9,213 results match your criteria sub-saharan african


Impact of 1.5 C and 2 C global warming scenarios on malaria transmission in East Africa.

AAS Open Res 2020 3;3:22. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Programmes, The African Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya.

Malaria remains a global challenge with approximately 228 million cases and 405,000 malaria-related deaths reported in 2018 alone; 93% of which were in sub-Saharan Africa. Aware of the critical role than environmental factors play in malaria transmission, this study aimed at assessing the relationship between precipitation, temperature, and clinical malaria cases in E. Africa and how the relationship may change under 1. Read More

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Exploring a Region on Chromosome 8p23.1 Displaying Positive Selection Signals in Brazilian Admixed Populations: Additional Insights Into Predisposition to Obesity and Related Disorders.

Front Genet 2021 25;12:636542. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Medical Genetics and Genomic Medicine, Brazilian Institute of Neuroscience and Neurotechnology (BRAINN), University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil.

We recently reported a deviation of local ancestry on the chromosome (ch) 8p23.1, which led to positive selection signals in a Brazilian population sample. The deviation suggested that the genetic variability of candidate genes located on ch 8p23. Read More

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Dominant and Modifiable Risk Factors for Dementia in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Neurol 2021 25;12:627761. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Medicine Primary Care Center Versus Arthritis Keele University, Staffordshire, United Kingdom.

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is projected to have a rapid increase in the number of people living with dementia by 2050. Yet, there is currently no robust evidence on the risk factors for dementia in the sub-region that could inform context specific interventions. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies to determine the dominant and modifiable risk factors for dementia in SSA. Read More

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A framework policy analysis of national health insurance policymaking in sub-Saharan Africa.

Health Policy Plan 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Hans Rosling Center, Global Health, UW Box #351620, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

National health insurance (NHI) is a financing mechanism established by a national government with the goal of covering all or almost all of its citizens. A number of low- and middle-income countries have established NHIs as part of a strategy to progress towards universal health coverage. The establishment of an NHI presents a potentially significant shift in national health sector governance, but little is available in the literature regarding how policymaking authority and health governance is shared between NHIs and ministries of health (MOHs). Read More

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Quality of care for adult in-patients with malaria in a tertiary hospital in Uganda.

Malar J 2021 Apr 9;20(1):178. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Medical Research Council Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Prompt detection and appropriate treatment of malaria prevents severe disease and death. The quality of care for adult malaria in-patients is not well documented in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Uganda. The study sought to describe the patterns of malaria diagnosis and treatment among adult in-patients admitted to the medical and gynaecological wards of Uganda's 1790-bed Mulago National Referral Hospital from December 2013 to April 2014. Read More

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Characteristics associated with the risk of psychosis among immigrants and their descendants in France.

Brain Behav 2021 Apr 9:e02096. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

INSERM U955 Translational Neuropsychiatry, Créteil, France.

Objective: To explore the sociodemographic characteristics that might explain the increased incidence of psychosis among immigrants and their descendants in France.

Methods: Data were collected for all subjects with first contact for psychosis aged between 18 and 64 years, in two catchment areas in the Paris region. Incidence rates (IR) and incidence rate ratios (IRR) were adjusted for gender and age. Read More

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A Panel Study of Fertility Preferences and Contraceptive Dynamics in the Presence of Competing Pregnancy Risks in Uganda.

Demography 2021 Feb;58(1):295-320

Population, Family and Reproductive Health Department, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Although many studies have examined the influence of women's fertility preferences on subsequent fertility behavior and the role of contraceptive use intentions on unmet need, very few have explored their concurrent effects on contraceptive use dynamics. This study examines the independent concurrent effects of women's fertility preferences and contraceptive intentions on subsequent adoption and discontinuation, treating pregnancy as a competing risk factor that may alter contraceptive need. The data are derived from a 2018 follow-up survey of a 2014 national sample of 3,800 Ugandan female respondents of childbearing age. Read More

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February 2021

Adiposity Phenotypes and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Adults from Sub-Saharan Africa: An H3Africa AWI-Gen Study.

Glob Heart 2021 Mar 19;16(1):19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Chemical Pathology, National Health Laboratory Service, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, ZA.

Background: Obesity and adipose tissue distribution contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by promoting atherosclerosis. This association has been poorly studied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) despite the rising prevalence of cardiovascular disease.

Objectives: We determined the association between various adiposity phenotypes and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a proxy of subclinical atherosclerosis, in a large SSA population. Read More

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Delivering nutrition interventions to women and children in conflict settings: a systematic review.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Apr;6(4)

Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Background: Low/middle-income countries (LMICs) face triple burden of malnutrition associated with infectious diseases, and non-communicable diseases. This review aims to synthesise the available data on the delivery, coverage, and effectiveness of the nutrition programmes for conflict affected women and children living in LMICs.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases and grey literature using terms related to conflict, population, and nutrition. Read More

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Association Between Girl-child Marriage and Intimate Partner Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa: Insights From a Multicountry Analysis of Demographic and Health Surveys.

J Interpers Violence 2021 Apr 9:8862605211005139. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

African Population and Health Research Centre, Nairobi, Kenya.

While considerable attention has been given to the health consequences of child marriage in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), limited studies exist on its impact on intimate partner violence (IPV) in the region. We address this gap by examining the link between child marriage and IPV. We tested our study hypothesis using demographic and health survey data of 28,206 young women aged 20-24 years from 16 SSA countries with recent surveys (2015-2019). Read More

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Metabolic syndrome in Zambian adults with human immunodeficiency virus on antiretroviral therapy: Prevalence and associated factors.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25236

University of Zambia School of Public Health.

Abstract: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of factors including hypertension, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance that separately and together significantly increase risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. In sub-Saharan Africa, with a substantial burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and increasing prevalence of CVD and diabetes, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics associated with MetS among people with HIV (people with human [PWH]). Therefore, this study aimed to determine the burden and factors influencing MetS in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced individuals in Zambia. Read More

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Kenya's response to the COVID-19 pandemic: a balance between minimising morbidity and adverse economic impact.

AAS Open Res 2021 29;4. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Centre for Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has ravaged the world's socioeconomic systems forcing many governments across the globe to implement unprecedented stringent mitigation measures to restrain its rapid spread and adverse effects. A disproportionate number of COVID-19 related morbidities and mortalities were predicted to occur in Africa. However, Africa still has a lower than predicted number of cases, 4% of the global pandemic burden. Read More

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Opportunities and challenges for savanna burning emissions abatement in southern Africa.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 7;288:112414. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

International Savanna Fire Management Initiative (ISFMI), Level 4, 346 Kent Street, Sydney, 2000, New South Wales, Australia.

Savanna fires occurring in sub-Saharan Africa account for over 60% of global fire extent, of which more than half occurs in the Southern Hemisphere contributing ~29% of global fire emissions. Building on experience in reducing savanna fire emissions in fire-prone north Australian savannas through implementation of an internationally accredited 'savanna burning' emissions abatement methodology, we explore opportunities and challenges associated with the application of a similar approach to incentivise emissions reduction in fire-prone southern African savannas. We first show that for a focal region covering seven contiguous countries, at least 80% of annual savanna large fire (>250 ha) extent and emissions occur under relatively severe late dry season (LDS) fire-weather conditions, predominantly in sparsely inhabited areas. Read More

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Meta-analysis of yield and nitrous oxide outcomes for nitrogen management in agriculture.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

African Plant Nutrition Institute, Benguerir, Morocco.

Improved nitrogen (N) use is key to future food security and environmental sustainability. While many regions still experience N shortages, agriculture is the leading global emitter of N O due to losses exacerbated by N surpluses in other regions. In order to sustainably maintain or increase food production, farmers and their advisors need a comprehensive and actionable understanding of how nutrient management affects both yield and N O emissions, particularly in tropical and subtropical agroecosystems. Read More

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Detection and genomic characterization of hepatitis E virus genotype 3 from pigs in Ghana, Africa.

One Health Outlook 2020 20;2:10. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Virology, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of human hepatitis worldwide. Zoonotic genotypes of the virus have been found in diverse animal species with pigs playing a major role. Putative risk of zoonotic infection from livestock particularly swine in Sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana is poorly understood due to scarcity of available data, especially HEV sequence information. Read More

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Free access to antiretroviral treatment and protection against the risk of catastrophic health expenditure in people living with HIV: evidence from Cameroon.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Apr 7;21(1):313. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Aix Marseille University, INSERM, IRD, SESSTIM, Sciences Economiques & Sociales de la Santé & Traitement de l'Information Médicale, Marseille, France.

Background: To foster access to care and reduce the burden of health expenditures on people living with HIV (PLHIV), several sub-Saharan African countries, including Cameroon, have adopted a policy of removing HIV-related fees, especially for antiretroviral treatment (ART). We investigate the impact of Cameroon's free antiretroviral treatment (ART) policy, enacted in May 2007, on catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) risk according to socioeconomic status, in PLHIV enrolled in the country's treatment access program.

Methods: Based on primary data from two cross-sectional surveys of PLHIV outpatients in 2006-2007 and 2014 (i. Read More

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Cultural and clinical challenges in sexual health care provision to men who have sex with men in Tanzania: a qualitative study of health professionals' experiences and health students' perspectives.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 7;21(1):676. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, 1300 S. 2nd St., Minneapolis, MN, 55454, USA.

Background: Health care providers across sub-Saharan Africa continue to face challenges while delivering sexual health care services. We explored the experiences, views and challenges of health care professionals and health students across different disciplines in Tanzania, towards delivery of sexual health services to men who have sex with men.

Methods: Utilizing a qualitative approach, we recruited 121 health care professionals (providers) and students from the fields of midwifery, nursing and medicine in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Read More

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An oral history of medical laboratory development in francophone West African countries.

Afr J Lab Med 2021 16;10(1):1157. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Underdeveloped and underused medical laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa negatively affect the diagnosis and appropriate treatment of ailments.

Objective: We identified political, disease-related and socio-economic factors that have shaped the laboratory sector in Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso to inform laboratory-strengthening programmes.

Methods: We searched peer-reviewed and grey literature from February 2015 to December 2018 on laboratory and health systems development from colonial times to the present and conducted in-depth interviews with 73 key informants involved in (inter)national health or laboratory policy, organisation, practice or training. Read More

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From benchmarking to best practices: Lessons from the laboratory quality improvement programme at the military teaching hospital in Cotonou, Benin.

Afr J Lab Med 2021 11;10(1):1057. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Global Scientific Solutions for Health (GSSHealth), Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

Background: In 2015, the Army Teaching Hospital-University Teaching Hospital (HIA-CHU []) laboratory in Benin launched a quality improvement programme in alignment with the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa's Stepwise Laboratory Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA). Among the sub-Saharan African laboratories that have used SLIPTA, few have been francophone countries, and fewer have belonged to a military health system. The purpose of this article was to outline the strategy, implementation, outcomes and military-specific challenges of the HIA-CHU laboratory quality improvement programme from 2015 to 2018. Read More

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February 2021

HIV-associated nephropathy: Protocol and rationale for an exploratory genotype-phenotype study in a sub-Saharan African population.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(4):e0249567. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Vanderbilt Institute of Global Health (VIGH), Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

Background: HIV-positive persons of African descent are disproportionately affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Deterioration to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) also occurs in this population at a higher frequency. There remains a lot to learn about the genetic susceptibility to CKD in HIV positive patients, and the pathophysiology of progression to ESKD. Read More

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Health system strengthening for vision care in The Gambia.

Rural Remote Health 2021 Apr 6;21(2):6245. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

OneSight, 4000 Luxottica Place, Mason, OH 45040, USA

Introduction: According to global estimates, 39 million people are blind and 285 million are at risk of severe vision loss, with a significant portion of this burden in Sub-Saharan Africa. Some African nations like The Gambia are beginning to tackle vision impairment by addressing the problem through a health system lens.

Methods: A health system framework, focusing on system areas of leadership and governance, resources for vision care, and vision care access, was used to understand and analyze how The Gambia has increased access to vision care using a public-private pilot partnership. Read More

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Costs of integrating hypertension care into HIV care in rural East African clinics.

AIDS 2021 May;35(6):911-919

Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases & Global Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Objective: Sub-Saharan Africa faces twin epidemics of HIV and noncommunicable diseases including hypertension. Integrating hypertension care into chronic HIV care is a global priority, but cost estimates are lacking. In the SEARCH Study, we performed population-level HIV/hypertension testing, and offered integrated streamlined chronic care. Read More

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The Lived Experience Of Participants in an African RandomiseD trial (LEOPARD): protocol for an in-depth qualitative study within a multisite randomised controlled trial for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

BMJ Open 2021 Apr 5;11(4):e039191. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Introduction: Individuals recruited into clinical trials for life-threatening illnesses are particularly vulnerable. This is especially true in low-income settings. The decision to enrol may be influenced by existing inequalities, poor healthcare infrastructure and fear of death. Read More

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Blindness Secondary to Retinopathy of Prematurity in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2021 Apr 4:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, USA.

: Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) has been suggested to be increasing in Africa. However, it was only previously documented as a cause of blindness in 8 of 48 (16.7%) sub-Saharan African countries. Read More

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Rift Valley Fever - a Growing Threat To Humans and Animals.

J Vet Res 2021 Mar 26;65(1):7-14. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Virology, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Puławy, Poland.

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic, vector-borne infectious disease of ruminants and camels transmitted mainly by the and mosquito species. Contact with the blood or organs of infected animals may infect humans. Its etiological factor is the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) of the genus and family. Read More

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Assessment of cardiovascular disease risks using Framingham risk scores (FRS) in HIV-positive and HIV-negative older adults in South Africa.

Prev Med Rep 2021 Jun 10;22:101352. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

South African Medical Research Council, Burden of Disease Research Unit, Francie Van Zijl Drive, Cape Town, South Africa.

The relationship between HIV and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains complex. The aim of this study was to estimate the 10-year CVD risk among HIV-positive and HIV-negative people. The validated Framingham Risk Score (FRS) based on the Framingham Heart study was used to predict the CVD risk. Read More

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Interleukin-8 genetic diversity, haplotype structure and production differ in two ethnically distinct South African populations.

Cytokine 2021 Apr 1:155489. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Centre for HIV and STIs, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), 251 bases upstream from the IL-8 transcription start (-251A>T, rs4073), has been extensively investigated in cancers and inflammatory and infectious diseases in predominantly European and Asian populations. We sequenced the IL-8 gene of 109 black and 32 white South African (SA) individuals and conducted detailed characterization of gene variation and haplotype structure. IL-8 production in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a subset (black: N = 22; white: N = 32) of these individuals was measured using ELISA. Read More

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Unravelling the Perspectives of Day and Night Traders in Selected Markets within a Sub-Saharan African City with a Malaria Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Survey.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Mar 26;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Community Health, University of Ghana Medical School, P.O. Box KB 4236 Accra, Ghana.

Background: Malaria is still endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, with a high disease burden. Misconceptions about malaria contribute to poor attitudes and practices, further increasing the burden in endemic countries. Studies have examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of malaria among different populations. Read More

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Within-Season Changes in Land-Use Impact Pest Abundance in Smallholder African Cassava Production Systems.

Insects 2021 Mar 22;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

CSIRO, Ecosciences Preceinct, Dutton Park QLD, Brisbane 4001, Australia.

Cassava ( Crantz), an important commercial and food security crop in East and Central Africa, continues to be adversely affected by the whitefly . In Uganda, changes in smallholder farming landscapes due to crop rotations can impact pest populations but how these changes affect pest outbreak risk is unknown. We investigated how seasonal changes in land-use have affected population dynamics and its parasitoids. Read More

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