been gained by spectroscopic and computational studies. The process is chemically and electrochemically reversible on the short time scale of voltammetry in dichloromethane (0. Read More

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December 2021

Advancing Photoelectrochemical Energy Conversion through Atomic Design of Catalysts.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Dec 1:e2104363. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005, Australia.

Powered by inexhaustible solar energy, photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen/ammonia production and reduction of carbon dioxide to high added-value chemicals in eco-friendly and mild conditions provide a highly attractive solution to carbon neutrality. Recently, substantial advances have been achieved in PEC systems by improving light absorption and charge separation/transfer in PEC devices. However, less attention is given to the atomic design of photoelectrocatalysts to facilitate the final catalytic reactions occurring at photoelectrode surface, which largely limits the overall photo-to-energy conversion of PEC system. Read More

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December 2021

Systematic review with meta-analysis: the impact of functional cure on clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 Dec 1. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: Although hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss is considered the ideal therapeutic endpoint for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, its impact on clinical outcomes remains uncertain.

Aim: To assess the impact of HBsAg loss on clinical outcomes following spontaneous and treatment-related HBsAg loss.

Methods: We searched PUBMED, Embase, the Cochrane library, and published abstracts through to May 2021 for studies that reported HBsAg loss, had >1 year of follow-up and reported at least one clinical outcome in adults with chronic HBV infection. Read More

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December 2021

Road traffic injury in Lebanon: A prospective study to assess injury characteristics and risk factors.

Health Sci Rep 2021 Dec 24;4(4):e396. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Faculty of Medicine American University of Beirut Beirut Lebanon.

Background: Road traffic injury (RTI) is a significant yet poorly characterized cause of morbidity and mortality in the Middle East. This hospital-based-study examined RTI in Lebanon and provided an understanding of their characteristics.

Methods: We collected prospective RTI data from three participating hospitals over 3 months using a designed tool based on Canadian CHIRPP and WHO tools. Read More

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December 2021

Viability assessment of human peripheral blood-derived stem cells after three methods of nebulization.

Am J Stem Cells 2021 15;10(4):68-78. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Abu Dhabi Stem Cells Center (ADSCC) Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Background And Objectives: Drug delivery by nebulization has become a crucial strategy for treating different respiratory and lung diseases. Emerging evidence implicates stem cell therapy as a promising tool in treating such conditions, not only by alleviating the related symptoms but by improving the prognosis. However, delivery of human peripheral blood-derived stem cells (hPBSCs) to the respiratory airways remains an innovative approach yet to be realized. Read More

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October 2021

The clinical and functional outcomes of a large naturalistic cohort of young people accessing national early psychosis services.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2021 Nov 30:48674211061285. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Centre for Youth Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Aims: Services for individuals with a first episode of psychosis or at ultra-high risk of psychosis have become a treatment model of choice in mental health care. The longitudinal changes in clinical and functional outcomes as a result of real-world treatment remain under-reported.

Methods: We analysed data from first episode of psychosis and ultra-high risk services delivered across Australian primary youth mental health care services known as between 19 June 2017 and 30 September 2019. Read More

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November 2021

Discovery of a novel powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) resistance locus in rye (Secale cereale L.).

Sci Rep 2021 Nov 29;11(1):23057. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Nordic Seed A/S, Odder, Denmark.

Powdery mildew is one of the most destructive diseases in the world, causing substantial grain yield losses and quality reduction in cereal crops. At present 23 powdery mildew resistance genes have been identified in rye, of which the majority are in wheat-rye translocation lines developed for wheat improvement. Here, we investigated the genetics underlying powdery mildew resistance in the Gülzow-type elite hybrid rye (Secale cereale L. Read More

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November 2021

Panax Ginseng alleviates thioacetamide-induced liver injury in ovariectomized rats: Crosstalk between inflammation and oxidative stress.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(11):e0260507. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Pharmacology, Medical Research and Clinical Studies Institute, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

Liver diseases impose a substantial health problem. Female hormones play a crucial role in the protection against chronic inflammatory diseases. Fifty female rats were allocated into five groups (n = 10). Read More

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November 2021

Epithelial-specific ERBB3 deletion results in a genetic background-dependent increase in intestinal and colon polyps that is mediated by EGFR.

PLoS Genet 2021 Nov 29;17(11):e1009931. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Interdisciplinary Program in Genetics, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.

ERBB3 has gained attention as a potential therapeutic target to treat colorectal and other types of cancers. To confirm a previous study showing intestinal polyps are dependent upon ERBB3, we generated an intestinal epithelia-specific ERBB3 deletion in C57BL/6-ApcMin/+ mice. Contrary to the previous report showing a significant reduction in intestinal polyps with ablation of ERBB3 on a B6;129 mixed genetic background, we observed a significant increase in polyp number with ablation of ERBB3 on C57BL/6J compared to control littermates. Read More

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November 2021

COVID-19 Lockdown-Related Changes in Mood, Health and Academic Functioning.

Eur J Investig Health Psychol Educ 2021 Nov 18;11(4):1440-1461. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns were accompanied by an abrupt transition from face-to-face education to online education. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on academic functioning and mood in Dutch pharmacy students and PhD candidates. A total of = 341 participants completed an online survey including questions on mood and academic functioning, assessed retrospectively for before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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November 2021

Genetics of tolerance to heat stress in milk yield of dairy buffaloes assessed by a reaction norm model.

J Anim Breed Genet 2021 Nov 28. Epub 2021 Nov 28.

Departamento de Zootecnia, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Unesp, Jaboticabal, Brazil.

The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of heat stress on the milk yield and investigate the presence of genotype × environment interaction (G × E) in Brazilian Murrah buffaloes reared under tropical conditions. With this, 58,070 test-day (TD) records for milk yield from 3,459 first lactations of buffaloes collected between 1987 and 2018 were evaluated. A mixed model considering days in milk (DIM) and temperature-humidity index (THI) was applied to quantify milk yield losses due to heat stress. Read More

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November 2021

Assessment of air quality changes during COVID-19 partial lockdown in a Brazilian metropolis: from lockdown to economic opening of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Air Qual Atmos Health 2021 Nov 23:1-16. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22451-900 Brazil.

Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, restrictive measures are taken by several cities around the world, as well as Rio de Janeiro, reducing routine activities in large urban centers and primary pollutant emissions. This study aims to assess air quality during this partial lockdown through O, CO, and PM concentrations and meteorological data collected in five air quality monitoring stations spread over the whole city, considering the substantial changes in city routine. The period evaluated starts in March 2020, when the partial lockdown was decreed, and ends in September 2020, when economic opening ended. Read More

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November 2021

Conditional t-SNE: more informative t-SNE embeddings.

Mach Learn 2021 6;110(10):2905-2940. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Department of Electronics and Information Systems, IDLab, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Dimensionality reduction and manifold learning methods such as t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) are frequently used to map high-dimensional data into a two-dimensional space to visualize and explore that data. Going beyond the specifics of t-SNE, there are two substantial limitations of any such approach: (1) not all information can be captured in a single two-dimensional embedding, and (2) to well-informed users, the salient structure of such an embedding is often already known, preventing that any real new insights can be obtained. Currently, it is not known how to extract the remaining information in a similarly effective manner. Read More

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December 2020

The Switch From Paliperidone Long-Acting Injectable 1- to 3-Monthly: Clinical Pharmacokinetic Evaluation in Patients With Schizophrenia (Preliminary Data).

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

From the Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health Clinical Psychopharmacology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Luigi Sacco University Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Purpose/background: The aim of the study was a preliminary evaluation of the maintenance of clinical efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone palmitate in schizophrenic patients during the transition phase from 1-monthly paliperidone palmitate formulation (PP1M) to PP3M, with the evaluation of plasma levels of the drug.

Methods/procedures: A prospective observational study was conducted for 13 months involving 22 outpatients, aged 18 to 66 years and clinically stabilized. Patients were affected by schizophrenia according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, criteria. Read More

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November 2021

Metacognitive therapy and work-focused interventions for patients on sick leave due to anxiety and depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled wait-list trial.

Trials 2021 Nov 27;22(1):854. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Division of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Postboks 23 Vinderen, 0319, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Common mental disorders such as depression and anxiety are major contributors to the global burden of disease. Affected individuals suffer reduced quality of life, impaired functioning and reduced capacity to work. Maintaining employment is an important determinant for health and wellbeing, and the economic impact of depression and anxiety is a significant societal expense. Read More

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November 2021

The network analysis of depressive symptoms before and after two weeks of antidepressant treatment.

J Affect Disord 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

The National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders & Beijing Key Laboratory of Mental Disorders, Beijing Anding Hospital & the Advanced Innovation Center for Human Brain Protection, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: A substantial proportion of patients do not benefit from selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). We used network analysis to examine changes in symptom associations over time to identify SSRIs treatment targets for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).

Methods: This study was a post-hoc analysis of data originated from the 2-week open-label phase of a multicenter clinical trial. Read More

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November 2021

Spatial patchiness in change, recruitment, and recovery on coral reefs at Lizard Island following consecutive bleaching events.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Nov 23;173:105537. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Research Hub for Coral Reef Ecosystem Functions, College of Science and Engineering and ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, 4811, Australia.

The world's coral reef ecosystems are steadily being reconfigured by climate change. Lizard Island, on Australia's Great Barrier Reef, offers an opportunity to examine coral reef reassembly following disturbance, as this location has been impacted by consecutive tropical cyclones and consecutive coral bleaching events. Based on repeatedly monitoring the same 349 photoquadrats around Lizard Island over a 5-year period (2016-2021) we revealed that bleaching in 2016 drove a ∼50% reduction in hard coral cover, and a concomitant increase in algal turf cover. Read More

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November 2021

Complex Relationship Between Artificial Intelligence and CT Radiation Dose.

Acad Radiol 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 75 Blossom Court, Suite 248, Boston, Massachusetts; MGH & BWH Center for Clinical Data Science, Boston, Massachusetts.

Concerns over need for CT radiation dose optimization and reduction led to improved scanner efficiency and introduction of several reconstruction techniques and image processing-based software. The latest technologies use artificial intelligence (AI) for CT dose optimization and image quality improvement. While CT dose optimization has and can benefit from AI, variations in scanner technologies, reconstruction methods, and scan protocols can lead to substantial variations in radiation doses and image quality across and within different scanners. Read More

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November 2021

Seasonal influenza vaccination is associated with reduced risk of death among Medicare beneficiaries.

Vaccine 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Background: Influenza causes substantial mortality, especially among older persons. Influenza vaccines are rarely more than 50% effective and rarely reach more than half of the US Medicare population, which is primarily an aged population. We wished to estimate the association between vaccination and mortality reduction. Read More

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November 2021

Evaluation of Immunogenicity and Efficacy of Tetraspanin 2 (TSP2) Fused to Heat-Labile Enterotoxin B Subunit LTB Adjuvant Following Intranasal Vaccination of Cattle.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Oct 20;9(11). Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Animal, Plant and Soil Sciences and Centre for AgriBioscience, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia.

Fasciolosis, caused by the liver flukes and is an economically important and globally distributed zoonotic disease. Liver fluke infections in livestock cause significant losses in production and are of particular concern to regions where drug resistance is emerging. Antigens of the surface tegument represent promising vaccine candidates for controlling this disease. Read More

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October 2021

Agronomical, Physiological and Biochemical Characterization of In Vitro Selected Eggplant Somaclonal Variants under NaCl Stress.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Nov 22;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Hail, P.O. Box 2440, Ha'il 81451, Saudi Arabia.

Previously, an efficient regeneration protocol was established and applied to regenerate plants from calli lines that could grow on eggplant leaf explants after a stepwise in vitro selection for tolerance to salt stress. Plants were regenerated from calli lines that could tolerate up to 120 mM NaCl. For further in vitro and in vivo evaluation, four plants with a higher number of leaves and longer roots were selected from the 32 plants tested in vitro. Read More

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November 2021

Anti-Hyperglycaemic Evaluation of Leaves Using In Vitro, In Vivo and In Silico Studies and Its Correlation with the Major Phytoconstituents.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Oct 30;10(11). Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain-Shams University, Abbasia, Cairo 11566, Egypt.

Lam. is an ornamental evergreen shrub with few reports concerning its phytoconstituents and biological activities. Herein, the antihyperglycaemic activity of leaves methanol extract (BIT) was evaluated for the first time using in vitro and in vivo studies. Read More

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October 2021

Pharmacogenetically Guided Escitalopram Treatment for Pediatric Anxiety Disorders: Protocol for a Double-Blind Randomized Trial.

J Pers Med 2021 Nov 12;11(11). Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Cincinnati, OH 45219, USA.

Current pharmacologic treatments for pediatric anxiety disorders (e.g., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)) frequently use "one size fits all" dosing strategies based on average responses in clinical trials. Read More

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November 2021