8,856 results match your criteria study host-parasite

Higher mortality of the less suitable brown trout host compared to the principal Atlantic salmon host when infested with freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) glochidia.

Parasitol Res 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Postboks 5685 Torgarden, 7485, Trondheim, Norway.

The freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) is a highly host-specific parasite, with an obligate parasitic stage on salmonid fish. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f. trutta and Salmo trutta f. Read More

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The Gene Encodes for an Atypical Dual Specificity Lipid-Like Phosphatase Expressed in Promastigotes and Amastigotes; Substrate Specificity, Intracellular Localizations, and Putative Role(s).

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 25;11:591868. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Intracellular Parasitism Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens, Greece.

The intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus are responsible for Leishmaniases, vector borne diseases with a wide range of clinical manifestations. causes visceral leishmaniasis (kala azar), the most severe of these diseases. Along their biological cycle, parasites undergo distinct developmental transitions including metacyclogenesis and differentiation of metacyclic promastigotes (MPs) to amastigotes. Read More

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microRNA-155 Expression and Butyrylcholinesterase Activity in the Liver Tissue of Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii (Avirulent and Virulent Strains).

Acta Parasitol 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Parasitology, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Purpose: Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that exhibits distinct strain-related virulence patterns in mice. It can induce hepatic inflammation. The present study investigated MicroRNA-155 (miRNA-155) expression and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in the liver tissue of mice infected with virulent and avirulent strains of T. Read More

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Differential expression pattern of pathogenicity-related genes of YQ responding to tissue debris of .

Phytopathology 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Zhejiang A and F University, 12627, College of Forestry and Biotechnology, No. 666 Wusu Street, Lin'an District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, 311300;

species complex (RSSC) contains a group of destructive plant pathogenic bacteria, causing bacterial wilt of over 200 species of crops and trees, such as , worldwide. RSSC can survive in the soil environment for a long time and start infection after activated by host plants. This study conducted a transcriptome analysis on the expression pattern of the pathogenicity-related genes of a new isolated RSSC strain YQ ( phylotype I-16) in response to cladophyll (a branch of a stem that resembles and functions as a leaf) and root debris under culture. Read More

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Host-Parasite Relationships in Porcine Ascariosis: Anticoagulant Potential of the Third Larval Stage of as a Possible Survival Mechanism.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 13;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Laboratory of Parasitology, Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Salamanca (IRNASA-CSIC), C/Cordel de Merinas 40-52, 37008 Salamanca, Spain.

In order to evade the response of their hosts, helminth parasites have evolved precise and highly regulated mechanisms, including migration strategies of the larval stages. In regard to porcine ascariosis caused by , its infective third-stage larvae (AsL3) undergo a complex migratory route through the bloodstream of their host before establishing in the small intestine to reach maturation. Despite the benefits attributed to this migration, blood clots formation could compromise larvae survival. Read More

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Schistosomiasis Morbidity Hotspots: Roles of the Human Host, the Parasite and Their Interface in the Development of Severe Morbidity.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:635869. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Schistosomiasis is the second most important human parasitic disease in terms of socioeconomic impact, causing great morbidity and mortality, predominantly across the African continent. For intestinal schistosomiasis, severe morbidity manifests as periportal fibrosis (PPF) in which large tracts of macro-fibrosis of the liver, visible by ultrasound, can occlude the main portal vein leading to portal hypertension (PHT), sequelae such as ascites and collateral vasculature, and ultimately fatalities. For urogenital schistosomiasis, severe morbidity manifests as pathology throughout the urinary system and genitals, and is a definitive cause of squamous cell bladder carcinoma. Read More

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Managed bumble bees acquire parasites from their foraging environment: A case study on parasite spillback.

J Invertebr Pathol 2021 Mar 26:107583. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department of Plants and Crops, Lab of Agrozoology, Coupure Links 653, Ghent B-9000, Belgium. Electronic address:

The use of commercially reared bumble bees in agricultural environments has been recognized as a potential threat to wild pollinators due to competition, genetic contamination, and most notably, disease transmission. Higher parasite prevalence near greenhouses where managed bumble bees are used has been linked to parasite spillover from managed to wild bees. However, pathogen transmission is not unidirectional, and can also flow from wild to managed bees. Read More

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Effect of maternal infection on progeny growth and resistance mediated by maternal genotype and nutrient availability.

J Ecol 2021 Mar 19;109(3):1439-1451. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Research Centre for Ecological Change, Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Helsinki Helsinki Finland.

Maternal effects of pathogen infection on progeny development and disease resistance may be adaptive and have important consequences for population dynamics. However, these effects are often context-dependent and examples of adaptive transgenerational responses from perennials are scarce, although they may be a particularly important mechanism generating variation in the offspring of long-lived species.Here, we studied the effect of maternal infection of by , a fungal parasite, on the growth, flower production and resistance of the progeny of six maternal genotypes in nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor environments. Read More

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Aggressiveness of Spanish isolates of to almond plants of different cultivars under greenhouse conditions.

Phytopathology 2021 Mar 21. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

University of Girona, 16738, Institute of Food and Agricultural Technology, Maria Aurelia Capmany 61, Girona, Girona, Spain, 17001;

The aggressiveness of Spanish isolates of , representing different sequence types, were studied in almond plants of several cultivars by means of the dynamics of the population levels and symptoms, colonization and spread, and dose-response relationships. Pathogen dynamics in almond plants under greenhouse conditions showed doubling times of 2.1 to 2. Read More

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Determinants of prevalence and co-infestation by ecto- and endoparasites in the Atlas day gecko, Quedenfeldtia trachyblepharus, an endemic species of Morocco.

Parasitol Res 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Laboratory of Water, Biodiversity and Climate Change, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Department of Biology, Cadi Ayyad University, 2390 Prince My Abdellah, 40000, Marrakech, Morocco.

The present work was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of ectoparasites (mites and ticks) and endoparasites (haemogregarines and helminths) in the Atlas day gecko, Quedenfeldtia trachyblepharus (Boettger, 1874), a high-altitude Moroccan endemic lizard. The study examinated also the effect of some host parameters (age, sex, size, body condition), in addition to the season and altitude on the prevalence and intensity of parasite infestations. The study was conducted in three localities from May to September 2019. Read More

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Diversity, distribution, and drivers of Polychromophilus infection in Malagasy bats.

Malar J 2021 03 20;20(1):157. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo 101, BP 1274, Ambatofotsikely, Madagascar.

Background: Numerous studies have been undertaken to advance knowledge of apicomplexan parasites infecting vertebrates, including humans. Of these parasites, the genus Plasmodium has been most extensively studied because of the socio-economic and public health impacts of malaria. In non-human vertebrates, studies on malaria or malaria-like parasite groups have been conducted but information is far from complete. Read More

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A human monoclonal antibody blocks malaria transmission and defines a highly conserved neutralizing epitope on gametes.

Nat Commun 2021 03 19;12(1):1750. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Pathogenesis and Immunity Section, Laboratory of Malaria Immunology and Vaccinology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Malaria elimination requires tools that interrupt parasite transmission. Here, we characterize B cell receptor responses among Malian adults vaccinated against the first domain of the cysteine-rich 230 kDa gamete surface protein Pfs230, a key protein in sexual stage development of P. falciparum parasites. Read More

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Microbial community structure in a host-parasite system: the case of Prussian carp and its parasitic crustaceans.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Research Group of Physiology and Genetics of Hydrobionts, Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the skin microbiota of Prussian carp infested by ectoparasites from the genera Argulus and Lernaea.

Methods And Results: Associated microbiota of skin of Prussian carp and ectoparasites were investigated by sequencing of the V3, V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA using Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform.

Conclusions: According to the Spearman rank correlation test, the increasing load of ulcerations of the skin of Prussian carp was weakly negatively correlated with reduction in the abundance of the following taxa: Acrobacter, bacteria C39 (Rhodocyclaceae), Rheinheimera, Comamonadaceae, Helicobacteraceae and Vogesella. Read More

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Identification of and as effective marker genes for tracking the salicylic acid-mediated immune response in bananas.

Phytopathology 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Academia Sinica, 38017, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

Bananas lie among the world's most important cash and staple crops but are threatened by various devastating pathogens. The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in the regulation of plant immune response. Tracking the expression of SA-responsive marker genes under pathogen infection is important in pathogenesis elucidation. Read More

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and Genetic Variants Are Involved in Th2 Immune Responses to .

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:622051. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Institute of Health Sciences, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil.

Genetic and epigenetic factors are considered to be critical for host-parasite interactions. There are limited data on the role of such factors during human infections with . Here, we describe the potential role of genetic factors as determinants of the Th2 immune response to in Brazilian children. Read More

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February 2021

Morphotype and haplotype identification of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae), and its importance for apiculture in Nicaragua.

Exp Appl Acarol 2021 Apr 9;83(4):527-544. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Agraria de la Habana, Habana, Cuba.

The ectoparasite Varroa (Acari: Varroidae) is considered to be the main pest of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in Nicaragua. The aim of this study was to determine morphotypes and mitochondrial haplotypes of the Varroa mites, related to infestation levels in A. Read More

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Sex and nest type influence avian blood parasite prevalence in a high-elevation bird community.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Mar 8;14(1):145. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Fish, Wildlife and Conservation Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

Background: The prevalence of avian haemosporidian parasites and the factors influencing infection in the Colorado Rocky Mountains are largely unknown. With climate change expected to promote the expansion of vector and avian blood parasite distributions, baseline knowledge and continued monitoring of the prevalence and diversity of these parasites is needed.

Methods: Using an occupancy modeling framework, we conducted a survey of haemosporidian parasite species infecting an avian community in the Colorado Rocky Mountains in order to estimate the prevalence and diversity of blood parasites and to investigate species-level and individual-level characteristics that may influence infection. Read More

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Molecular characterization of enteric coccidia from domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2021 Jan 25;23:100528. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. Electronic address:

Combined morphometric and molecular characterization of coccidia that infect domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) was completed to improve the diagnostic specificity of 'coccidiosis' in this host. Coccidia-positive fecal samples (n = 11) and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded intestinal tissues (n = 3) from domestic ferrets were collected from diagnostic laboratories in Canada and Europe. An average of 3. Read More

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January 2021

Application of single-cell transcriptomics to kinetoplastid research.

Parasitology 2021 Mar 8:1-14. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Wellcome Centre for Integrative Parasitology, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Kinetoplastid parasites are responsible for both human and animal diseases across the globe where they have a great impact on health and economic well-being. Many species and life cycle stages are difficult to study due to limitations in isolation and culture, as well as to their existence as heterogeneous populations in hosts and vectors. Single-cell transcriptomics (scRNA-seq) has the capacity to overcome many of these difficulties, and can be leveraged to disentangle heterogeneous populations, highlight genes crucial for propagation through the life cycle, and enable detailed analysis of host–parasite interactions. Read More

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Data of de novo transcriptome assembly of the myxozoan parasite .

Data Brief 2021 Apr 4;35:106831. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Clinical Division of Fish Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

a myxozoan endoparasite, causes proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. The life cycle of occurs between invertebrate bryozoan and vertebrate fish hosts. develops in the body cavity of colonial bryozoan and spores are released from mature spore sacs into the water likely through the vestibular pore and infect fish by attaching to their gills. Read More

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Isotopic discrimination in helminths infecting coral reef fishes depends on parasite group, habitat within host, and host stable isotope value.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 25;11(1):4638. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

UMR Entropie (Université de La Réunion, IRD, CNRS, IFREMER, Université de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), Université de la Nouvelle-Calédonie, BP R4, 98851, Nouméa Cedex, New Caledonia.

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen characterize trophic relationships in predator-prey relationships, with clear differences between consumer and diet (discrimination factor ΔC and ΔN). However, parasite-host isotopic relationships remain unclear, with ΔC and ΔN remaining incompletely characterized, especially for helminths. In this study, we used stable isotopes to determine discrimination factors for 13 parasite-host pairings of helminths in coral reef fish. Read More

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February 2021

Evolution and Maintenance of Mutualism between Tubeworms and Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria.

Am Nat 2021 03 19;197(3):351-365. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

AbstractTubeworms and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria mutualism, an essential part of the chemosynthetic ecosystem in the deep sea, has several puzzling features. After acquiring sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from the environment, tubeworms become fully dependent on their symbiont bacteria for nutrient intake. Once ingested by the tubeworm larva, no additional symbionts join from the environment, and no symbionts are released until the host tubeworm dies. Read More

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Prevalence, Infection Intensity and Associated Factors of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis Among School-Aged Children from Selected Districts in Northwest Ethiopia.

Res Rep Trop Med 2021 15;12:15-23. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Medical Parasitology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Globally, soil-transmitted helminths affect beyond a billion people and cause 1.9 million disability-adjusted life years worldwide. It affects children disproportionately due to their unaware activities like walking barefoot, playing with dirty objects that might be contaminated with feces. Read More

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February 2021

Broadening the ecology of fear: non-lethal effects arise from diverse responses to predation and parasitism.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Feb 24;288(1945):20202966. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Western Ecological Research Center, US Geological Survey, at UC Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

Research on the 'ecology of fear' posits that defensive prey responses to avoid predation can cause non-lethal effects across ecological scales. Parasites also elicit defensive responses in hosts with associated non-lethal effects, which raises the longstanding, yet unresolved question of how non-lethal effects of parasites compare with those of predators. We developed a framework for systematically answering this question for all types of predator-prey and host-parasite systems. Read More

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February 2021

Unveiling the role of EVs in anaerobic parasitic protozoa.

Mol Immunol 2021 May 20;133:34-43. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal Do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil; Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

The anaerobic or microaerophilic protozoan parasites such as the enteric human pathogens Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Blastocystis hominis and urogenital tract parasites Trichomonas vaginalis are able to survival in an environment with oxygen deprivation. Despite living in hostile environments these pathogens adopted different strategies to survive within the hosts. Among them, the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has become an active endeavor in the study of pathogenesis for these parasites. Read More

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Wide geographic distribution of overlooked parasites: Rare Microsporidia in , a species complex with a high rate of endemism.

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2021 Apr 15;14:121-129. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Hydrobiology, University of Lodz, 12/16 Banacha Street, 90-237, Lodz, Poland.

Parasites and other symbionts deeply influence host organisms, and no living organism can be considered to have evolved independent of its symbionts. The first step towards understanding symbiotic influences upon host organisms is a strong supporting knowledge of parasite/symbiont diversity. Parasites of freshwater amphipods are diverse, with Microsporidia being a major group. Read More

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Host-parasite interactions of rodent hosts and ectoparasite communities from different habitats in Germany.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Feb 17;14(1):112. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Comparative Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Background: Small mammals are important maintenance hosts of ectoparasites as well as reservoir hosts for many arthropod-borne pathogens. In Germany, only a few studies have investigated ectoparasite communities on small mammals in their natural habitats. The aim of this study was to assess the species diversity and parameters influencing the mean intensity and prevalence of macroscopically visible ectoparasites, such as fleas, predatory mites and ticks. Read More

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February 2021

[Defining the Molecular Signal Pathways and Upstream Regulators in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with Transcriptomic Data Approach].

Mikrobiyol Bul 2021 Jan;55(1):67-80

Ege University, Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Bioinformatics, Izmir, Turkey.

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the genus Leishmania spp., which are intracellular parasites. Depending on parasite species and host immune response, there are three basic clinical forms of the disease: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Read More

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January 2021

Jagged-Notch-mediated divergence of immune cell crosstalk maintains the anti-inflammatory response in visceral leishmaniasis.

J Cell Sci 2021 Mar 4;134(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Division of Molecular Parasitology and Immunology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031, India

Notch signaling governs crucial aspects of intercellular communication spanning antigen-presenting cells and T-cells. In this study, we investigate how takes advantage of this pathway to quell host immune responses. We report induction of the Notch ligand Jagged1 in -infected bone marrow macrophages (BMMϕs) and subsequent activation of RBPJκ (also known as RBPJ) in T cells, which in turn upregulates the transcription factor GATA3. Read More

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Modeling Relapsing Malaria: Emerging Technologies to Study Parasite-Host Interactions in the Liver.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 29;10:606033. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Parasitology, Biomedical Primate Research Center, Rijswijk, Netherlands.

Recent studies of liver stage malaria parasite-host interactions have provided exciting new insights on the cross-talk between parasite and its mammalian (predominantly rodent) host. We review the latest state of the art and and zoom in on new technologies that will provide the tools necessary to investigate host-parasite interactions of relapsing parasites. Interactions between hypnozoites and hepatocytes are particularly interesting because the parasite can remain in a quiescent state for prolonged periods of time and triggers for reactivation have not been irrefutably identified. Read More

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January 2021