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Prevalence of the Absence of Cirrhosis in Subjects with NAFLD-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

J Clin Med 2021 Oct 9;10(20). Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Scientific Direction, National Institute of Gastroenterology "Saverio de Bellis", Research Hospital, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is most commonly considered as a complication of cirrhosis. However, an increasing number of HCC in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) without cirrhosis is being reported. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of the absence of cirrhosis in NAFLD-associated HCC. Read More

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October 2021

Apixaban compared with warfarin to prevent thrombosis in thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome: a randomized trial.

Blood Adv 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

University of Utah School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, United States.

Thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome (TAPS) is characterized by venous, arterial, or microvascular thrombosis. Patients with TAPS merit indefinite anticoagulation and warfarin has historically been the standard treatment. Apixaban is an oral factor Xa inhibitor anticoagulant that requires no dose adjustment or monitoring. Read More

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October 2021

Volume Reduction of the Dorsal Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Prior to the Onset of Frank Psychosis in Individuals with an At-Risk Mental State.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Toyama Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toyama 9300194, Japan.

Although some individuals with at-risk mental states (ARMS) develop overt psychosis, surrogate markers which can reliably predict a future onset of psychosis are not well established. The dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is thought to be involved in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. In this study, 73 ARMS patients and 74 healthy controls underwent 1. Read More

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October 2021

Efficacy and safety of aspirin for cardiovascular risk prevention in younger and older age: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Cardiology Unit, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Aims - The efficacy and safety of aspirin for primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the merits of aspirin in subjects with no overt CVD, with a focus on age as a treatment modifier. Methods and results - Randomized trials comparing aspirin use versus no aspirin use or placebo were included. Read More

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October 2021

A prospective, randomized, single-blinded, crossover trial to investigate the effect of a wearable device in addition to a daily symptom diary for the Remote Early Detection of SARS-CoV-2 infections (COVID-RED): a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Oct 11;22(1):694. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Julius Clinical, Zeist, the Netherlands.

Objectives: It is currently thought that most-but not all-individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop symptoms, but the infectious period starts on average 2 days before the first overt symptoms appear. It is estimated that pre- and asymptomatic individuals are responsible for more than half of all transmissions. By detecting infected individuals before they have overt symptoms, wearable devices could potentially and significantly reduce the proportion of transmissions by pre-symptomatic individuals. Read More

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October 2021

Association of Serum Gamma Glutamyl Transferase and Uric Acid Levels with Impaired Fasting Glucose in Adults at a Tertiary Level Hospital of Bangladesh.

Mymensingh Med J 2021 Oct;30(4):973-979

Dr Farhana Sharmin, Lecturer, Department of Community Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh; E-mail:

Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is an important risk factor for overt diabetes. Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) is an oxidative stress maker that is synthesized in liver. Increased serum Uric Acid (UA) may reflect systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Read More

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October 2021

Lying in a 3T MRI scanner induces neglect-like spatial attention bias.

Elife 2021 09 29;10. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Centre of Neurology, Division of Neuropsychology, Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

The static magnetic field of MRI scanners can induce a magneto-hydrodynamic stimulation of the vestibular organ (MVS). In common fMRI settings, this MVS effect leads to a vestibular ocular reflex (VOR). We asked whether - beyond inducing a VOR - putting a healthy subject in a 3T MRI scanner would also alter goal-directed spatial behavior, as is known from other types of vestibular stimulation. Read More

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September 2021

Age-specific thyrotropin references decrease over-diagnosis of hypothyroidism in elderly patients in iodine-excessive areas.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Institute of Endocrinology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, P.R. China.

Objective: Acute or chronic exposure to excess iodine has detrimental effects on thyroid physiology; therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of overt hypothyroidism (OH) and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in an elderly population residing in geographical areas with chronic exposure to excess iodine intake and to analyse contributing risk factors.

Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2016 to 2017 in areas of Jiangsu Province that have documented chronic exposure to high iodine intake.

Patients: We enroled 2559 adult participants using a multistage, stratified sampling method. Read More

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September 2021

Does Real-Time Feedback Affect Sensorimotor EEG Patterns in Routine Motor Imagery Practice?

Brain Sci 2021 Sep 18;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biology, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow, Russia.

Background: Motor imagery engages much of the same neural circuits as an overt movement. Therefore, the mental rehearsal of movements is often used to supplement physical training and might aid motor neurorehabilitation after stroke. One attempt to capture the brain's involvement in imagery involves the use, as a marker, of the depression or event-related desynchronization (ERD) of thalamocortical sensorimotor rhythms found in a human electroencephalogram (EEG). Read More

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September 2021

Role of Oxidative Damage in Alzheimer's Disease and Neurodegeneration: From Pathogenic Mechanisms to Biomarker Discovery.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Aug 26;10(9). Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder accounting for over 50% of all dementia patients and representing a leading cause of death worldwide for the global ageing population. The lack of effective treatments for overt AD urges the discovery of biomarkers for early diagnosis, i.e. Read More

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Mast cell activation symptoms are prevalent in Long-COVID.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 23;112:217-226. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Associate Professor of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Molecular Geneticist, Immunologist, Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Bonn, D53127 Bonn, Germany, TEL ++49 1623322001, FAX ++49 2225 9984911. Electronic address:

Objectives: Hyper-inflammation caused by COVID-19 may be mediated by mast cell activation (MCA) which has also been hypothesized to cause Long-COVID (LC) symptoms. We determined prevalence/severity of MCA symptoms in LC.

Methods: Adults in LC-focused Facebook support groups were recruited for online assessment of symptoms before and after COVID-19. Read More

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September 2021

Distinct immune signatures discriminate between asymptomatic and presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 subjects.

Cell Res 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Institute of Respiratory Diseases, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Increasing numbers of SARS-CoV-2-positive (SARS-CoV-2) subjects are detected at silent SARS-CoV-2 infection stage (SSIS). Yet, SSIS represents a poorly examined time-window wherein unknown immunity patterns may contribute to the fate determination towards persistently asymptomatic or overt disease. Here, we retrieved blood samples from 19 asymptomatic and 12 presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 subjects, 47 age/gender-matched patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 and 27 normal subjects, and interrogated them with combined assays of 44-plex CyTOF, RNA-seq and Olink. Read More

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September 2021

Anti-Ro/SSA Antibodies and the Autoimmune Long-QT Syndrome.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 6;8:730161. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Medical Sciences, Surgery and Neurosciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Autoimmunity is increasingly recognized as a novel pathogenic mechanism for cardiac arrhythmias. Several arrhythmogenic autoantibodies have been identified, cross-reacting with different types of surface proteins critically involved in the cardiomyocyte electrophysiology, primarily ion channels (autoimmune cardiac channelopathies). Specifically, some of these autoantibodies can prolong the action potential duration leading to acquired long-QT syndrome (LQTS), a condition known to increase the risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, particularly Torsades de Pointes (TdP). Read More

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September 2021

Incidence of Thyroid Dysfunction Facing Metabolic Syndrome: A Prospective Comparative Study with 9 Years of Follow-Up.

Eur Thyroid J 2021 Jul 27;10(5):390-398. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Studies assessing thyroid hormones in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients are contradictory. Also, the effect of MetS on thyroid function over time is not yet evaluated. This study investigated the prevalence and incidence of thyroid dysfunction (TD) as well as time trends of thyroid hormones in subjects with and without MetS, during a 10-year follow-up in Tehranian adult population. Read More

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Seasonal Changes of Thyroid Function Parameters in Women of Reproductive Age Between 2012 and 2018: A Retrospective, Observational, Single-Center Study.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 2;12:719225. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, National Health Commission (NHC) Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Thyroid function can be influenced by external stimuli such as light and temperature. However, it is currently unknown whether there is seasonal variation of thyroid function in women of reproductive age. Adequate thyroid function in reproductive-aged women is necessary for optimal fetal-maternal outcomes. Read More

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September 2021

[Intestinal microbiote of athletes].

Vopr Pitan 2021 22;90(4):36-52. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety, 109240, Moscow, Russian Federation.

The intestinal microbiota, due to new data on its functions obtained in the last decade, has become a new target point of influence on the organism. However, nowadays knowledge about the possible impact of physical activity and sports on the composition of the gut microbiota and, as a result, on the organism is limited. of this review was to summarize current knowledge about the gut microbiota of healthy people with different levels of physical activity (from athletes to physically inactive people), and to identify patterns in the composition of the microbiota of various surveyed groups. Read More

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Stratification Tools for Disease-Modifying Trials in Prodromal Synucleinopathy.

Mov Disord 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Background: Dopamine transporter single photon-emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) is the strongest risk factor for phenoconversion in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). However, it might be used as a second-line stratification tool in clinical trials, because it is expensive and mini-invasive.

Objective: Aim of the study is to investigate whether other cost-effective and non-invasive biomarkers may be proposed as first-line stratification tools. Read More

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September 2021

Imagined speech increases the hemodynamic response and functional connectivity of the dorsal motor cortex.

J Neural Eng 2021 10 7;18(5). Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Academy of Medical Engineering and Translational Medicine, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, People's Republic of China.

. Decoding imagined speech from brain signals could provide a more natural, user-friendly way for developing the next generation of the brain-computer interface (BCI). With the advantages of non-invasive, portable, relatively high spatial resolution and insensitivity to motion artifacts, the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) shows great potential for developing the non-invasive speech BCI. Read More

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October 2021

Brain Atrophy and White Matter Damage Linked to Peripheral Bioenergetic Deficits in the Neurodegenerative Disease FXTAS.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 25;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting subjects (premutation carriers) with a 55-200 CGG-trinucleotide expansion in the 5'UTR of the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene () typically after age 50. As both the presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and atrophied gray matter on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are linked to age-dependent decline in cognition, here we tested whether MRI outcomes (WMH volume (WMHV) and brain volume) were correlated with mitochondrial bioenergetics from peripheral blood monocytic cells in 87 carriers with and without FXTAS. As a parameter assessing cumulative damage, WMHV was correlated to both FXTAS stages and age, and brain volume discriminated between carriers and non-carriers. Read More

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Management of primary hypothyroidism in adults: An analysis of the results of a survey in 546 primary care physicians.

Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr (Engl Ed) 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Puerta de Hierro Segovia de Arana, Madrid, Spain; Medical Management, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.

Objective: To document current practices in the management of adult patients with hypothyroidism in the setting of primary healthcare.

Methods: We designed a web-based survey to inquire information on real-life practices regarding management of hypothyroidism by primary care physicians in the region of Madrid (Spain).

Results: In total, 546 out of 3897 (14%) physicians (aged 50. Read More

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September 2021

Psychotic Features Among Patients in the Prodromal Stage of Dementia with Lewy Bodies During Longitudinal Observation.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;83(4):1917-1927

Sapporo Sato Hospital, Sapporo, Japan.

Background: Many cases of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) present with various psychotic features, including hallucinations, depression, catatonia, and delusions before the onset of cognitive impairment. However, the characteristic features of these psychotic symptoms in prodromal DLB have not been sufficiently described.

Objective: To clarify and describe the psychotic features of prodromal DLB before overt cognitive impairment. Read More

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January 2021

Early balance impairment in Parkinson's Disease: Evidence from Robot-assisted axial rotations.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Oct 28;132(10):2422-2430. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Human Neurosciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy; IRCCS Neuromed, 86077 Pozzilli, IS, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: Early postural instability (PI) is a red flag for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several patients, however, fall within the first three years of disease, particularly when turning. We investigated whether PD patients, without clinically overt PI, manifest abnormal reactive postural responses to ecological perturbations resembling turning. Read More

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October 2021

Cerebellar Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Reconfigures Brain Networks Involved in Motor Execution and Mental Imagery.

Cerebellum 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Service de Neuroimagerie, Centre Hospitalier National D'Ophtalmologie Des Quinze-Vingts, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin, Paris, France.

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is growingly applied to the cerebellum to modulate the activity of cerebellar circuitry, affecting both motor and cognitive performances in a polarity-specific manner. The remote effects of tDCS are mediated in particular via the dentato-thalamo-cortical pathway. We showed recently that tDCS of the cerebellum exerts dynamic effects on resting state networks. Read More

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Executive dysfunction after multiple concussions is not related to cerebrovascular dysfunction.

Physiol Meas 2021 09 27;42(9). Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Cerebrovascular Research Laboratory, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Boston, MA, United States of America.

We investigated the relation between prior concussion history and working memory (WM), self-reported cognitive symptom burden, and cerebrovascular function in adolescents and young adults (14-21 years old).We recruited 59 participants, 34 clinically diagnosed with a sports-related concussion and 25 controls. Concussed subjects were studied at baseline (within 28 days of their injury) and eight weeks after, while control subjects only had one assessment. Read More

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September 2021

Plasma Imidazole Propionate Is Positively Correlated with Blood Pressure in Overweight and Obese Humans.

Nutrients 2021 Aug 6;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Location AMC, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The gut microbiota and its metabolites are essential for host health and dysbiosis has been involved in several pathologic conditions such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies have identified that plasma imidazole propionate (ImP), a microbial-produced metabolite, is increased in patients with prediabetes and T2D. More recently, ImP was found to be significantly increased in patients with overt CVD. Read More

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Cortisol and Oxytocin Could Predict Covert Aggression in Some Psychotic Patients.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Jul 27;57(8). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, "Grigore T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 16th Universitatii, 700115 Iasi, Romania.

The covert or indirect type of aggression has a risk of converting in violent acts and, considering that, it is very important to identify it in order to apply effective preventive measures. In cases of psychotic patients, the risk of becoming violent is harder to predict, as even neuter stimuli may be perceived as threat and trigger aggression. Treating all the psychiatric patients as potential aggressive subjects is not the best preventive measure as only a few of them are aggressive and this measure may further enhance the stigma on mentally ill patients. Read More

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Personalized approach for type 2 diabetes pharmacotherapy: where are we and where do we need to be?

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2021 Aug 26:1-13. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Division of Diabetes, UT Health, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Introduction: Cluster analysis has identified distinct groups of type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects with distinct metabolic characteristics. Thus, personalizing pharmacologic therapy to individual phenotypic and pathophysiologic characteristics has potential to improve metabolic control and reduce risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications.

Areas Covered: The authors review the classification of T2D, genetic markers, pathophysiology and natural history of T2D, the ABCDE approach to therapy, the ADA/EASD stepwise approach to therapy, available antidiabetic agents, and provide a more rational therapeutic approach based upon pathophysiology and cardiovascular and renal outcome trials. Read More

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Postural tremor in L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is associated with cerebellar atrophy.

Neurol Sci 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Neurology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: In this study, we performed analysis of brainstem reflexes and movement disorders using surface polymyogram in L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA). We also reviewed all cases in the literature with detailed clinical and radiological description to analyze the anatomical correlates of involuntary movements.

Patients And Method: We performed surface electromyography of appropriate muscles, long-loop reflexes, and somatosensory evoked potentials and analyzed the neuroimaging findings in patients with L2HGA and recorded blink reflex (BR), auditory startle response (ASR), and startle response after somatosensory stimuli (SSS) in patients and healthy subjects. Read More

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Long-Standing Overt Ventriculomegaly in Adults (LOVA): Diagnostic Aspects, CSF Dynamics with Lumbar Infusion Test and Treatment Options in a Consecutive Series with Long-Term Follow-Up.

World Neurosurg 2021 Aug 21. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, ASUFC Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine, Italy.

Background: Long-standing overt ventriculomegaly in adults is a chronic form of hydrocephalus without a clear pathophysiological description and a consensus about the treatment. We present the results of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) in a consecutive series with a mean follow-up of 79 ± 23 months, highlighting how the preoperative lumbar infusion test could facilitate understanding the pathophysiology of the disease.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data regarding clinical assessment, neuroradiological findings, and preoperative lumbar infusion tests in 22 symptomatic patients. Read More

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Autoimmune thyroid disease in children with diabetes and adolescents: A single center study from south Punjab.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Jul;71(7):1804-1807

Department of Paediatrics, The Children's Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Multan, Pakistan.

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in children with diabetes.

Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from January to December 2019 at the Children Hospital and the Institute of Child Health, Multan, Pakistan, and comprised paediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus patients of both genders. Blood samples were obtained for detailed testing of thyroid functions tests. Read More

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