426,805 results match your criteria study individuals

Effect of chronic binge-like ethanol consumption on subsequent cocaine reinforcement in rhesus monkeys.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Apr 10;223:108707. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Although most individuals with cocaine use disorder also abuse alcohol, little is known about the behavioral and pharmacological mechanisms that promote co-abuse. For example, it is unclear whether prior experience with alcohol renders individuals more sensitive to cocaine when it is subsequently experienced.

Methods: This study examined the effects of chronic ethanol consumption on subsequent cocaine reinforcement in rhesus monkeys. Read More

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Decrease in prevalence but increase in frequency of non-marijuana drug use following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in a large cohort of young men who have sex with men and young transgender women.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Apr 10;223:108701. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Northwestern University, Department of Medical Social Sciences, 625 N Michigan Ave, Chicago, IL, 60611, United States; Northwestern University, Institute for Sexual and Gender Minority Health and Wellbeing, 625 N Michigan Ave, Chicago, IL, 60611, United States.

Background: Substantial concern exists regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on substance use behaviors. This is especially true for subpopulations like young men who have sex with men and young transgender women (YMSM-YTW) who report higher rates of substance use. This study examines changes in prevalence and frequency of marijuana and non-marijuana drug use among YMSM-YTW following the onset of the pandemic. Read More

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Perceived protectiveness of research safeguards and influences on willingness to participate in research: A novel MTurk pilot study.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 6;138:200-206. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA, 94305-5717, USA.

Little is known about how individuals with mood disorders view the protectiveness of research safeguards, and whether their views affect their willingness to participate in psychiatric research. We conducted an online survey with 80 individuals (self-reported mood disorder [n = 25], self-reported good health [n = 55]) recruited via MTurk. We assessed respondents' perceptions of the protectiveness of five common research safeguards, as well as their willingness to participate in research that incorporates each safeguard. Read More

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COgnitive enhancement and consumption of psychoactive Substances among Youth Students (COSYS): a cross-sectional study in France.

Public Health 2021 Apr 14;194:75-78. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Addictovigilance Center, Fernand-Widal Hospital, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: This descriptive and analytical study investigated the consumption rates of psychoactive substances among individuals aged 18-25 years in France. More specifically, it enabled assessment of the extent of the neuroenhancement (NE) phenomenon among students in France (including study of the misuse of psychostimulant medicines).

Study Design: COgnitive enhancement and consumption of psychoactive Substances among Youth Students (COSYS) is a cross-sectional survey of students in France. Read More

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Determinants of health-related quality of life among homeless individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Public Health 2021 Mar 6;194:60-66. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Health Economics and Health Services Research, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Objective: To clarify which variables are associated with the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among homeless individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Study Design: Cross-sectional research.

Methods: Data were taken from the Hamburg survey of homeless individuals (n = 151). Read More

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Response to targeted cognitive training may be neuroprotective in patients with early schizophrenia.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2021 Apr 7;312:111285. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

University of California, San Francisco, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, USA; San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, USA.

Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit widespread cortical thinning associated with illness severity and deficits in cognition. However, intact cortical thickness (CTh) may serve as a protective factor. The current study sought to examine changes in CTh in response to auditory targeted cognitive training (TCT) in individuals with recent onset schizophrenia. Read More

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Body composition and handgrip strength in patients with prediabetes: A case-control study from Haryana, North India.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021 Apr 9;15(3):823-827. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medicine, Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Previous studies suggest that body composition and handgrip strength are significantly altered in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Only few studies are available in prediabetic individuals. The aim is to study the change in body composition in adult individuals with prediabetes and compare it with age and sex-matched normoglycemic individuals. Read More

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Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) based on cystatin C was associated with increased risk of hip and proximal humerus fractures in women and decreased risk of hip fracture in men, whereas eGFR based on creatinine was not associated with fracture risk in both sexes: The Tromsø Study.

Bone 2021 Apr 14:115960. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Women's Health and Perinatalogy Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Norwegian Research Centre for Women's Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Purpose: Patients with end-stage kidney disease have an increased fracture risk. Whether mild to moderate reductions in kidney function is associated with increased fracture risk is uncertain. Results from previous studies may be confounded by muscle mass because of the use of creatinine-based estimates of the glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcre). Read More

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Effects of Music Intervention on Sleep Quality of Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Complement Ther Med 2021 Apr 14:102719. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, China; Department of Pharmacology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Background: Music interventions have several benefits for sleep quality. However, the effects of music interventions on sleep quality in older adults are controversial.

Objective: To summarize and evaluate the efficacy of music interventions on sleep quality in older adults. Read More

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Post-exercise recovery for the endurance athlete with type 1 diabetes: a consensus statement.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 May;9(5):304-317

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology, Nutritional Medicine and Metabolism, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

There has been substantial progress in the knowledge of exercise and type 1 diabetes, with the development of guidelines for optimal glucose management. In addition, an increasing number of people living with type 1 diabetes are pushing their physical limits to compete at the highest level of sport. However, the post-exercise recovery routine, particularly with a focus on sporting performance, has received little attention within the scientific literature, with most of the focus being placed on insulin or nutritional adaptations to manage glycaemia before and during the exercise bout. Read More

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Temporal trends and patient characteristics associated with 30-day hospital readmission rates after a first acute myocardial infarction.

Am J Med 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Meyers Primary Care Institute, Worcester, MA 01655; Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 01655.

Background: Limited data exists about relatively recent trends in the magnitude and characteristics of patients who are re-hospitalized after hospital admission for an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study examined trends in the frequency and socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients readmitted to the hospital within 30 days after an initial acute myocardial infarction.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 3,116 individuals who were hospitalized for a validated first acute myocardial infarction in six study periods between 2003 and 2015 at the three major medical centers in central Massachusetts. Read More

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Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the respiratory syncytial virus prefusion F subunit vaccine DS-Cav1: a phase 1, randomised, open-label, dose-escalation clinical trial.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Multiple active vaccination approaches have proven ineffective in reducing the substantial morbidity and mortality caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infants and older adults (aged ≥65 years). A vaccine conferring a substantial and sustainable boost in neutralising activity is required to protect against severe RSV disease. To that end, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of DS-Cav1, a prefusion F subunit vaccine. Read More

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Production and outmigration of young-of-year northern pike Esox lucius from natural and modified waterways connected to Lower Green Bay, Wisconsin.

J Fish Biol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Natural and Applied Sciences, Aquatic Ecology and Fisheries Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Green Bay, Green Bay, WI, United States.

Production and outmigration of young-of-year (YOY) northern pike from natal sites in Lower Green Bay were documented over three consecutive years (2013-2015). We tested the hypothesis that spawning success and outmigration characteristics of YOY northern pike would vary among natural and anthropogenically modified habitats. Sixteen focal study locations were surveyed including a restored natural wetland, agricultural drainage ditches, a flooded forested wetland and several unimpounded tributaries. Read More

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Impaired error-related processing in patients with first-episode psychosis and subjects at clinical high risk for psychosis: An event-related potential study.

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Seoul National University College of Natural Sciences, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Aim: Impaired event-related potential (ERP) indices reflecting performance monitoring systems have been consistently reported in patients with schizophrenia. However, whether these impairments exist from the beginning of the early phase of psychosis, such as in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis, has not yet been clearly ascertained.

Methods: Thirty-seven FEP patients, 22 CHR subjects, and 22 healthy controls (HCs) performed a visual go/no-go task so that three ERP components associated with performance monitoring-error-related negativity (ERN), correct response negativity (CRN) and error positivity (Pe) -could be assessed. Read More

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Estimating the Reference Interval from a Fixed Effects Meta-Analysis.

Res Synth Methods 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

1Division of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

A reference interval provides a basis for physicians to determine whether a measurement is typical of a healthy individual. It can be interpreted as a prediction interval for a new individual from the overall population. However, a reference interval based on a single study may not be representative of the broader population. Read More

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Clinical Features of Essential Voice Tremor and Associations with Tremor Severity and Response to Octanoic Acid Treatment.

Laryngoscope 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Neurology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical features, tremor variability, and factors related to octanoic acid (OA) treatment response in essential voice tremor (EVT).

Study Design: Prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study with secondary analysis.

Methods: Clinical tremor features in 16 individuals with EVT were comprehensively assessed, and correlations with acoustic tremor severity were determined. Read More

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DNA Hypomethylation of the MPO Gene in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes Is Associated with Cerebral Stroke in the Acute Phase.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Research Institute of Medical Genetics, Tomsk National Research Medical Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia.

Dysregulation of the oxidant-antioxidant system contributes to the pathogenesis of cerebral stroke (CS). Epigenetic changes of redox homeostasis genes, such as glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLM), glutathione-S-transferase-P1 (GSTP1), thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1), and myeloperoxidase (MPO), may be biomarkers of CS. In this study, we assessed the association of DNA methylation levels of these genes with CS and clinical features of CS. Read More

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The Effect of Islamic Belief and Spiritual Well-being on Organ Donation in Turkey: A Descriptive-Relational Study.

J Relig Health 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Public Health Nursing, Faculty of Health Science, University of Bandırma Onyedi Eylul, Bandırma, Balıkesir, Turkey.

The aim of the study is to determine how Islamic belief and spiritual well-being affect the attitudes of individuals towards organ donation. The study was designed as a descriptive-relational study and included the participation of 402 adults in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. For data collection, a personal information form, the Organ Donation Attitude Scale, and the Spiritual Well-being Scale were used. Read More

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Beyond the Cuckoo's Nest: Patient and Public Attitudes about Psychiatric Electroceutical Interventions.

Psychiatr Q 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Philosophy, College of Arts and Letters, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Recent research emphasizes the role of psychiatric electroceutical interventions (PEIs), bioelectronic treatments that employ electrical stimulation to affect and modify brain function, to effectively treat psychiatric disorders. We sought to examine attitudes about three PEIs-electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and deep brain stimulation-among patients with depression and members of the general public. As part of a larger study to assess different stakeholders' attitudes about PEIs, we conducted semi-structured key informant interviews with 16 individuals living with depression and 16 non-depressive members of the general public. Read More

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Quality of plant-based diets and risk of hypertension: a Korean genome and examination study.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Departments of Epidemiology and Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background And Aims: Plant-based diets have been suggested to have beneficial effects on various health outcomes. However, the evidence on the association of plant-based diet quality with health outcomes is very limited in Asian populations, who may have a different dietary pattern than western populations. This study explored the prospective association between different types of plant-based diets and risk of hypertension using recently established indices in South Koreans. Read More

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Systemic sclerosis-associated myositis features minimal inflammation and characteristic capillary pathology.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Neuropathology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Systemic sclerosis represents a chronic connective tissue disease featuring fibrosis, vasculopathy and autoimmunity, affecting skin, multiple internal organs, and skeletal muscles. The vasculopathy is considered obliterative, but its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. This may partially be due to limitations of conventional transmission electron microscopy previously being conducted only in single patients. Read More

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Social stress and risk of declining cognition: a longitudinal study of men and women in the United States.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Division of Geriatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Limited research is available on the relationship between social stress and risk of declining cognition. We sought to examine whether social stress has adverse effects on risk of declining episodic memory and executive functioning in aging individuals. We used data from the MIDUS study, a national probability sample of non-institutionalized, English speaking respondents aged 25-74 living in the 48 contiguous states of the United States. Read More

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Plasma proteomics analysis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients revealed by Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

Proteomics Clin Appl 2021 Apr 17:e2100002. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Objective: We aim to investigate the changes of plasma proteome among mild, severe AIS patients and healthy controls.

Methods: In this retrospective study, 84 individuals including 56 confirmed AIS patients (27 follow-up AIS patients and 29 surgical AIS patients) and another 28 healthy teenagers. Plasma samples were obtained and Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer was performed to identify proteins in AIS patients and control group. Read More

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Consider the context: An analysis of personal social networks of caregivers of children participating in a paediatric weight management program.

Clin Obes 2021 Apr 17:e12456. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Institute for Better Health, Trillium Health Partners, Mississauga, Canada.

Social networks influence the health and well-being of children and families. This study aimed to identify and understand the social networks of caregivers of children participating in the KidFit Health and Wellness Clinic, a paediatric weight management program. An egocentric social network analysis was used. Read More

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Effect of magnesium and vitamin B6 supplementation on mental health and quality of life in stressed healthy adults: Post-hoc analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

Stress Health 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Global Medical Nutritionals, Consumer Healthcare, Sanofi-Aventis, Paris, France.

Magnesium status and vitamin B6 intake have been linked to mental health and/or quality of life (QoL). In an 8-week Phase IV randomised controlled study in individuals with low magnesemia and severe/extremely severe stress but who were otherwise healthy, greater stress reduction was achieved with magnesium combined with vitamin B6 than with magnesium alone. Here, we present a previously unreported secondary analysis of the effect of magnesium, with and without vitamin B6, on depression, anxiety, and QoL. Read More

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Liothyronine and Levothyroxine Prescribing in England: A Comprehensive Survey and Evaluation.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Apr 16:e14228. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

The School of Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, England, UK.

Introduction: The approach to thyroid hormone replacement varies across centres but the extent and determinants of variation is unclear. We evaluated geographical variation in levothyroxine (LT4) and liothyronine (LT3) prescribing across General Practices in England and analysed the relationship of prescribing patterns to clinical and socioeconomic factors.

Methods: Data was downloaded from the NHS monthly General Practice Prescribing Data in England for the period 2011-2020. Read More

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'There is always a way to living with illness'-Self-management strategies reported by Chinese hospitalized patients with cardiovascular disease: A descriptive qualitative study.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Affiliated Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Objectives: Patients living with cardiovascular diseases use different strategies to solve various problems. This study aimed to identify the category, type and specific self-management strategies reported by hospitalized patients with cardiovascular diseases.

Methods: This is a qualitative descriptive study. Read More

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Iranian women's divorce style: A qualitative study.

Fam Process 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

Divorce has received scant attention in Iran, despite the problems that arise for individuals and families and in social life. The present study aimed to find the divorce process of the Iranian couples among whom the woman was the divorce initiator. For this purpose, interviews were conducted, using the grounded theory method, with 34 Iranian divorcing men and women (women initiating a divorce and their spouses) to investigate their divorce experience. Read More

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Source memory and social exchange in young children.

Cogn Process 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.

Reciprocal interactions require memories of social exchanges; however, little is known about how we remember social partner actions, especially during childhood when we start forming peer-to-peer relationships. This study examined if the expectation-violation effect, which has been observed in adults' source memory, exists among 5-6-year-old children. Forty participants played a coin collection game where they either received or lost coins after being shown an individual with a smiling or angry expression. Read More

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Factors Associated with HIV and Vulnerability Contexts for Women in Brazil.

Arch Sex Behav 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Collective Health, School of Nursing, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90620-110, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with HIV and vulnerability contexts for women in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The participants were 1326 women recruited by complex sampling design, divided into two groups: 640 women with HIV (WLH) and 686 women who did not have HIV (WNLH). Gross and weighted statistical analyses were performed. Read More

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