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Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Systemically Administered Statins: A Systematic Review.

Dent J (Basel) 2021 Sep 4;9(9). Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry "Schola Medica Salernitana", University of Salerno, Via S. Allende, Baronissi, 84081 Salerno, Italy.

Hyperlipidemia is a well-recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which, in turn, acts as a contributory factor in periodontitis development. Periodontitis has been associated with benign tumors and cancers and withseveral disorders, including hyperlipidemia. Correspondingly, periodontal treatment may exert a positive effect on lipid metabolism, although opposite evidence has also been reported. Read More

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September 2021

Separate neural networks of implicit emotional processing between pictures and words: A coordinate-based meta-analysis of brain imaging studies.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Systems Neuroscience, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany; Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Brain & Behaviour (INM-7), Research Centre Jülich, Jülich, Germany.

Both pictures and words are frequently employed as experimental stimuli to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms of emotional processing. However, it remains unclear whether emotional picture processing and emotional word processing share neural underpinnings. To address this issue, we focus on neuroimaging studies examining the implicit processing of affective words and pictures, which require participants to meet cognitive task demands under the implicit influence of emotional pictorial or verbal stimuli. Read More

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September 2021

Diversity of Pathophysiology in Type 2 Diabetes Revealed by Islet Pathology.

J Diabetes Investig 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8562, Japan.

The etiology of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial, in which environmental and genetic factors are involved to varying degrees. This suggests that its pathophysiology may vary depending on the subjects. Knowledge of the differences is critical because these differences are directly linked to the care and treatment of the patients. Read More

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September 2021

Glycemic control was associated with non-prostate cancer and overall mortalities in diabetic patients with prostate cancer.

J Chin Med Assoc 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Pharmacy, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC College of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Institute of Medical Technology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC College of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC.

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) can worsen the prognosis or survival in prostate cancer (PC) patients. We investigated whether glycemic control impacts mortality in PC patients with existing diabetes.

Methods: All PC patients with or without pre-existing DM were enrolled from 2006 to 2017. Read More

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September 2021

Longitudinal Ellipsoid Zone and Outer Retinal Integrity Dynamics Following Epiretinal Membrane Surgery.

Retina 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

The Tony and Leona Campane Center for Excellence in Image-Guided Surgery and Advanced Imaging Research, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland OH Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University Vitreoretinal Service, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland OH.

Purpose: To quantify ellipsoid zone (EZ) changes in integrity following epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery, correlate findings to visual acuity (VA), and determine predictors for prognosis.

Methods: A post-hoc analysis of eyes undergoing ERM surgery pooled from the prospective DISCOVER intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) study and eyes undergoing conventional ERM surgery without iOCT. Quantitative EZ features were extracted using a multi-layer machine learning enabled automated segmentation platform following image analyst review/correction for segmentation accuracy. Read More

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September 2021

Sleep apnoea in the elderly: a great challenge for the future.

Eur Respir J 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Due in part to overall improvements in health, the population of elderly individuals is increasing rapidly. Similarly, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is both gaining increased recognition and also increasing due to the worldwide obesity epidemic. The overlap of OSA and aging is large, but there is strong plausibility for causation in both directions: OSA is associated with pathological processes that may accelerate aging and aging related processes; aging may cause physical and neurological changes that predispose to obstructive (and central) apnoea. Read More

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September 2021

Multi-mechanical waves against Alzheimer's disease pathology: a systematic review.

Transl Neurodegener 2021 Sep 24;10(1):36. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Center for Microelectromechanical Systems (CMEMS), University of Minho, Campus Azurém, 4800-058, Guimarães, Portugal.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, affecting approximately 40 million people worldwide. The ineffectiveness of the available pharmacological treatments against AD has fostered researchers to focus on alternative strategies to overcome this challenge. Mechanical vibrations delivered in different stimulation modes have been associated with marked improvements in cognitive and physical performance in both demented and non-demented elderly. Read More

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September 2021

Comparing the diagnostic accuracy of rapid antigen detection tests to real time polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Clin Virol 2021 Sep 16;144:104985. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Timely and accurate diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is crucial to reduce the risk of viral transmission. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed using Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register. Read More

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September 2021

The Burden of and Factors Associated with Age-Related Eye Diseases in Arab American Adults.

J Immigr Minor Health 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Family Medicine, Michigan State University, Michigan, USA.

To estimate the age- and sex-adjusted proportions of cataract, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and macular degeneration among the Arab American community, a notably understudied minority that is aggregated under whites. The Arab American Eye Study is a multicenter retrospective chart review involving 10 years of electronic medical records (1/1/2010 through 1/1/2020). The study sample included 1390 Arab Americans and 4950 whites 45 years of age and older, totaling 6340 subjects. Read More

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September 2021

Polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinases affect the susceptibility of esophageal cancer: Evidence from 20412 subjects, systematic review and updated meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Sep;100(38):e27229

Department of Thoracic Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Anhui, China.

Background: The results of how matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) polymorphisms affect esophageal cancer (EC) risk are not consistent, especially for MMP1,2,7 and 9. A meta-analysis focused on the impact of MMPs to digestive cancers, but not a precise analysis to EC, therefore, we designed the current study to make a clear understanding of the association between MMPs polymorphisms and EC.

Methods: Up to March 2020, we searched several databases to find case-control cohorts concerned about the risk of MMPs polymorphisms to EC risk. Read More

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September 2021

Molecular Probes for Autofluorescence-Free Optical Imaging.

Chem Rev 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 70 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637457, Singapore.

Optical imaging is an indispensable tool in clinical diagnostics and fundamental biomedical research. Autofluorescence-free optical imaging, which eliminates real-time optical excitation to minimize background noise, enables clear visualization of biological architecture and physiopathological events deep within living subjects. Molecular probes especially developed for autofluorescence-free optical imaging have been proven to remarkably improve the imaging sensitivity, penetration depth, target specificity, and multiplexing capability. Read More

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September 2021

Single episode brief psychotic disorder versus bipolar disorder: A diffusion tensor imaging and executive functions study.

Schizophr Res Cogn 2022 Mar 14;27:100214. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Institute of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Despite fast progress in neuroscientific approaches, the neurobiological continuum links psychotic spectrum, and affective disorder is obscure. White matter WM abnormalities found utilizing Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) showing impaired communication in both disorders have been consistently demonstrated; however, direct comparisons of findings between them are scarce. This study aims to study WM abnormalities in single episode bipolar I disorder, and single episode brief psychotic disorder related to healthy control with the association of executive function. Read More

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Association Between Infection and Type 1 Diabetes Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 38 Case-Control Studies.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 7;12:706964. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Jinhua Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Jinhua, China.

Objective: The association between enterovirus infection and type 1 diabetes (T1D) is controversial, and this meta-analysis aimed to explore the correlation.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database were searched from inception to April 2020. Studies were included if they could provide sufficient information to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Read More

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September 2021

Estimated Prevalence and Number of PiMZ Genotypes of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin in Seventy-Four Countries Worldwide.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021 17;16:2617-2630. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron/Vall d'Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), Vall d'Hebron Barcelona Hospital Campus, CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protease inhibitor PiMZ is a moderately deficient genotype, until recently considered of little or negligible risk. However, a growing number of studies show that MZ carriers have an increased risk of developing lung and liver diseases, if exposed to smoking or other airborne or industrial pollutants, and hepatotoxic substances.

Methods: We used the epidemiological studies performed to determine the frequencies of PiM and PiZ worldwide, based on the following criteria: 1) samples representative of the general population; 2) AAT phenotyping or genotyping characterized by adequate methods, including isoelectric focusing and polymerase chain reaction; and 3) studies with reliable results assessed with a coefficient of variation calculated from the sample size and 95% confidence intervals, to measure the precision of the results in terms of dispersion of the data around the mean. Read More

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September 2021

Ocular sarcoidosis prevalence and clinical features in the Northern Ireland population.

Eye (Lond) 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.

Background/objectives: To record the prevalence of ocular sarcoidosis (OS) cases present in Northern Ireland as diagnosed using the International Workshop on Ocular Sarcoidosis (IWOS) classification, 2019. There are currently no data regarding OS in this population.

Subjects/methods: Retrospective case review of OS cases as identified by IWOS criteria 2019. Read More

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September 2021

Dyskalemia risk associated with fixed-dose anti-hypertensive medication combinations.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Quantitative Science, Certara, Princeton, NJ, USA.

A model-based meta-analysis quantified comparative dyskalemia risk (hyper- or hypo-kalemia) in hypertensive patients treated with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), a calcium channel blocker (CCB) and/or a thiazide diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide; HCTZ) as monotherapy or as fixed-dose combinations. Among 15 randomized controlled trials in a US Food and Drug Administration regulatory review database, dyskalemia events were reported by five trials (24 treatment arms, 11,030 subjects, 8-week median follow up time). The five trials evaluated monotherapy (ARB or HCTZ) alongside dual (ARB + HCTZ, ARB + CCB, or HCTZ + CCB) or triple fixed-dose combinations (ARB + CCB + HCTZ). Read More

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September 2021

Human genetic and immunological dissection of papillomavirus-driven diseases: new insights into their pathogenesis.

Curr Opin Virol 2021 Sep 20;51:9-15. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) UMR-1163, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris, France; University of Paris, Imagine Institute, Paris, France; St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, Rockefeller University, New York, USA.

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are responsible for cutaneous and mucosal lesions. Persistent HPV infection remains a leading cause of uterine cancer in women, but also of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), and of rare and devastating benign tumors, such as 'tree-man' syndrome. HPV infections are usually asymptomatic or benign in the general population. Read More

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September 2021

Antidepressants determination using an electroanalytical approach: A review of methods.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Sep 14;206:114365. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Laboratory of Electroanalytical Applied to Biotechnology and Food Engineering (LEABE), Chemistry Institute, Uberlândia Federal University, Major Jerônimo street, 566, Patos de Minas, MG 38700-002, Brazil. Electronic address:

Antidepressants are the pharmaceutical compounds used in the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders and all related disturbances promoted by genetic factors, environmental problems or modern lifestyles. Nonetheless, the inadequate ingestion of antidepressants provokes adverse effects in the human body and can contaminate the environment. For this reason, it is necessary to identify and quantify these compounds in biological fluids, natural water, wastewater, and pharmaceutical formulations. Read More

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September 2021

Managing Human Subjects Research During a Global Pandemic at an Academic Center: Lessons Learned from COVID-19.

Acad Med 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

D.F. Stiles is vice president, Research Operations, and policy and chief operating officer, Office of the Executive Vice President for Research, Columbia University, New York, New York; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9845-6804. B.L. Ruotolo is associate vice president, Human Research Protection, Columbia University, New York, New York. H. Kim is associate vice president, Clinical Trials, Columbia University, New York, New York. J. Cho is associate director, Regulatory Science, Clinical Trials Office, Columbia University, New York, New York. P.S. Appelbaum is Elizabeth K. Dollard Professor of psychiatry, medicine, and law, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1940-0042. N.S. Green is professor, Department of Pediatrics, and associate dean, Faculty Operations, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9877-1561.

By March 2020, New York City became the early epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Consequently, Columbia University, with its large portfolio of human subjects research, had to address the challenges of protecting thousands of research participants and research staff from potential exposure to COVID-19 while facilitating essential biomedical research, especially pandemic-related studies. The authors describe, from the perspective of Columbia's research administration leadership, how the university and its primary teaching hospital ramped down-and later ramped up-human subjects research, and reflect on the lessons learned. Read More

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September 2021

Perineural Versus Intravenous Dexamethasone for Brachial Plexus Block: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Pain Physician 2021 Sep;24(6):E693-E707

Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

Background: Perineural (PN) dexamethasone (DEX) administration can prolong the analgesic time of a brachial plexus block. However, its efficacy and safety are controversial due to its off-label use and different routes of administration.

Objectives: This meta-analysis aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of PN versus intravenous (IV) dexamethasone. Read More

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September 2021

Spontaneous extracapsular parathyroid adenoma hemorrhage: when surgery is required?

Endocrine 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Scientific Institute of Hospitalization and Care San Raffaele Hospital, Vita-Salute University, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: Spontaneous bleeding is a rare but serious complication of parathyroid adenomas and few cases were reported in the literature. Clinical manifestations and treatment may vary but sometimes an immediate surgery is required. In other cases a conservative approach can be preferred based on clinical stability and patients' conditions. Read More

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September 2021

A Review of Interventional Trials in Youth-Onset Type 2 Diabetes: Challenges and Opportunities.

Diabetes Ther 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Introduction: In recent decades, the dramatic rise of obesity among youth in the US has been accompanied by a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in this population. This alarming trend underscores the importance of conducting trials to evaluate new therapies in children with T2D.

Methods: A targeted review of peer-reviewed literature and trials registered on www. Read More

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September 2021

Does visuospatial motion perception correlate with coexisting movement disorders in Parkinson's disease?

J Neurol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Postural instability and balance impairment are common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Multiple factors, such as increased tone, bradykinesia, freezing of gait, posture, axial stiffness, and involuntary appendicular movements, can affect balance. The recent studies found that PD patients have abnormal perception of self-motion in vestibular domain. Read More

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September 2021

Nutritional management of type 2 diabetes in subjects with obesity: an international guideline for clinical practice.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Sep 23:1-13. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Unit of Endocrinology, Federico II University Medical School of Naples, Naples, Italy.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity represent a global public health problem. Current nutritional recommendations focused on weight loss and overall dietary quality. However, there is no consensus on the optimal macronutrient composition of the diet, particularly for the long-term management of T2DM in subjects with obesity. Read More

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September 2021

Looking back to look forward: Avenues into the field of comparative psychology.

Authors:
Brielle T James

J Comp Psychol 2021 Aug;135(3):283-285

Department of Psychology, Georgia State University.

In a reflection of my academic career thus far, I review the various aspects of my undergraduate and graduate training experiences that were pivotal in establishing myself as a doctoral candidate in comparative psychology. Key components of my undergraduate training consisted of influential faculty members, firsthand research experience, and inspiring course work across a variety of subjects. Key components of my graduate training consist of a well-suited graduate program and various leadership opportunities. Read More

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Missing puzzle pieces of time-restricted-eating (TRE) as a long-term weight-loss strategy in overweight and obese people? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Sep 23:1-17. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Institute for Innovative Development of Food Industry, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

The efficacy of using time restricted eating (TRE) for weight management and to mitigate metabolic disorders in overweight and obese people remains debatable. This meta-analysis quantified the impact of TRE on weight loss and metabolic health in overweight and obese people. The pooled results were subjected to a random-effects modeling using Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman (HKSJ) method. Read More

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September 2021

Are patients recovering from Kawasaki disease at increased risk for accelerated atherosclerosis? A meta-analysis.

World J Pediatr 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Pharmacy, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 72 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210008, China.

Background: Recent studies have suggested that Kawasaki disease (KD) may cause endothelial dysfunction, which can potentially induce atherosclerosis. However, there is still no consensus on the relationship between KD and atherosclerosis. This article aimed to determine whether patients with a history of KD may be at increased risk for accelerated atherosclerosis via a meta-analysis. Read More

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September 2021

Anti-Ro/SSA Antibodies and the Autoimmune Long-QT Syndrome.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 6;8:730161. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Medical Sciences, Surgery and Neurosciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Autoimmunity is increasingly recognized as a novel pathogenic mechanism for cardiac arrhythmias. Several arrhythmogenic autoantibodies have been identified, cross-reacting with different types of surface proteins critically involved in the cardiomyocyte electrophysiology, primarily ion channels (autoimmune cardiac channelopathies). Specifically, some of these autoantibodies can prolong the action potential duration leading to acquired long-QT syndrome (LQTS), a condition known to increase the risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, particularly Torsades de Pointes (TdP). Read More

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September 2021

A Protocol for the Use of Case Reports/Studies and Case Series in Systematic Reviews for Clinical Toxicology.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 6;8:708380. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Univ Angers, CHU Angers, Univ Rennes, INSERM, EHESP, Institut de Recherche en Santé, Environnement et Travail-UMR_S 1085, Angers, France.

Systematic reviews are routinely used to synthesize current science and evaluate the evidential strength and quality of resulting recommendations. For specific events, such as rare acute poisonings or preliminary reports of new drugs, we posit that case reports/studies and case series (human subjects research with no control group) may provide important evidence for systematic reviews. Our aim, therefore, is to present a protocol that uses rigorous selection criteria, to distinguish high quality case reports/studies and case series for inclusion in systematic reviews. Read More

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September 2021

Biological Role and Clinical Implications of microRNAs in BRCA Mutation Carriers.

Front Oncol 2021 6;11:700853. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Medical Oncology and Breast Unit, University Hospital of Parma, Parma, Italy.

Women with pathogenic germline mutations in and genes have an increased risk to develop breast and ovarian cancer. There is, however, a high interpersonal variability in the modality and timing of tumor onset in those subjects, thus suggesting a potential role of other individual's genetic, epigenetic, and environmental risk factors in modulating the penetrance of BRCA mutations. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that can modulate the expression of several genes involved in cancer initiation and progression. Read More

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September 2021