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Comparative genome sequencing reveals insights into the dynamics of Wolbachia in native and invasive cherry fruit flies.

Mol Ecol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Bozen-Bolzano, Italy.

Wolbachia is a maternally inherited obligate endosymbiont that can induce a wide spectrum of effects in its host, ranging from mutualism to reproductive parasitism. At the genomic level, recombination within and between strains, transposable elements, and horizontal transfer of strains between host species make Wolbachia an evolutionarily dynamic bacterial system. The invasive cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cingulata arrived in Europe from North America ~40 years ago, where it now co-occurs with the native cherry pest R. Read More

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3D morphometric study of domestic fowl glomerulus-A scanning electron microscope study of vascular corrosion casts.

Anat Histol Embryol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Anatomy and Histology with Embryology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Microvascularization of domestic fowl kidneys was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of vascular corrosion casts (VCCs). Two types of nephrons, mammalian-type (MT) and reptilian-type (RT) nephrons and their glomerular structure were analysed quantitatively by 3D morphometry. A significant difference in shape and size between the MT and RT glomeruli was found. Read More

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Flavonoid fisetin reverses impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function by regulating the function of AMPARs in a male rat model of schizophrenia.

J Neurochem 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Medical Experimental Center, Jiangxi Mental Hospital/Affiliated Mental Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330029, P.R. China.

Cognitive deficits are the core feature of schizophrenia and effective treatment strategies are still missing. Previous studies have reported that fisetin promotes long-term potentiation (LTP) and cognitive function in normal rodents and other model animals of neurological diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of fisetin on synaptic plasticity and cognitive deficits caused by a brief disruption of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) with dizocilpine (MK-801) during early development in rats. Read More

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Allelic variants of the NLR protein Rpi-chc1 differentially recognise members of the Phytophthora infestans PexRD12/31 effector superfamily through the leucine-rich repeat domain.

Plant J 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Plant Breeding, Wageningen University & Research, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708PB, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Phytophthora infestans is a pathogenic oomycete that causes the infamous potato late blight disease. Resistance (R) genes from diverse Solanum species encode intracellular receptors that trigger effective defence responses upon the recognition of cognate RXLR avirulence (Avr) effector proteins. To deploy these R genes in a durable fashion in agriculture, we need to understand the mechanism of effector recognition and the way the pathogen evades recognition. Read More

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Tales of two study designs in patients with chronic kidney failure The case of the protein-energy wasting (PEW) - inflammation syndromic complex.

J Intern Med 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplantation Unit, Grande Ospedaliera Metropolitano, Reggio Cal, Italy.

Chronic kidney failure (CKF) is among the chronic conditions with the highest risk of death. In fact, the life expectancy of these patients is inferior to that of patients with cancers. Protein-energy wasting (PEW) and inflammation (I) are common and usually concurrent conditions in CKF. Read More

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Stand up to action: The postural effect of moral dilemma decision-making and the moderating role of dual processes.

Psych J 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Previous studies have demonstrated the possibility that when people are in standing rather than sitting postures, they have a stronger cognitive control propensity, making them inclined to agree more to sacrificing one innocent person and saving more people. Furthermore, this postural effect can be moderated by dual processes. In three studies, participants read dilemma scenarios followed by a proposed behavior to sacrifice one innocent person and save five or more people. Read More

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Regression analysis of arbitrarily censored survival data under the proportional odds model.

Stat Med 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Statistics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA.

Arbitrarily censored data are referred to as the survival data that contain a mixture of exactly observed, left-censored, interval-censored, and right-censored observations. Existing research work on regression analysis on arbitrarily censored data is relatively sparse and mainly focused on the proportional hazards model and the accelerated failure time model. This article studies the proportional odds (PO) model and proposes a novel estimation approach through an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for analyzing such data. Read More

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Erastin synergizes with cisplatin via ferroptosis to inhibit ovarian cancer growth in vitro and in vivo.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Gynecology, Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Aim: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for ovarian cancer. However, acquired resistance to cisplatin treatment or serious side effects often occurs in ovarian cancer, and thus, there is an urgent need for effective and combined therapies to overcome such obstacles. In the present study, we aimed to uncover synergistic effects between erastin and cisplatin (CDDP) in inhibiting ovarian cancer cell growth by inducing ferroptosis in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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Surgical Outcomes of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in Single-Zone N2 in the Aortopulmonary Zone.

Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives:  We evaluate the surgical outcome of clinically single-zone N2 lung cancer limited to aortopulmonary zone (AP zone; lymph node #5 or #6).

Patients And Methods:  We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer, in whom mediastinal lymph node metastasis was confined to AP zone.

Results:  A total of 84 patients who underwent upfront surgery were included in final analysis. Read More

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Ambient Assisted Living: Identifying New Challenges and Needs for Digital Technologies and Service Innovation.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

On behalf of the Swedish interest organizations for Elderly, Stockholm, Sweden. Member of SeniorNet and Active Seniors non-profit organizations.

Background: The ambient assisted living (AAL) market is rapidly becoming fundamental to the delivery of health and social care services for the elderly. Worldwide many different steps have been taken to increase the engagement of older adults with these technologies. Much of this work has focused on the development of novel digital services that increase wellbeing or tackle social challenges. Read More

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How to Improve Information Technology to Support Healthcare to Address the COVID-19 Pandemic: an International Survey with Health Informatics Experts.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.

Objectives: To identify the ways in which healthcare information and communication technologies can be improved to address the challenges raised by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: The study population included health informatics experts who had been involved with the planning, development and deployment of healthcare information and communication technologies in healthcare settings in response to the challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected via an online survey. Read More

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Trials and Tribulations: mHealth Clinical Trials in the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction: Mobile phone-based interventions in cardiovascular disease are growing in popularity. A randomised control trial (RCT) for a novel smartphone app-based model of care, named TeleClinical Care - Cardiac (TCC-Cardiac), commenced in February 2019, targeted at patients being discharged after care for an acute coronary syndrome or episode of decompensated heart failure. The app was paired to a digital sphygmomanometer, weighing scale and a wearable fitness band, all loaned to the patient, and allowed clinicians to respond to abnormal readings. Read More

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Investigating the Scientific 'Infodemic' Phenomenon Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Medical Informatics, Amsterdam University Medical Center - University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The study aims at understanding the structural characteristics and content features of COVID-19 literature and public health data from the perspective of the 'Language and Meaning in Biomedicine' Working Group (LaMB WG) of IMIA. The LaMB WG has interest in conceptual characteristics, transparency, comparability, and reusability of medical information, both in science and practice.

Methods: A set of methods were used (i) investigating the overall speed and dynamics of COVID-19 publications; (ii) characterizing the concepts of COVID-19 (text mining, visualizing a semantic map of related concepts); (iii) assessing (re)usability and combinability of data sets and paper collections (as textual data sets), and checking if information is Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR). Read More

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Drawing Reproducible Conclusions from Observational Clinical Data with OHDSI.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics, New York, New York, USA.

Objective: The current observational research literature shows extensive publication bias and contradiction. The Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics (OHDSI) initiative seeks to improve research reproducibility through open science.

Methods: OHDSI has created an international federated data source of electronic health records and administrative claims that covers nearly 10% of the world's population. Read More

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Aspirin Responsiveness at a Dose of 80 mg and Its Impact on Birth Weight when Used in Twin Pregnancies: The GAP Pilot Randomized Trial.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier, Universiatire de Québec-Université Laval, Axe Santé Reproduction Mère et Enfant, Québec, Canada.

Objective:  Daily aspirin, started in the first trimester of pregnancy, is commonly used for the prevention of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction in multiple gestation. However, the optimal dose remains controversial and the evidence for the use of aspirin in multiple pregnancies is scarce. We aimed to estimate the impact of 80 mg of aspirin in twin pregnancies. Read More

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Asthma Medication Regimens in Pregnancy: Longitudinal Changes in Asthma Status.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Objective:  This study aimed to assess the impact of common asthma medication regimens on asthma symptoms, exacerbations, lung function, and inflammation during pregnancy.

Study Design:  A total of 311 women with asthma were enrolled in a prospective pregnancy cohort. Asthma medication regimen was categorized into short-acting β agonist (SABA) alone, SABA + inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), SABA + ICS + long-acting β agonist (LABA), and no asthma medications (reference). Read More

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Unexpected Term Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Admissions and a Potential Role for Centralized Remote Fetal Monitoring.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Section of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women's Service Line, Ochsner Health, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Objective:  Centralized remote fetal monitoring (CRFM) has been proposed as a method to improve the performance of intrapartum fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring and perinatal outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether CRFM was associated with a reduction in unexpected term neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions.

Study Design:  A pre-post design was used to examine the effectiveness of CRFM which was implemented in stages across five hospitals. Read More

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Reproducibility of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale during the Postpartum Period.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, Texas.

Objective:  This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in the immediate postpartum period, which we defined as between 3 and 24 hours postpartum for the purpose of this research. This is such that if it can predict scores obtained at the postpartum visit, it will be an opportunity to access psychiatric services for the patient that may otherwise be more difficult to access in the outpatient setting.

Study Design:  Longitudinal observational study, which included an analysis of 848 consecutive participants screened with the EPDS in the hospital and at the 6-week postpartum visit. Read More

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Multidisciplinary Sprint Program Achieved Specialty-Specific EHR Optimization in 20 Clinics.

Appl Clin Inform 2021 Mar 21;12(2):329-339. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

University of Colorado Health Medical Group and University of Colorado Health, Aurora, Colorado, United States.

Objective:  The objective of the study was to highlight and analyze the outcomes of software configuration requests received from Sprint, a comprehensive, clinic-centered electronic health record (EHR) optimization program.

Methods:  A retrospective review of 1,254 Sprint workbook requests identified (1) the responsible EHR team, (2) the clinical efficiency gained from the request, and (3) the EHR intervention conducted.

Results:  Requests were received from 407 clinicians and 538 staff over 31 weeks of Sprint. Read More

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Data Quality of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Documentation.

Appl Clin Inform 2021 Mar 21;12(2):320-328. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Nursing, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States.

Objective:  The objective of the study was to characterize the completeness and concordance of the electronic health record (EHR) documentation of cancer symptoms among multidisciplinary health care professionals.

Methods:  We examined the EHRs of children, adolescents, and young adults who received highly emetogenic chemotherapy and characterized the completeness and concordance of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) documentation by clinician type and by the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) coding choice.

Results:  The EHRs of 127 patients, comprising 870 patient notes, were abstracted and reviewed. Read More

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[New aspects in Fournier's gangrene - a rapid review].

Aktuelle Urol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Universitätsmedizin Rostock, Urologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Rostock.

Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a sporadic, life-threatening, necrotising infection affecting the perineum, perineal region and genitals. Published literature provides hints that the outcome of this disease has failed to improve in recent years. We have therefore performed a rapid evidence synthesis by searching the database MEDLINE. Read More

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[Non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (M0CRPC) - Apalutamide in high-risk M0CRPC: case reports from the SPARTAN study and the apalutamide compassionate use program].

Aktuelle Urol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Universitätsklinikum Münster, Urology, Münster.

The occurrence of distant metastases represents a prognostically unfavourable turning point in non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (M0CRPC). M0CRPC patients with a short PSA doubling time have a particularly high risk of progression. For a long time, there was no further treatment option for these patients apart from watchful waiting while maintaining classic androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Read More

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[Preventive Check-ups and Routine Vaccinations in Pre-school Children - An Analysis of Mutual Participation Behaviour, Taking into Account Living Conditions].

Authors:
Heribert Stich

Gesundheitswesen 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Landratsamt Landshut, Abteilung 7 Gesundheitsamt.

Aim Of The Study: Preventive screenings and vaccinations are essential health protecting measures in childhood, but no quantitative data on mutual distribution patterns of acceptance are available. The aim of the study was the quantification of distribution patterns and the identification of associations between preventive check-ups and defined routine vaccinations for children starting school, taking into account the social environment.

Methods: The 2015 school entrance health checks included documented preventive screenings and routine vaccinations on a city-wide basis. Read More

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[The Impact of Parenthood, Support, and Short-Term Contracts on Work-Family Conflict of Female and Male Residents' Career].

Gesundheitswesen 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institut für Biochemie und Molekulare Zellbiologie, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Deutschland.

Background: Work factors and work-family interference play an important role in physicians leaving clinical practice.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine residents' work-family conflict and family-work conflict in association with parental status, perceived support, and short-term contracts.

Material And Methods: Data acquisition was carried out within the multi-centric and prospective "KarMed" study in Germany at the end of the postgraduate training in 2016 (N=433). Read More

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An in vitro air-liquid interface inhalation platform for petroleum substances and constituents.

ALTEX 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

VITO NV (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Unit HEALTH, Mol, Belgium.

The goal is to optimize and show the validity of an in vitro method for inhalation testing of petroleum substances and its constituents at the air-liquid interface (ALI). The approach is demonstrated in a pilot study with ethylbenzene (EB), a mono-constituent petroleum substance using a human alveolar epithelial cell line model. This included the development and validation of a generation facility to obtain EB vapors and the optimization of an exposure system for a negative control (clean air, CA), positive control (nitrogen dioxide), and EB vapors. Read More

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The Influence of Using Different Types of Scan Bodies on the Transfer Accuracy of Implant Position: An In Vitro Study.

Int J Prosthodont 2021 Mar-Apr;34(2):254-260

Purpose: To assess the absolute linear distances of three different intraoral scan bodies (ISBs) using an intraoral scanner compared to a conventional impression in a common clinical model setup with a gap and a free-end situation in the maxilla.

Materials And Methods: An implant master model with a reference cube was digitized using x-ray computed tomography and served as the reference file. Digital impressions (TRIOS, 3Shape) were taken using three different ISB manufacturers: NT Trading, Kulzer, and Medentika (n = 10 per group). Read More

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Color Stability and Mechanical Properties of Two Commonly Used Silicone Elastomers with e-Skin and Reality Coloring Systems.

Int J Prosthodont 2021 Mar-Apr;34(2):204-211

Purpose: To evaluate the color stability and mechanical properties of two commonly used maxillofacial silicone elastomers after addition of pigments and opacifiers and before and after artificial aging.

Materials And Methods: This study evaluated two maxillofacial silicone elastomers: A-2000 and M511. Two different pigment and opacifier systems (e-Skin and Reality Series) were used with the elastomers. Read More

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Medium- and Long-Term Survival Rates of Implant-Supported Single and Partial Restorations at a Maximum Follow-up of 12 Years: A Retrospective Study.

Int J Prosthodont 2021 Mar-Apr;34(2):183-191

Purpose: To present medium- and long-term biologic outcomes of implant-supported single-tooth restorations and fixed partial dentures and to analyze their correlations with prosthesis and patient characteristics.

Materials And Methods: The records of patients treated with implant-supported fixed restorations between 2004 and 2019 reporting the presence or absence of peri-implantitis and/or implant failure were analyzed. The cumulative survival rate (%) over time was calculated, as well as the cumulative prevalence of units free of peri-implantitis. Read More

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Effects of Different Therapeutic Modalities on the Clicking Sound and Quantitative Assessment of the Vertical and Lateral Mandibular Movements of Patients with Internal Derangements of the Temporomandibular Joint.

Int J Prosthodont 2021 Mar-Apr;34(2):173-182

Purpose: To compare the efficacy of low-dose laser therapy to that of conservative treatment using two different occlusal splints (stabilization and anterior repositioning splints) in patients with internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ).

Materials And Methods: The study population consisted of patients with disc displacement with reduction diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I and Axis II. In addition, disc displacement with reduction was confirmed in all patients using TMJ ultrasonography. Read More

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Artificial intelligence in bladder cancer prognosis: a pathway for personalized medicine.

Curr Opin Urol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Sorbonne University, GRC 5, Predictive Onco-Urology, APHP, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hôpital, Urology, Paris, France Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Department of Urology, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose Of Review: This review aims to provide an update of the results of studies published in the last 2 years involving the use of artificial intelligence in bladder cancer (BCa) prognosis.

Recent Findings: Recently, many studies evaluated various artificial intelligence models to predict BCa evolution using either deep learning or machine learning. Many trials evidenced a better prediction of recurrence-free survival and overall survival for muscle invasive BCa (MIBC) for deep learning-based models compared with clinical stages. Read More

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