Front Hum Neurosci 2015 19;9:26. Epub 2015 Feb 19.
Biomechatronics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University , Tempe, AZ , USA ; Biomechatronics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California Los Angeles , Los Angeles, CA , USA.
Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation "phantom limb pain" and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual feedback (MVF), rely on visualizations of postural changes. Read More