133,408 results match your criteria study mathematical


Quercetin inhibits histamine-induced calcium influx in human keratinocyte via histamine H4 receptors.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 13;96:107620. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Science, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Xinzhuang, New Taipei City, Taiwan; Program in Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Histamine is released from mast cells when tissues are inflamed or stimulated by allergens. Activation of histamine receptors and calcium influx via TRPV1 could be related to histamine-induced itch and skin inflammation. Quercetin is known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-itching effects. Read More

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Capitalist theory and socialist practice: The organization of Chinese mathematics in the early 1950s.

Authors:
John Hanzhang Ye

Endeavour 2021 Apr 13;45(1-2):100767. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Program in History of Science and Technology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, United States. Electronic address:

This article explores how the Chinese state organized scientific research in the 1950s, through a case study of mathematics. By examining the organizing process of the Chinese Mathematical Society and the establishment of the Institute of Mathematics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the article explains how a number of state agents were selected to lead national level research institutes as a means for guiding scientists in serving the needs of the state. In addition, under state corporatism, all scientists were attached to discipline-specific academic societies, forming a large hierarchy consisting of societies at different levels. Read More

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A predictive framework based on brain volume trajectories enabling early detection of Alzheimer's disease.

Comput Med Imaging Graph 2021 Apr 2;90:101910. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Data used in the preparation of this article was obtained from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing (AIBL) funded by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) which was made available at the ADNI database. The AIBL researchers contributed data but did not participate in analysis or writing of this report. AIBL researchers are listed at www.aibl.csiro.au.

We present a framework for constructing predictive models of cognitive decline from longitudinal MRI examinations, based on mixed effects models and machine learning. We apply the framework to detect conversion from cognitively normal (CN) to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and from MCI to Alzheimer's disease (AD), using a large collection of subjects sourced from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Aging (AIBL). We extract subcortical segmentation and cortical parcellation from corresponding T1-weighted images using FreeSurfer v. Read More

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Mean differences and individual changes in nursing students' attitudes toward statistics: The role of math background and personality traits.

Authors:
F Chiesi F Bruno

Nurse Educ Pract 2021 Mar 26;52:103043. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Regional Neurogenetic Centre (CRN), Department of Primary Care, ASP Catanzaro, Viale A. Perugini, 88046 Lamezia Terme, CZ, Italy. Electronic address:

Nursing students have compulsory statistics courses in their degree program, but they usually have negative attitudes toward statistics that may hinder their learning. The present study aims: (i) to investigate nurse students' attitudes toward statistics and the relationships with mathematical background and personality traits; (ii) to stress individual changes in attitude that occur during the course; and (iii) to explore if mathematical background and personality traits influence these changes. We adopted a one-group pre-post survey study. Read More

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Dual-isotope-based source apportionment of nitrate in 30 rivers draining into the Bohai Sea, north China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 12;283:117112. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, PR China.

Excessive nitrate (NO) in rivers can lead to water quality deterioration, and can also be directly input into estuaries and oceans, thus posing a serious threat to the stability of their ecosystems. In this study, the concentration, isotopes and sources of NO in 30 rivers discharging into the Bohai Sea were comprehensively investigated. The mean concentration of NO-N was 2. Read More

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Diagnostic Serial Interval as an Indicator for Effectiveness of Contact Tracing in the COVID-19 Pandemic - A Simulation Study.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Seminar for Statistics, Department of Mathematics, ETH Zurich, Rämistrasse 101, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: While the role of contact tracing in the containment of the COVID-19 epidemic remains important until vaccines are widely available, literature on objectively measurable indicators for the effectiveness of contact tracing is scarce. We suggest the diagnostic serial interval, the time between the diagnosis of the infector and infectee, as a new indicator for the effectiveness of contact tracing.

Methods: Using an agent-based simulation model, we demonstrate how the diagnostic serial interval correlates with the course of the epidemic. Read More

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Modelling aspects of consciousness: a topological perspective.

Authors:
Mike Steel

J Theor Biol 2021 Apr 13:110713. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Biomathematics Research Centre, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Attention Schema Theory (AST) is a recent proposal to provide a scientific explanation for the basis of subjective awareness. In AST, the brain constructs a representation of attention taking place in its own (and others') mind ('the attention schema'). Moreover, this representation is incomplete for efficiency reasons. Read More

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Modelling strategies to organize healthcare workforce during pandemics: application to COVID-19.

J Theor Biol 2021 Apr 13:110718. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department for Visceral Surgery and Medicine, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Switzerland; Bern Center for Precision Medicine, Switzerland.

Protection of the healthcare workforce is of paramount importance for the care of patients in the setting of a pandemic such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Healthcare workers are at increased risk of becoming infected. The ideal organisational strategy to protect the workforce in a situation in which social distancing cannot be maintained remains to be determined. Read More

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Impact of intervention on the spread of COVID-19 in India: A model based study.

J Theor Biol 2021 Apr 13:110711. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Agricultural and Ecological Research Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203, B. T. Road, Kolkata 700108, India.

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has already created emergency situations in almost every country of the world. The disease spreads all over the world within a very short period of time after its first identification in Wuhan, China in December, 2019. In India, the outbreak, starts on 2 March, 2020 and after that the cases are increasing exponentially. Read More

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Validation of a host blood transcriptomic biomarker for pulmonary tuberculosis in people living with HIV: a prospective diagnostic and prognostic accuracy study.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Division of Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

Background: A rapid, blood-based triage test that allows targeted investigation for tuberculosis at the point of care could shorten the time to tuberculosis treatment and reduce mortality. We aimed to test the performance of a host blood transcriptomic signature (RISK11) in diagnosing tuberculosis and predicting progression to active pulmonary disease (prognosis) in people with HIV in a community setting.

Methods: In this prospective diagnostic and prognostic accuracy study, adults (aged 18-59 years) with HIV were recruited from five communities in South Africa. Read More

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SIRT2 and SIRT3 expression correlates with redox imbalance and advanced clinical stage in patients with multiple myeloma.

Clin Biochem 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina Italy.

Objectives: Sirtuins comprise seven family elements (SIRT1-7) involved in various cell signalling pathways comprising cancer inhibition and tumorigenesis. The present study aims to evaluate SIRT2 and SIRT3 gene expression and potential redox reactions in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) at onset and its correlation with disease status, extent and presence of organ damage secondary to myeloma.

Design & Methods: Total RNA was extracted from 17 MM patients and 10 controls to assess gene expression using real-time PCR. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 incidence and vaccine escape.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

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Bifurcation analyses and potential landscapes of a cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus model.

IET Syst Biol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Statistics and Mathematics, Inner Mongolia University of Finance and Economics, Hohhot, China.

The dynamics of cortical neuronal activity plays important roles in controlling body movement and is regulated by connection weights between neurons in a cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus (BGCT) loop. Beta-band oscillation of cortical activity is closely associated with the movement disorder of Parkinson's disease, which is caused by an imbalance in the connection weights of direct and indirect pathways in the BGCT loop. In this study, the authors investigate how the dynamics of cortical activity are modulated by connection weights of direct and indirect pathways in the BGCT loop under low dopamine levels through bifurcation analyses and potential landscapes. Read More

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The impact of state cannabis legislation, county-level socioeconomic and dog-level characteristics on reported cannabis poisonings of companion dogs in the USA (2009-2014).

PLoS One 2021 16;16(4):e0250323. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

With current trends in cannabis legalization, large efforts are being made to understand the effects of less restricted legislation on human consumption, health, and abuse of these products. Little is known about the effects of cannabis legalization and increased cannabis use on vulnerable populations, such as dogs. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of different state-level cannabis legislation, county-level socioeconomic factors, and dog-level characteristics on dog cannabis poisoning reports to an animal poison control center (APCC). Read More

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A comparative study on the lipidome of normal knee synovial fluid from humans and horses.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(4):e0250146. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Orthopaedics, Laboratory for Experimental Orthopaedics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

The current limitations in evaluating synovial fluid (SF) components in health and disease and between species are due in part to the lack of data on normal SF, because of low availability of SF from healthy articular joints. Our study aimed to quantify species-dependent differences in phospholipid (PL) profiles of normal knee SF obtained from equine and human donors. Knee SF was obtained during autopsy by arthrocentesis from 15 and 13 joint-healthy human and equine donors, respectively. Read More

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Elastoplastic Approach Based on Microscopic Insights for the Steady State and Transient Dynamics of Sheared Disordered Solids.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Apr;126(13):138005

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LIPhy, 38000 Grenoble, France.

We develop a framework to study the mechanical response of athermal amorphous solids via a coupling of mesoscale and microscopic models. Using measurements of coarse-grained quantities from simulations of dense disordered particulate systems, we present a coherent elastoplastic model approach for deformation and flow of yield stress materials. For a given set of parameters, this model allows us to match consistently transient and steady state features of driven disordered systems with diverse preparation histories under both applied shear-rate and creep protocols. Read More

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Time trends on the prevalence of myopia in India - A prediction model for 2050.

Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Myopia Research Lab, Prof. Brien Holden Eye Research Centre, Brien Holden Institute of Optometry and Vision Sciences, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Purpose: This study aimed to predict myopia prevalence in urban Indian children and to describe the generational effect of myopia in different age groups over the next three decades from the year 2020.

Methods: A systematic review of myopia prevalence in India was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for the Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and included eight studies with 28 600 participants, which were published in the period 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2019. The best fit for the prediction model was assessed with the baseline prevalence data plotted against different years and fitted with multiple mathematical regressions (linear, second-order polynomial, third order polynomial and exponential). Read More

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Strong Room-Temperature Ferroelectricity in Strained SrTiO Homoepitaxial Film.

Adv Mater 2021 Apr 16:e2008316. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering, Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, China.

Although the discovery of exceptional ferroelectricity in paraelectrics offers great opportunities to enrich the diversity of the ferroelectric family and promote the development of novel functionalities, transformation of paraelectric phases into ferroelectric phases remains challenging. Herein, a method is presented for driving paraelectrics into ferroelectric states via the introduction of M/O-deficient (M for metal) perovskite nanoregions. Using this method, strong ferroelectricity, equivalent to that of classic ferroelectrics, is achieved in a prototype paraelectric strontium titanate (SrTiO ) homoepitaxial film embedded with Ti/O-deficient perovskite nanoregions. Read More

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A content analysis of direct-to-consumer DNA testing on TikTok.

J Community Genet 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Public Health, William Paterson University, University Hall 366, Wayne, NJ, 07470, USA.

Despite the fact that the internet is a popular source of health information, limited research has been conducted on the ways in which direct-to-consumer (DTC) DNA testing has been discussed by consumers on the internet, and on social media platforms specifically. The purpose of this study was to describe the content of 100 videos that addressed DTC DNA testing on TikTok, a video-sharing social network. The 100 videos included had a combined 77,498 comments and 9,680,309 likes. Read More

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Heavy metal phytoremediation potential of the roadside forage Chloris barbata Sw. (swollen windmill grass) and the risk assessment of the forage-cattle-human food system.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Government Degree College Pampore, Srinagar, India.

This study presents the assessment of the risks incidental to the growth of the common tropical grass species Chloris barbata Sw. (swollen windmill grass) on road margins contaminated with Pb and Cd. Pot experiments were first carried out to quantify the Pb and Cd accumulation potential of the plant species in various plant parts as a function of the metal concentration in soil. Read More

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Dynamics of a new HIV model with the activation status of infected cells.

J Math Biol 2021 Apr 15;82(6):51. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Mathematics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA.

The activation status can dictate the fate of an HIV-infected CD4+ T cell. Infected cells with a low level of activation remain latent and do not produce virus, while cells with a higher level of activation are more productive and thus likely to transfer more virions to uninfected cells during cell-to-cell transmission. How the activation status of infected cells affects HIV dynamics under antiretroviral therapy remains unclear. Read More

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Validation of a simple technique of volumetric analysis of complex incisional hernias without 3D CT scan reconstruction.

Surg Endosc 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School-Baystate, Springfield, MA, USA.

Purpose: Volumetric analysis is being increasingly utilized in the preoperative evaluation of complex incisional hernias. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan has been used to obtain surface area (SA) and volume (Vol.) measurements, while others have used simple mathematical formulas to obtain SA and Vol. Read More

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Risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare workers: a retrospective study of a nosocomial outbreak.

Sleep Med X 2020 Dec 14;2:100028. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the forefront of fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic. However, they are at high risk of acquiring the pathogen from infected patients and transmitting to other HCWs. We aimed to investigate risk factors for nosocomial COVID-19 infection among HCWs in a non-COVID-19 hospital yard. Read More

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December 2020

An integrated epigenomic-transcriptomic landscape of lung cancer reveals novel methylation driver genes of diagnostic and therapeutic relevance.

Theranostics 2021 11;11(11):5346-5364. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Center for Uterine Cancer Diagnosis & Therapy Research of Zhejiang Province, Women's Reproductive Health Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Women's Hospital and Institute of Translational Medicine, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310006, China.

Aberrant DNA methylation occurs commonly during carcinogenesis and is of clinical value in human cancers. However, knowledge of the impact of DNA methylation changes on lung carcinogenesis and progression remains limited. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles were surveyed in 18 pairs of tumors and adjacent normal tissues from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients using Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS). Read More

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The impact of the Great Recession on educational pursuits in adulthood in the US.

Authors:
Lindsay H Ryan

Longit Life Course Stud 2019 Apr;10(2):241-257

University of Michigan, USA.

Economic downturns are known to spark periods of increased enrolment in traditional educational pursuits. The current study leverages 30-year longitudinal data from the Longitudinal Study of American Life (LSAL; N=1,556) to examine individual characteristics and experiences in adolescence, just prior to the Great Recession, and during it, to understand why some individuals chose to pursue new education or training in response to the recession whereas others did not. Indicators from adolescence include measures of self-esteem, locus of control, persistence, achievement in mathematics and achievement in science and were collected from 1987 to 1993. Read More

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Antiplasmodial, Heme Polymerization, and Cytotoxicity of Hydroxyxanthone Derivatives.

J Trop Med 2021 31;2021:8866681. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Sekip Utara, Indonesia.

The previous study showed that xanthone had antiplasmodial activity. Xanthone, with additional hydroxyl groups, was synthesized to increase its antiplasmodial activity. One of the strategies to evaluate a compound that can be developed into an antimalarial drug is by testing its mechanism in inhibiting heme polymerization. Read More

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Neem Leaf ( A. Juss) Ethanolic Extract on the Liver and Kidney Function of Rats.

ScientificWorldJournal 2021 30;2021:7970424. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Laboratory of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

Neem ( A. Juss) is one of the tropical plants found in Indonesia that has been used to prevent and treat various diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the ethanol extract of neem leaves on the concentration of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea, and creatinine in male rats. Read More

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Pharmaceutical Development of 5-Fluorouracil-Eluting Stents for the Potential Treatment of Gastrointestinal Cancers and Related Obstructions.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 9;15:1495-1507. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Pharmaceutical Innovation and Development (PIDG) Group, Clinical and Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia.

Background: Drug-eluting gastrointestinal (GI) stents are emerging as promising platforms for the treatment of GI cancers and provide the combined advantages of mechanical support to prevent lumen occlusion and as a reservoir for localized drug delivery to tumors. Therefore, in this work we present a detailed quality assurance study of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) drug-eluting stents (DESs) as potential candidates for the treatment of obstructive GI cancers.

Methods: The 5FU DESs were fabricated via a simple two-step sequential dip-coating process of commercial GI self-expanding nitinol stents with a 5FU-loaded polyurethane basecoat and a drug-free protective poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) topcoat. Read More

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Primary and secondary clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori and mathematical modeling of the role of macrolides.

Nat Commun 2021 04 15;12(1):2255. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

2nd Department of Pathology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic widely used for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, and thus resistance to this antibiotic is a major cause of treatment failure. Here, we present the results of a retrospective observational study of clarithromycin resistance (Cla-res) in 4744 H. pylori-infected patients from Central Hungary. Read More

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A Novel Method to Measure Venular Perivascular Spaces in Patients with MS on 7T MRI.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Departments of Computer Science, Mathematics, Physics, and Statistics (R.F.), University of British Columbia, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada.

In MS, inflammatory cells accumulate within the perivascular spaces of acute and chronic lesions. Reliance on perivascular spaces as biomarkers for MS remains uncertain because various studies have reported inconsistencies in perivascular space anatomy. Distinguishing between venular and arteriolar perivascular spaces is pathophysiologically relevant in MS. Read More

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