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Analysis of pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements seized from the black market among bodybuilders.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Mar 30;322:110771. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Laboratoire de Pharmacologie - Toxicologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Raymond Poincaré, FHU Sepsis, AP-HP, 104 boulevard Raymond Poincaré, 92380 Garches, France; Plateforme de Spectrométrie de Masse MassSpecLab, INSERM UMR 1173, UFR des Sciences de la Santé Simone Veil, Université Paris-Saclay (Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines), 2 avenue de la source de la Bièvre, 78180 Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France. Electronic address:

Substandard/counterfeit drugs are a growing global problem. According to the World Health Organisation, counterfeit medicines are medicines that are mislabelled deliberately and fraudulently regarding their identity and/or source. In high income countries, drugs seized are mainly represented by performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs). Read More

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Comparative study on anticancer drug access times between FDA, EMA and the French temporary authorisation for use program over 13 years.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Apr 7;149:82-90. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

ANSM Agence Nationale de Sécurité des Médicaments Direction Onco-hématologie et Thérapie Cellulaire, 147 Boulevard Anatole France, Saint-Denis, France; Avec Groupe Hospitalier Mutualiste de Grenoble - Institut Daniel Hollard, 8, Rue Docteur Calmette, 38028 Grenoble cedex 1, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: The cancer incidence continues to rise worldwide. Medical innovation has a major impact on patient survival, but within drug development, it can take more than 10 years to obtain marketing authorisation (MA). The time required for access to therapeutic innovation remains critical, so France has developed a specific expanded access program named ATU, which allows the administration of drugs before the European Medicines Agency (EMA) approval. Read More

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Fungal mutualisms and pathosystems: life and death in the ambrosia beetle mycangia.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA.

Ambrosia beetles and their microbial communities, housed in specialized structures termed mycangia, represent one of the oldest and most diverse systems of mutualism and parasitism described thus far. Comprised of core filamentous fungal members, but also including bacteria and yeasts, the mycangia represent a unique adaptation that allows beetles to store and transport their source of nutrition. Although perhaps the most ancient of "farmers," the nature of these interactions remains largely understudied, with the exception of a handful of emerging pathosystems, where the fungal partner acts as a potentially devastating tree pathogen. Read More

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Registered nurses' self-rated research utilization in relation to their work climate: Using cluster analysis to search for patterns.

Int J Nurs Pract 2021 Apr 10:e12944. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Aim: To describe and study the association between registered nurses' self-rated research utilization and their perception of their work climate.

Background: Research utilization is an important part of evidence-based nursing, and registered nurses value a work climate that supports the possibility to work evidence-based.

Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted using the Creative Climate Questionnaire together with three questions measuring instrumental, conceptual and persuasive research utilization. Read More

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Negative modulation of SA-signaling components by the capsid protein of Tobacco Mosaic Virus is required for viral long-distance movement.

Plant J 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Instituto de Agrobiotecnología y Biología Molecular (IABIMO), CICVyA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), De los Reseros y N. Repetto s/n, Hurlingham, B1686IGC, Argentina.

An important aspect of plant-virus interaction is the way viruses dynamically move over long distances and how plant immunity modulates viral systemic movement. Salicylic acid (SA), a well-characterized hormone responsible for immune responses against virus, is activated through different transcription factors including TGA and WRKY. In Tobamoviruses, evidences suggest that capsid protein (CP) is required for long-distance movement, although its precise role has not been fully characterized yet. Read More

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[Salvage laryngectomy after primary radio- and radiochemotherapy : A retrospective study. German version].

HNO 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie, Universitätskliniken Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Waldstraße 1, 91054, Erlangen, Deutschland.

Background: Recurrent and residual laryngeal cancer after organ-preserving radio- or radiochemotherapy is associated with a poor prognosis. Salvage surgery is the most important therapeutic option in these cases.

Objective: The study assessed rates of recurrence and residual tumor as well as survival and complication rates after salvage laryngectomy at the authors' academic cancer center. Read More

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Diagnostic accuracy of the HEART Pathway and EDACS-ADP when combined with a 0-hour/1-hour hs-cTnT protocol for assessment of acute chest pain patients.

Emerg Med J 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Skåne University Hospital Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background/aim: In ED chest pain patients, a 0-hour/1-hour protocol based on high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) tests combined with clinical risk stratification in diagnosing acute coronary syndrome is recommended. Two of the most promising risk stratification tools are the History, ECG, Age, Risk Factors and Troponin (HEART) and Emergency Department Assessment of Chest Pain (EDAC) scores. Few studies have assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the 0-hour/1-hour hs-cTnT protocol when combined with HEART score, and none with EDACS. Read More

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Intercostal Nerve Block Using an Innovative Intraneedle Ultrasound Transducer: A Proof-of-Concept study.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

Intercostal nerve block is a widely used and effective approach to providing regional anesthesia in the thoracic region for pain relief. However, during ultrasound-guided intercostal nerve block, inaccurate identification of the anatomic structures or suboptimal positioning of the needle tip may result in complications and blockade failure. In this study, we designed an intraneedle ultrasound (INUS) system and validated its efficacy in identifying anatomic structures relevant to thoracic region anesthesia. Read More

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Impact of augmented-reality improvement in ablation catheter navigation as assessed by virtual-heart simulations of ventricular tachycardia ablation.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Apr 2;133:104366. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Alliance for Cardiovascular Diagnostic and Treatment Innovation, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Recently, an augmented reality (AR) solution allows the physician to place the ablation catheter at the designated lesion site more accurately during cardiac electrophysiology studies. The improvement in navigation accuracy may positively affect ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation termination, however assessment of this in the clinic would be difficult. Novel personalized virtual heart technology enables non-invasive identification of optimal lesion targets for infarct-related VT. Read More

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Development of p53 knockout U87MG cell line for unbiased drug delivery testing system using CRISPR-Cas9 and transcriptomic analysis.

J Biotechnol 2021 Apr 6;332:72-82. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Japan. Electronic address:

Antibody-drug conjugates offers many advantages as a drug delivery platform that allows for highly specific targeting of cell types and genes. Ideally, testing the efficacy of these systems requires two cell types to be different only in the gene targeted by the drug, with the rest of the cellular machinery unchanged, in order to minimize other potential differences from obscuring the effects of the drug. In this study, we created multiple variants of U87MG cells with targeted mutation in the TP53 gene using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, and determined that their major transcriptional differences stem from the loss of p53 function. Read More

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Generation of Murine Bone Marrow and Fetal Liver Chimeras.

Curr Protoc 2021 Apr;1(4):e79

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

The generation of radiation chimeras allows researchers to substitute the hematopoietic system of a mouse with that of one or more donors. A suspension of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is prepared from the bone marrow (BM) or the fetal liver (FL) of a donor mouse and adoptively transferred into an irradiated recipient. Within days, the donor's HSCs will engraft, and their progeny will quickly replace the blood cells of the recipient. Read More

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Simple discrete-time self-exciting models can describe complex dynamic processes: A case study of COVID-19.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0250015. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Hawkes processes are a form of self-exciting process that has been used in numerous applications, including neuroscience, seismology, and terrorism. While these self-exciting processes have a simple formulation, they can model incredibly complex phenomena. Traditionally Hawkes processes are a continuous-time process, however we enable these models to be applied to a wider range of problems by considering a discrete-time variant of Hawkes processes. Read More

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A Descriptive Study Exploring Semen Quality Among Indian Cancer Patients.

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Reproductive Medicine, Gunasheela Surgical and Maternity Hospital, Bangalore, India.

To descriptively explore semen quality among Indian men with various types of malignancies. We evaluated semen parameters of male patients referred to our hospital before commencing their cancer treatment. Four hundred sixty-one male patients who were within the age range of 15-50 years were recruited with diagnosed malignancies. Read More

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High-Resolution Ion-Mobility-Enabled Peptide Mapping for High-Throughput Critical Quality Attribute Monitoring.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

MOBILion Systems, Inc., 4 Hillman Drive, Suite 130, Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania 19317, United States.

Characterization and monitoring of post-translational modifications (PTMs) by peptide mapping is a ubiquitous assay in biopharmaceutical characterization. Often, this assay is coupled to reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (LC) separations that require long gradients to identify all components of the protein digest and resolve critical modifications for relative quantitation. Incorporating ion mobility (IM) as an orthogonal separation that relies on peptide structure can supplement the LC separation by providing an additional differentiation filter to resolve isobaric peptides, potentially reducing ambiguity in identification through mobility-aligned fragmentation and helping to reduce the run time of peptide mapping assays. Read More

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Oral immunotherapy in severe cow's milk allergic patients treated with omalizumab: real life survey from a Spanish registry.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Allergy, Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús and ARADyAL- RETICs network RD16, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, IIS-P, FibHNJ, 0006/0026, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Oral immunotherapy is a frequent treatment for the management of food allergies, but adverse events (AE) are common. This study assessed the outcome of cow's milk oral immunotherapy (MOIT) in severe cow`s milk allergic patients treated with omalizumab in a real-life setting.

Methods: OmaBASE was a national, multicenter, open and observational registry that collected clinical, immunological and treatment data from patients with food allergy receiving omalizumab. Read More

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What is the best surgical treatment for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans?

Authors:

Br J Dermatol 2021 Apr;184(4):e126-e147

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare, slow-growing skin cancer that is primarily treated with surgery. Because this cancer can spread deep into the skin and surrounding tissue in an irregular way, it is notoriously difficult to ensure that it has been completely removed after conventional surgery and histological examination. Standard treatment in the UK is either wide local excision (WLE) or Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). Read More

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Identification of Genes Post-Transcriptionally Regulated from RNA-seq: The Case Study of Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2284:271-287

Center for Genomic Science of IIT@SEMM, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Milan, Italy.

The field of transcriptional regulation generally assumes that changes in transcripts levels reflect changes in transcriptional status of the corresponding gene. While this assumption might hold true for a large population of transcripts, a considerable and still unrecognized fraction of the variation might involve other steps of the RNA lifecycle, that is the processing of the premature RNA, and degradation of the mature RNA. Discrimination between these layers requires complementary experimental techniques, such as RNA metabolic labeling or block of transcription experiments. Read More

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January 2021

A random parameter negative binomial model for signalized intersection accidents in Seoul, Korea.

Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2021 Apr 9:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Transportation Engineering and Department of Smart Cities, University of Seoul, Seoul, Korea.

A variety of statistical models were generally considered to better understand the relationship between crash occurrences and diverse factors. However, most of statistical models adapted fixed parameters which cannot incorporate time variation or sement-specific effects. To relieve this problem, this study focuses on a traffic accident frequency model using a random parameter negative binomial approach. Read More

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[Salt sensitivity and osmotic fragility are newly specified risk factors for age-related cerebral microangiopathy].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2021 ;121(3):77-85

Research Center of Neurology, Moscow, Russia.

Aim/: To assess individual values of salt sensitivity and osmotic fragility on the patient's erythrocytes and evaluate predictive ability of these parameters in the development of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD).

Material And Methods: The study included 73 patients with CSVD (48 women, mean age 60.1±6. Read More

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[Evaluation of immediate complications and 10-years neurological outcomes in patients after reconstructive interventions on the ascending aorta and the aortic arch].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2021 ;121(3):24-30

Petrovsky Russian Research Center of Surgery, Moscow, Russia.

Objective: To estimate the frequency of early postoperative neurological complications in patients undergoing planned surgery on the ascending aortic and arch of the aorta, and their long-term outcomes.

Material And Methods: The prospective study included 100 patients who were operated on at the FSBSI Petrovsky Russian Research Center of Surgery. In group I (=50), operations were performed on the aortic arch with hypothermic circulatory arrest (26 °C) and antegrade cerebral perfusion. Read More

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Drug Development.

Authors:
Jeong Kon Kim

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1310:187-209

Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center University of Ulsan, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Given the merit of high-resolution cross-sectional imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been utilized in many preclinical and clinical research fields. In addition to T2-weighted imaging for assessing anatomic changes by disease and therapeutic agents, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and MR spectroscopy can provide disease- and drug-specific functional information in both in vivo and ex vivo status. Another advantage of MRI is its ability to bridge the preclinical and clinical experiments as it allows similar study methods and environments between animals and humans. Read More

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Rolling circle amplification with fluorescently labeled dUTP-balancing the yield and degree of labeling.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Laboratory of Molecular Diagnostics, Russian Academy of Science, Miklukho-Maklaya Street, 16/10, 117997, Moscow, Russia.

Detection methods based on rolling circle amplification (RCA) have been applied to a large number of targets in molecular biology. The key feature of RCA-based methods as well as other nucleic acid amplification methods is their exceptional sensitivity, which allows the detection of molecules at low concentrations, achieved by signal amplification due to nucleic acid magnification and subsequent detection. Variations on the method, such as immuno-RCA, extend the range of potential targets that can be detected. Read More

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The ecology of wine fermentation: a model for the study of complex microbial ecosystems.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Viticulture and Oenology, South African Grape and Wine Research Institute, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Stellenbosch, 7600, South Africa.

The general interest in microbial ecology has skyrocketed over the past decade, driven by technical advances and by the rapidly increasing appreciation of the fundamental services that these ecosystems provide. In biotechnology, ecosystems have many more functionalities than single species, and, if properly understood and harnessed, will be able to deliver better outcomes for almost all imaginable applications. However, the complexity of microbial ecosystems and of the interactions between species has limited their applicability. Read More

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DisBalance: a platform to automatically build balance-based disease prediction models and discover microbial biomarkers from microbiome data.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China.

How best to utilize the microbial taxonomic abundances in regard to the prediction and explanation of human diseases remains appealing and challenging, and the relative nature of microbiome data necessitates a proper feature selection method to resolve the compositional problem. In this study, we developed an all-in-one platform to address a series of issues in microbiome-based human disease prediction and taxonomic biomarkers discovery. We prioritize the interpretation, runtime and classification accuracy of the distal discriminative balances analysis (DBA-distal) method in selecting a set of distal discriminative balances, and develop DisBalance, a comprehensive platform, to integrate and streamline the workflows of disease model building, disease risk prediction and disease-related biomarker discovery for microbiome-based binary classifications. Read More

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Automated Online Flow Cytometry Advances Microalgal Ecosystem Management as , High-Temporal Resolution Monitoring Tool.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 23;9:642671. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Sustainable Food Processing Laboratory, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Microalgae are emerging as a next-generation biotechnological production system in the pharmaceutical, biofuel, and food domain. The economization of microalgal biorefineries remains a main target, where culture contamination and prokaryotic upsurge are main bottlenecks to impair culture stability, reproducibility, and consequently productivity. Automated online flow cytometry (FCM) is gaining momentum as bioprocess optimization tool, as it allows for spatial and temporal landscaping, real-time investigations of rapid microbial processes, and the assessment of intrinsic cell features. Read More

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Integrative Clinical, Molecular, and Computational Analysis Identify Novel Biomarkers and Differential Profiles of Anti-TNF Response in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:631662. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba (IMIBIC), Hospital Reina Sofia, Universidad de Cordoba, Córdoba, Spain.

This prospective multicenter study developed an integrative clinical and molecular longitudinal study in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients to explore changes in serologic parameters following anti-TNF therapy (TNF inhibitors, TNFi) and built on machine-learning algorithms aimed at the prediction of TNFi response, based on clinical and molecular profiles of RA patients. A total of 104 RA patients from two independent cohorts undergoing TNFi and 29 healthy donors (HD) were enrolled for the discovery and validation of prediction biomarkers. Serum samples were obtained at baseline and 6 months after treatment, and therapeutic efficacy was evaluated. Read More

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Illustrated formalisms for total scattering data: a guide for new practitioners.

J Appl Crystallogr 2021 Feb 1;54(Pt 1):317-332. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Neutron Scattering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA.

The total scattering method is the simultaneous study of both the real- and reciprocal-space representations of diffraction data. While conventional Bragg-scattering analysis (employing methods such as Rietveld refinement) provides insight into the average structure of the material, pair distribution function (PDF) analysis allows for a more focused study of the local atomic arrangement of a material. Generically speaking, a PDF is generated by Fourier transforming the total measured reciprocal-space diffraction data (Bragg and diffuse) into a real-space representation. Read More

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February 2021

Restoring structural parameters of lipid mixtures from small-angle X-ray scattering data.

J Appl Crystallogr 2021 Feb 1;54(Pt 1):169-179. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Hamburg Outstation, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, 22607, Germany.

Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is widely utilized to study soluble macromolecules, including those embedded into lipid carriers and delivery systems such as surfactant micelles, phospho-lipid vesicles and bilayered nanodiscs. To adequately describe the scattering from such systems, one needs to account for both the form factor (overall structure) and long-range-order Bragg reflections emerging from the organization of bilayers, which is a non-trivial task. Presently existing methods separate the analysis of lipid mixtures into distinct procedures using form-factor fitting and the fitting of the Bragg peak regions. Read More

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February 2021

Nondestructive residual stress depth profile analysis at the inner surface of small boreholes using energy-dispersive diffraction under laboratory conditions.

J Appl Crystallogr 2021 Feb 1;54(Pt 1):32-41. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Germany.

Energy-dispersive diffraction under both laboratory and synchrotron conditions was applied to study the hoop stress in the near-surface region of the inner wall of boreholes with a small diameter of 2 mm. By use of different X-ray beam cross sections for the sinψ measurements, it is demonstrated that the borehole-to-beam-diameter ratio must be considered in the evaluation. A beam cross section which is comparable to the borehole diameter reduces the slope of the -sinψ distributions and thus invalidates the result of stress analysis. Read More

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February 2021

Clinicians' Perceptions of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) Use in Patient Care in Eastern Province Hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2021 31;14:743-750. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Health Information Management and Technology, College of Public Health, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: The picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is one of the most important tools used in patient care in many hospitals worldwide. It allows clinicians to remotely communicate and consult with other clinicians on patient cases and view diagnostic images from different angles, thus facilitating patient diagnosis and treatment. Several studies have been conducted in Saudi Arabia to evaluate different aspects of PACS use; however, no comprehensive study has been conducted in its Eastern Province. Read More

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