28,417 results match your criteria substance levels

Trauma-related differences in socio-emotional functioning predict housing and employment outcomes in homeless veterans.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Jun 2;281:114096. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 01655, USA; Center for Healthcare Organization and Implementation Research, Bedford VA Medical Center, Bedford, MA, 01730, USA.

Rationale: Mental health and substance use disorders are strong risk factors for homelessness. Understanding the role of transdiagnostic factors could help inform efforts to reduce homelessness among veterans with a range of disorders. Homeless veterans have high rates of trauma exposure, which can result in the depletion of social and emotional resources that may contribute to housing and employment stability. Read More

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Suppressing effects of green tea extract and Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on TGF-β- induced Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via ROS/Smad signaling in human cervical cancer cells.

Gene 2021 Jun 11;794:145774. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process is a fundamental target for preventing cervical cancer cells' progression and invasion. Green tea and its principal active substance, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), demonstrate anti-tumor activities in various tumor cells.

Methods: The cell viability of two cervical cancer cell lines, Hela and SiHa, in the experimental groups was examined employing the MTT method, and ROS generation was probed applying 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate-based assay. Read More

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High Drying Temperature Accelerates Sunflower Seed Deterioration by Regulating the Fatty Acid Metabolism, Glycometabolism, and Abscisic Acid/Gibberellin Balance.

Front Plant Sci 2021 28;12:628251. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute of Crop and Nuclear Technology Utilization, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, China.

Sunflower seed storage is accompanied by the loss of seed vigor. Seed drying is a key link between seed harvest and seed storage; however, to date, the effect of seed drying on sunflower seed deterioration during storage remains unclear. The present study performed hot air drying for sunflower seeds with an initial moisture content of 30% to examine the manner in which drying temperature (35, 40, 45, 50, and 55°C) affects the drying performance and seed vigor following storage process (6 and 12 months). Read More

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In Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria, Comorbid Depression Linked to Higher Disease Activity, and Substance P Levels.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:667978. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Dermatology, Koç University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria often exhibit psychiatric comorbidities including depression that contribute to the impairment of their quality of life. How CSU and depression are linked isn't well-understood. Substance P has been shown to be increased in patients with CSU and is held to contribute to the pathogenesis of depression. Read More

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The Combined Effects of Lysophospholipids against Lipopolysaccharide-induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Microglial Cells.

J Oleo Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmaceutics, Nihon Pharmaceutical University.

Lysophospholipids (LPLs) are small bioactive lipid molecules characterized by a single carbon chain and a polar head group. LPLs have recently shown to be involved in many physiological and pathological processes such as nervous system regulation. In our previous studies, a porcine liver decomposition product (PLDP) has been identified as a substance that improves cognitive function at old ages. Read More

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World Health Organization Risk Drinking Levels as a Treatment Outcome Measure in Topiramate Trials.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center, Crescenz VAMC.

Background: Although abstinence has traditionally been considered the only suitable outcome for alcohol treatment, reduced drinking is also associated with improved functioning and medical and psychiatric outcomes. The World Health Organization (WHO) risk drinking levels (RDLs) have been shown to be valid outcome measures in treatment trials for alcohol use disorder (AUD).

Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of two 12-week, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in which a total of 308 individuals with problematic alcohol use received topiramate or placebo treatment. Read More

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Gender differences in patient outcomes following drug abuse treatment in Afghanistan: Results from a new evaluation.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 May 16:108475. Epub 2021 May 16.

Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, US Department of State, Washington, DC, USA. Electronic address:

Drug use rates among adults in Afghanistan are over twice as high as the global average which complicates an already challenging situation in the country. Although progress has been made toward improving availability of treatment and the rights and status of women, cultural norms and historical precedents have delayed advances, including in drug treatment. Female Afghan patients access treatment via home-based systems without the option of group in-patient treatment centers available to male patients. Read More

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Interpersonal violence in a deprived Scottish urban area with aggregations of physical health risks and psychiatric morbidity: an ecological study.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jun 12;21(1):1121. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Psychiatry & Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences Medical Sciences Division, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Glasgow, Scotland, has previously shown exceptional levels of violence among young men, shows aggregations of health conditions, with shortened life expectancy. Health conditions can be both causes and consequences of violence, of shared community-level socio-economic risk factors, and can result from large-scale social forces beyond the control of populations with high levels of violence. The aim of the study was to provide an in depth understanding of the Public Health problem of violence among young adult men in Glasgow East. Read More

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Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of tobacco and alcohol use in four sub-Saharan African countries: a cross-sectional study of middle-aged adults.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jun 12;21(1):1126. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Sydney Brenner Institute for Molecular Bioscience and Division of Human Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Substance misuse is a global public health problem. In addition to social and economic concerns, consumption of tobacco and alcohol is associated with susceptibility to cardiovascular, respiratory, and infectious diseases, cancers, and risk of transition to substance use disorders. African data suggest regional differences in the prevalence and patterns of substance use, but a number of key questions remain. Read More

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Feasibility and acceptability of mindful recovery opioid use care continuum (M-ROCC): A concurrent mixed methods study.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Apr 15;130:108415. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America; Cambridge Health Alliance, Cambridge, MA, United States of America; Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States of America. Electronic address:

As opioid overdose deaths increase, buprenorphine/naloxone (B/N) treatment is expanding, yet almost half of patients are not retained in B/N treatment. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) designed to promote non-judgmental awareness of present moment experience may be complementary to B/N treatment and offer the potential to enhance retention by reducing substance use and addressing comorbid symptoms. In this pilot study, we examined the feasibility and acceptability of the Mindful Recovery OUD Care Continuum (M-ROCC), a trauma-informed, motivationally sensitive, 24-week MBI. Read More

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The effect of Raphanus sativus L. seeds on regulation of intestinal motility in rats consuming a high-calorie diet.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 9;140:111705. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Basic Medical Science, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a short-term high-calorie diet and the regulation mechanism of Raphanus sativus L. seeds (RSL seeds) on the intestinal motility of young rats.

Methods: We fed 20 Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats special high-calorie diet for 3 days and then randomized them to a high-calorie diet group (HCG, 10 rats) and an RSL seeds treatment group (TG, 10 rats). Read More

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Age and Year of HIV Diagnosis are Associated with Perceptions of Discrimination and Internalized Stigma Among Sexual Minority Men Who Use Substances.

AIDS Behav 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Behavioral Medicine, One Bowdoin Square, 7th Floor, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Discrimination and internalized stigma are barriers to engagement in HIV self-care among men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV. However, differences in perceptions of discrimination and internalized stigmas by age, year of HIV-diagnosis, and race are poorly understood. We assessed differences in reported discrimination related to HIV, race, sexual orientation, and substance use and internalized stigmas among 202 MSM living with HIV who use substances. Read More

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The Continuum of Recovery from Alcohol Dependence: From Addiction Remission to Complete Mental Health.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 Jun 11:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Institute for Life Course & Aging, Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, Cross-appointed to the Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Few representative studies have examined optimal mental health among those with a history of alcohol dependence (AD).

Objectives: In a representative sample of Canadians with a history of AD, to determine prevalence of, and factors associated with 1) remission from AD, 2) the absence of Substance Dependence and Psychiatric Disorders (SDPD) in the past year, and 3) complete mental health (CMH).

Method: Secondary analysis of a publicly available Statistics Canada database, the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (820 adults with AD history; 19,945 without AD). Read More

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Beliefs and Experience of Journaling in Mothers of Adult Children With Substance Use Problems: A Pilot Study.

J Addict Nurs 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Yeoun Soo Kim-Godwin, RN, PhD, School of Nursing, College of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina Wilmington.

Background: The challenges experienced by mothers supporting an adult child with substance use problems suggest intervention is needed to improve such mothers' psychosocial well-being through adaptive coping.

Aims: This study examined beliefs about journaling as well as changes in stress, cortisol levels, and mental health after a 6-week intervention by mothers whose adult children had substance use problems. In addition, the study explored coping methods used and the experience of writing among these mothers. Read More

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Estimating Concentration Response Function and Change-Point using Time-Course and Calibration Data.

Biostat Biom Open Access J 2019 Mar 18;9(3):57-68. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Statistics, USC, USA.

In this paper the problem of determining the functional relationship between time and the concentration of a chemical substance is studied. An intervention drug is administered on the experimental unit from which the chemical substance (specimen) is measured. This drug is hypothesized to cause a change in the concentration level of the chemical substance a certain lag-time after the intervention. Read More

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Genetic and epigenetic modifications of F1 offspring's sperm cells following in utero and lactational combined exposure to nicotine and ethanol.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12311. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

It is well established that maternal lifestyle during pregnancy and lactation affects the intrauterine programming of F1 offspring. However, despite the co-use of alcohol and nicotine is a common habit, the effects of exposure to both substances on the reproductive system of F1 male offspring and the underlying mechanisms of developmental programming have not been investigated. The present study aimed to examine pre- and postnatal concurrent exposure to these substances on genetic and epigenetic alterations of sperm cells as well as testis properties of F1 offspring compared with exposure to each substance alone. Read More

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Serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in pregnant women: Maternal predictors and associations with birth outcomes in the PIPA Project.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Medicine, Maternity School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Aim: Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are persistent pollutants associated with adverse birth outcomes. This study aimed to identify predictors of blood PFOA and PFOS concentrations in pregnant women and to estimate their associations with birth outcomes in Brazil.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 139 pregnant women enrolled in the pilot study of the Rio Birth Cohort Study on Environmental Exposure and Childhood Development (PIPA Project). Read More

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Real-time momentary mood as a predictor of college students' prescription drug misuse in daily life: Direct links and the moderating role of background mental health.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies.

The present study addressed calls for research to identify real-time predictors of prescription drug misuse (Schepis et al., 2020) by testing young adults' momentary reports of their negative mood and positive mood as predictors of event-level misuse in daily life. We implemented a 28-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) procedure that collected individuals' mood and other contextual experiences in moments preceding prescription drug misuse. Read More

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Understanding measures of racial discrimination and microaggressions among American Indian and Alaska Native college students in the Southwest United States.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jun 9;21(1):1099. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Box 356560, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington, 98195, USA.

Background: Racial discrimination, including microaggressions, contributes to health inequities, yet research on discrimination and microaggressions has focused on single measures without adequate psychometric evaluation. To address this gap, we examined the psychometric performance of three discrimination/microaggression measures among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) college students in a large Southwestern city.

Methods: Students (N = 347; 65% female; ages 18-65) completed the revised-Everyday Discrimination Scale, Microaggressions Distress Scale, and Experiences of Discrimination measure. Read More

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The prevalence of mental disorders among offenders admitted at health facilities in Bizzah Makhate Correctional Service Centre, Kroonstand, South Africa.

Psychiatr Psychol Law 2020 May 20;27(6):963-972. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Psychiatry, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mental disorders among offenders admitted at the health establishments in Bizzah Makhathe Correctional Centre, South Africa. Structured psychiatric interviews were conducted to elicit the information. The majority of the participants were young male Africans with low educational levels and poor socio-economic status. Read More

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Demographic, clinical and forensic characteristics of alleged offenders referred to West End Specialised Hospital, Kimberley, South Africa.

Psychiatr Psychol Law 2020 May 5;27(6):925-938. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Psychiatry, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

The study investigated demographic, clinical and forensic characteristics of alleged offenders referred for forensic assessment. A data collection form was used to gather information from 155 offenders' clinical records. The subjects were mainly young males, aged between 18 and 35 years, with low educational levels and high unemployment rate. Read More

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Longitudinal Consequences of Adolescent Alcohol Use Under Different Policy Contexts in Australia and the United States.

J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2021 May;82(3):377-386

School of Psychology, Deakin University, Geelong Waterfront Campus, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: To test the premise that youth alcohol harm minimization policies (compared with abstinence policies) reduce later drinking and harmful consequences of alcohol use in young adulthood, we compared associations among adolescent alcohol use, young adult alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related harms in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.

Method: Data came from the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal, cross-national study of the development of substance use. State-representative samples of seventh-grade (age 13) students in Victoria (n = 984, 53% female, 90% White) and Washington (n = 961, 54% female, 73% White) were surveyed in 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2014 (age 25). Read More

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Predicting Substance Use at a Youth Mass Gathering Event: The Role of Norms and the Importance of Their Source.

J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2021 May;82(3):320-329

Center for the Study of Health and Risk Behaviors, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Objective: Mass gathering events often involve high levels of substance use, yet the psychological predictors of substance use in these contexts have received minimal attention. This study examined the relationship between social norms and mass gathering attendees' anticipated substance use. We (a) tested this relationship while controlling for established predictors of substance use, (b) assessed longitudinally the impact of intraindividual changes in perceived substance use norms on intraindividual changes in participants' anticipated substance use, and (c) compared the relative impact of two normative referents (friends and typical mass gathering attendees). Read More

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Association Between Intimate Partner Violence Subtypes and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Hazardous Substance Use.

J Interpers Violence 2021 Jun 7:8862605211021963. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Palo Alto University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a common problem for women in the United States and is associated with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as hazardous use of substances like alcohol and drugs. However, not all subtypes of IPV (i.e. Read More

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Determination of endogenous GHB levels in chest and pubic hair.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Jun 1;325:110857. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Forensic Toxicology Division, Department of Health Science, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla 3, Florence, Italy; U.R.I.To.N - Unit of Research of University of Florence, Florence, Italy. Electronic address:

Endogenous nature of GHB represents a critical issue for forensic toxicologists, especially in alleged sexual assaults. Therefore, discrimination between physiologically and additional amounts from exogenous sources of such a substance must be effective and reliable in order to avoid severe misinterpretation. This study aimed to quantify the GHB baseline concentrations in chest and pubic hairs collected from 105 healthy volunteers, non-consumers of any drugs of abuse. Read More

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Employing the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model and predicting successful completion in an alternative drug court program: Preliminary findings from the Orleans Parish Drug Court.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Apr 30;131:108453. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1440 Canal St., #8448, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. Electronic address:

Drug courts have been in operation for decades to provide treatment alternatives to individuals whose substance use and related behaviors have brought them into contact with the criminal justice system. As research on drug courts have evolved, it has been demonstrated that different types of offenders have different mental health and substance use treatment needs. One way of approaching treatment in court-mandated substance use treatment is by the application of the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model (Andrews, Zinger et al. Read More

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Study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of The Illicit Project, a digital, neuroscience-based substance use intervention for secondary school students.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Jun 5;107:106467. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

The Matilda Centre for Research in Mental Health and Substance Use Level 6, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Older adolescence (16-19 years) is characterised by an increase in alcohol and illicit substance use, however limited age-appropriate prevention programs exist to target this critical group. Schools are increasingly opting for web-based programs to deliver health education due to their effectiveness, accessibility and scalability. This study outlines the web-based adaptation of a neuroscience-based harm reduction program targeting older adolescents known as, The Illicit Project, and the study protocol to evaluate its effectiveness. Read More

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