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Effects of 12 sessions of steam bath intervention on spirometry parameters among healthy adult volunteers.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Yoga, Government Yoga and Naturopathy Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, India.

Objectives: Steam bath is extensively used around the world. However, its physiological influence is not understood in detail. Objective of the current study is to examine the effects of 12 sessions of steam bath on spirometric parameters among healthy participants. Read More

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The intracellular fluid compartment is smaller than commonly believed when measured by whole-body bioimpedance.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Anaesthesiology, "CLINIC de Barcelona" Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Objectives: To report our data on the total body water (TBW), intracellular volume (ICV), extracellular volume (ECV), and fat-free mass (FFM) from studies using whole-body bioimpedance (BIA) with the aim of contrasting them to commonly cited reference values.

Methods: Data were retrospectively retrieved from three single-center studies of adult healthy male volunteers and one study of women scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy where multifrequency BIA had been applied to obtain measurements of TBW, ICV, ECV, and FFM.

Results: Based on measurements performed in 44 males, the TBW, ICV, ECV, and FFM represented 49. Read More

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Pediatric reference intervals for endocrine markers and fertility hormones in healthy children and adolescents on the Siemens Healthineers Atellica immunoassay system.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

CALIPER Program, Department of Pediatric Laboratory Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objectives: Rapid development in childhood and adolescence combined with lack of immunoassay standardization necessitates the establishment of age-, sex-, and assay-specific reference intervals for immunochemical markers. This study established reference intervals for 11 immunoassays on the new Siemens Healthineers Atellica® IM Analyzer in the healthy CALIPER cohort.

Methods: A total of 600 healthy participants (birth to 18 years) were recruited from the community, and serum samples were collected with informed consent. Read More

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Persistent dependent behaviour is accompanied by dynamic switching between the ventral and dorsal striatal connections in internet gaming disorder.

Addict Biol 2021 May 6:e13046. Epub 2021 May 6.

Center for Cognition and Brain Disorders, The Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, China.

Cross-sectional studies have suggested that functional heterogeneity within the striatum in individuals with addictive behaviours may involve the transition from ventral to dorsal partitions; however, due to limitations of the cross-sectional design, whether the contribution of this transition to addiction was confused by individual differences remains unclear, especially for internet gaming disorder (IGD). Longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 22 IGD subjects and 18 healthy controls were collected at baseline and more than 6 months later. We examined the connectivity features of subregions within the striatum between these two scans. Read More

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Brain dysfunction of methamphetamine-associated psychosis in resting state: Approaching schizophrenia and critical role of right superior temporal deficit.

Addict Biol 2021 May 6:e13044. Epub 2021 May 6.

Shenzhen Mental Health Center, Shenzhen Kangning Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Methamphetamine (MA)-associated psychosis (MAP) is highly debilitating and common among individuals who use the drug, yet the underlying neural mechanism is not clear. This study compared brain functions between patients with MAP and those with schizophrenia during resting state and investigated the effect of brain alteration on the association between MA use and psychosis in patients with MAP. Three groups, including 24 patients with MAP, 17 with schizophrenia in first-episode (SCZ) and 31 healthy controls (HCs), were included after receiving a resting-state functional MRI scan. Read More

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The Effects of Aerobic Exercise in Patients with Early-Onset Dementia: A Scoping Review.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2021 May 6:1-8. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Early-onset dementia (EOD) defines all dementia related conditions with an onset before the age of 65 years. EOD places a large and distressing psychological, emotional and financial burden on the individuals themselves and their caregivers. For various reasons, diagnostic and treatment strategies for EOD are very challenging. Read More

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Long-term cognitive and psychiatric outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome managed with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

Respir Med 2021 Apr 28;183:106419. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, UK.

Background: Cognitive dysfunction is often reported in patients who have experienced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) therapy is increasingly used to manage ARDS patients in ICU, transforming survival rates. However, few studies have examined cognitive outcomes. Read More

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Classification of first-episode psychosis using cortical thickness: A large multicenter MRI study.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 May 3;47:34-47. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, UK.

Machine learning classifications of first-episode psychosis (FEP) using neuroimaging have predominantly analyzed brain volumes. Some studies examined cortical thickness, but most of them have used parcellation approaches with data from single sites, which limits claims of generalizability. To address these limitations, we conducted a large-scale, multi-site analysis of cortical thickness comparing parcellations and vertex-wise approaches. Read More

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Vinpocetine, cognition, and epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 3;119:107988. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Vinpocetine has been shown to enhance memory in animal models, with possible cognitive benefit in humans. The present study sought to demonstrate if vinpocetine can enhance cognition in healthy volunteers or patients with epilepsy. In addition, we compare blood levels of vinpocetine and its active metabolite (apovincaminic acid; AVA) in humans and animals to further characterize factors related to possible therapeutic benefit. Read More

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Complexity of EEG Dynamics for Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease Using Permutation Entropy Neuromarker.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Apr 16;206:106116. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey.

Background And Objective: Electroencephalogram (EEG) is one of the most demanded screening tools that investigates the effects of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) on human brain. Identification of AD in early stage gives rise to efficient treatment in dementia. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is considered as a conversion stage. Read More

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Lymphoid markers predict prognosis of pediatric and adolescent acute myeloid leukemia.

Leuk Res 2021 Apr 30;107:106603. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Healthy and Life Science School Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address:

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a complex and highly aggressive disease. To characterize the prognostic factors of pediatric patients with AML relapse, a retrospective cohort study was performed to collect data from children and adolescents, at a hematological oncology reference center, over 11 years. We selected 51 cases of the disease, diagnosed and treated uniformly, divided into two groups: with complete remission (n = 33; 65 %) and with relapse (n = 18; 35 %). Read More

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Chloroform-based liquid-liquid extraction and LC-MS/MS quantification of endocannabinoids, cortisol and progesterone in human hair.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Apr 27;201:114103. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Central Science Laboratory, University of Tasmania, Australia.

Understanding the role of endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) in disease is of increasing importance. However, tools to investigate endocannabinoid levels in humans are limited. In the current study, we report a simplified sample preparation method for quantifying endocannabinoids and steroid hormones in hair using liquid-liquid extraction combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Read More

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A biolabel research based on metabonomics reveals the therapeutic potentials of Herba Lysimachiae in synovial diseases: The dual effects on synovial platelet aggregation by prostaglandin E1/E2.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Apr 20;1174:122726. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

The Research Institute of Medicine and Pharmacy, Qiqihar Medical University, Qiqihar 161006, PR China.

Previous research has demonstrated that Herba Lysimachiae (HL) exerts the dual effects on platelet aggregation in the synovium, which may contribute to its protection against synovial lesions under different situations. However, the mechanism is unclear. In the present experiment, a biolabel research based on metabonomics was used to mine the information about the intervention of HL on synovium at the metabolite level, which may help to analyze the regulation of HL on synovial platelet aggregation and its possible treatment in synovial diseases. Read More

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Sex differences in economic decision-making: Exogenous estradiol has opposing effects on fairness framing in women and men.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 May 3;50:46-54. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Medical Psychology, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Bonn, Venusberg-Campus 1, 53127 Bonn, Germany; Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine & Health Sciences, University of Oldenburg, Hermann-Ehlers-Str. 7, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Burgeoning evidence indicates that women are more sensitive to the context of an offer and show a stronger propensity to adjust their behavior with changing fairness frames. We evaluated whether the sex hormone estradiol and associated stereotypical beliefs contribute to fairness framings by administering topical estradiol (2 mg) to 108 healthy women and 104 heathy men in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subject study design. Participants played the role of the responder in a modified version of the Ultimatum Game (UG), in which identical offers for the division of a given amount of money were framed as either fair or unfair. Read More

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Tiagabine induced modulation of oscillatory connectivity and activity match PET-derived, canonical GABA-A receptor distributions.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 May 3;50:34-45. Epub 2021 May 3.

Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre (CUBRIC), School of Psychology, Cardiff University, CF24 4HQ, Wales.

As the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a crucial role in shaping the frequency and amplitude of oscillations, which suggests a role for GABA in shaping the topography of functional connectivity and activity. This study explored the effects of pharmacologically blocking the reuptake of GABA (increasing local concentrations) using the GABA transporter 1 (GAT1) blocker, tiagabine (15 mg). In a placebo-controlled crossover design, we collected resting magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings from 15 healthy individuals prior to, and at 1-, 3- and 5- hours post, administration of tiagabine and placebo. Read More

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Aronia berry polyphenols have matrix-dependent effects on the gut microbiota.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 20;359:129831. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Food Science, 1605 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706, USA. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to determine the extent that the aronia berry matrix affects gut microbiota composition, fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and colonic anthocyanins in healthy mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed AIN-93 M control diet (C) or C with whole aronia berry (AB), aronia extract (AE), or polyphenol-depleted AB (D) at the expense of cornstarch. After one week of feeding, AB and D increased fecal anthocyanins more than AE. Read More

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A proteomic analysis of urine biomarkers in autism spectrum disorder.

J Proteomics 2021 May 3:104259. Epub 2021 May 3.

Medical School of Chinese PLA, Beijing, China; Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Medical Centre, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by early-onset social-communication challenges, restricted and repetitive behaviors, or unusual sensory-motor behaviors. A lack of specific biomarkers hinders the early diagnosis and treatment of this disease in many children. This study analyzes and validates potential urinary biomarkers using mass spectrometry proteomics. Read More

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Alarmins (IL-33, sST2, HMGB1, and S100B) as potential biomarkers for schizophrenia.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 29;138:380-387. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Experimental Immunology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

There is growing evidence that immune/inflammatory processes are related to the etiology of schizophrenia. Danger-/damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), also called alarmins, are recognized as inflammatory mediators that play an important role in the development of many infection-induced or sterile inflammatory diseases. The importance of DAMPs particles in various mental disorders is still not clear. Read More

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The combination of an innovative dry powder for inhalation and a standard cisplatin-based chemotherapy in view of therapeutic intensification against lung tumours.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Unit of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium.

Cisplatin is one of the most commonly used chemotherapy in lung cancer despite its high nephrotoxicity leading to an administration only every 3-4 weeks. This study is the first report of a preclinical investigation of therapeutic intensification combining a cisplatin dry powder for inhalation (CIS-DPI) with an intravenous (iv) cisplatin-based treatment. CIS-DPI with 50% cisplatin content (CIS-DPI-50) was developed using lipid excipients through scalable processes (high-speed and high-pressure homogenization and spray-drying). Read More

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Right prefrontal activation predicts ADHD and its severity: A TMS-EEG study in young adults.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 May 3:110340. Epub 2021 May 3.

Life Science Department and the Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Ben Gurion University in the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Objective: Here we bring a neurophysiological diagnostic tool, based on pathophysiologically-relevant brain region, that is critical for reducing the variability between clinicians, and necessary for quantitative measures of ADHD severity.

Methods: 54 healthy and 57 ADHD adults participated in the study. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded when combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the right prefrontal cortex and also recorded during the Stop Signal task. Read More

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Neurocognitive effects of melatonin treatment in healthy adults and individuals with Alzheimer's disease and insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Rehabilitation Science, Graduate School of Inje University, Gimhae, 50834, Republic of Korea; Biohealth Products Research Center (BPRC), Inje University, Gimhae, 50834, Republic of Korea; Ubiquitous Healthcare & Anti-aging Research Center (u-HARC), Inje University, Gimhae, 50834, Republic of Korea; Department of Physical Therapy, College of Healthcare Medical Science & Engineering, Gimhae, 50834, Republic of Korea; Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Harvard Medical School-Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, 02215, USA. Electronic address:

Endogenous melatonin levels are inversely associated with age and cognitive deficits. Although melatonin can improve psychopathological behavior disturbances in clinical trials, whether melatonin may also enhance cognitive function remains elusive. This study examined cognitive outcomes from randomized trials of melatonin treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD), insomnia, and healthy-subjects. Read More

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Characterization of Aerosol Generation during Various Intensities of Exercise.

Chest 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:

Background: Characterization of aerosol generation during exercise can inform development of safety recommendations in the face of COVID-19.

Research Question: Does exercise at various intensities produce aerosols in significant quantities?

Study Design And Methods: In this experimental study subjects were 8 healthy volunteers (6 males, 2 females) 20-63 years of age. The 20-minute test protocol with 5 minutes rest, 4 x 3-minute stages of exercise at 25, 50, 75, and 100% of age-predicted heart rate reserve, and 3 minutes active recovery was performed in a clean, controlled environment. Read More

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A phase I, single and continuous dose administration study on the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of neorudin, a novel recombinant anticoagulant protein, in healthy subjects.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2021 May;9(3):e00785

Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerability, safety, and pharmacokinetics of single and continuous dose administration of recombinant neorudin (EPR-hirudin, EH) by intravenous administration in healthy subjects, and to provide a safe dosage range for phase II clinical research. Forty-four subjects received EH as a single dose of between 0.2 and 2. Read More

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Abdominal arterial lesions associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: A comparative cross sectional magnetic resonance angiography study.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Louise Coote Lupus Unit, 1st Floor, Counting House, Guy's Hospital, London, . SE1 9RT, UK.

Introduction: Case reports and small case series suggest that stenotic lesions of the renal, coeliac and mesenteric arteries may occur in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) resulting in clinical consequences such as hypertension and abdominal angina.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of stenotic lesions in arteries arising from the middle aorta in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) compared with healthy, hypertensive and atherosclerotic controls.

Patients And Methods: In a cross-sectional comparative radiological study using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) we assessed 5 groups of subjects for the prevalence of stenotic lesions in arteries arising from the middle aorta: APS/aPL positive, healthy renal donors, patients with hypertension, patients with atherosclerosis defined radiologically and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and vasculitis who were negative for aPL. Read More

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Sexual Function in Patients with Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies: A Cross-sectional Study.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Rheumatology, Prague, Czech Republic.

Objectives: To date, there is almost no information concerning the sexual health of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). This cross-sectional study aimed to compare sexual function in patients with IIM to age-/sex-matched healthy controls (HC) and determine the potential impact of clinical features on sexual function.

Methods: In total, 122 women (61 with IIM, 61 age-matched HC) and 22 men (11 with IIM, 11 age-matched HC) aged 18-80 years completed gender specific selection of 11 well-established and validated questionnaires assessing sexual health and function (Female Sexual Function Index, Brief Index of Sexual Function for Women, Sexual Function Questionnaire, Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Female, International Index of Erectile Function, Male Sexual Health Questionnaire, Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Male). Read More

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System biology and bioinformatics pipeline to identify comorbidities risk association: Neurodegenerative disorder case study.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0250660. Epub 2021 May 6.

Healthy Ageing Theme, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the commonest progressive neurodegenerative condition in humans, and is currently incurable. A wide spectrum of comorbidities, including other neurodegenerative diseases, are frequently associated with AD. How AD interacts with those comorbidities can be examined by analysing gene expression patterns in affected tissues using bioinformatics tools. Read More

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The Healthy Taiwanese Eating Approach is inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality: A prospective study on the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan, 1993-1996.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0251189. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Population Health Science, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Background: Few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between foods/dietary pattern and mortality risk in the Asian population. We investigated the prospective association between foods/dietary pattern and risk of death among ethnic Chinese adults in Taiwan.

Methods: The study population included 2475 young and middle-aged adults (aged 18-65 years at baseline) who completed the questionnaires and physical examinations in the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan from 1993 to 1996. Read More

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A phase 1 clinical trial of SP16, a first-in-class anti-inflammatory LRP1 agonist, in healthy volunteers.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0247357. Epub 2021 May 6.

Virginia Commonwealth University School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America.

Background: Endogenous serine protease inhibitors are associated with anti-inflammatory and pro-survival signaling mediated via Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) signaling. SP16 is a short polypeptide that mimics the LRP1 binding portion of alpha-1 antitrypsin.

Methods: A pilot phase I, first-in-man, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled safety study was conducted to evaluate a subcutaneous injection at three dose levels of SP16 (0. Read More

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Pramipexole to Improve Cognition in Bipolar Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

From the Department of Psychiatry, Zucker Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research, Institute for Behavioral Science, Manhasset Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Hempstead Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY Brigham and Women's Hospital, Mood and Psychosis Research Program, Boston Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA.

Background: Adults with bipolar disorder (BD) often experience neurocognitive impairment that negatively impacts functioning and quality of life. Previous trials have found that dopamine agonist agents improve cognition in healthy volunteers and that adults with BD who have stable mood and mild cognitive deficits may also benefit. We hypothesized that pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, would improve neurocognitive function in patients with BD. Read More

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