214,452 results match your criteria studies testing


Increase in SARS-CoV-2 infected biomedical waste among low middle-income countries: environmental sustainability and impact with health implications.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of the Gambia, Serekunda, The Gambia.

Studies have shown that severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious disease, with global deaths rising to about 360,438 as of 28 May 2020. Different countries have used various approaches such as lockdown, social distancing, maintenance of personal hygiene, and increased establishment of testing and isolation centers to manage the pandemic. Poor biomedical waste (BMW) management, treatment, and disposal techniques, especially SARS-CoV-2 infected BMW, may threaten the environmental and public health in most developing countries and, by extension, impact the economic status of individuals and the nation at large. Read More

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Deep neural network-based approach to improving radiomics analysis reproducibility in liver cancer: effect on image resampling.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Nuclear & Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA, Atlanta, Georgia, UNITED STATES.

Objectives: To test the effect of traditional up-sampling slice thickness (ST) methods on the reproducibility of CT radiomics features of liver tumors and investigate the improvement using a deep neural network (DNN) scheme.

Methods: CT images with ≤ 1 mm ST in the public dataset were converted to low resolution (3 mm, 5 mm) CT images. A DNN model was trained for the conversion from 3 mm-ST and 5 mm-ST to 1 mm-ST and compared with conventional interpolation-based methods (cubic, linear, nearest) using structural similarity (SSIM) and peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR). Read More

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Self-reported reasons for colonoscopy among adults aged 45-49 versus 50 years and older from 2010-2018.

Cancer Epidemiol 2021 Jul 19;74:101984. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Background: In May of 2018, the American Cancer Society lowered the age of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening initiation from 50 to 45 years and in October 2020, United States Preventive Services Task Force published draft guidelines also lowering age of screening initiation to 45 years. Evaluating guideline adherence is needed; however, the majority of prior research on cancer screening do not distinguish whether colonoscopy was performed for true screening purposes or for post-symptomatic diagnosis.

Methods: Using data from the National Health Interview Survey between 2010 to mid-2018, we assessed response to the question "What was the MAIN reason you had [last] colonoscopy?" stratified by age (45-49 versus 50+ years). Read More

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Sinusoidal analysis reveals a non-linear and dopamine-dependent relationship between ambient illumination and motor activity in larval zebrafish.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jul 19:136121. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Pittsburgh Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Pittsburgh VA Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Larval zebrafish show stereotyped motor responses to changes in ambient illumination. The responses can be evaluated in 96-well plates, and are used widely to assess neurological function in zebrafish models. However, the square-wave (on/off) light stimuli commonly employed in these studies do not allow analysis of the relationship between motor activity and illumination intensity or its rate of change. Read More

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STRIDES - STudying Risk to Improve DisparitiES in Cervical Cancer in Mississippi - Design and baseline results of a Statewide Cohort Study.

Prev Med 2021 Jul 19:106740. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

National Cancer Institute, Clinical Genetics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, Rockville, MD, United States of America. Electronic address:

Cervical cancer rates in Mississippi are disproportionately high, particularly among Black individuals; yet, research in this population is lacking. We designed a statewide, racially diverse cohort of individuals undergoing cervical screening in Mississippi. Here, we report the baseline findings from this study. Read More

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Comparison of culture with antibiogram to NGS using bacterial isolates and formalin fixed paraffin embedded gastric biopsies.

Gastroenterology 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Medicine, Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

Introduction: The decline in Helicobacter pylori cure rates emphasizes the need for readily available methods to determine antimicrobial susceptibility.

Aim: To compare targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) and culture-based H. pylori susceptibility testing using clinical isolates and paired formalin-fixed paraffin embedded gastric biopsies (FFPE). Read More

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Using Transcriptomics and Metabolomics to Understand Species Differences in Sensitivity to Chlorpyrifos in Japanese Quail and Double-Crested Cormorant Embryos.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Ecotoxicology and Wildlife Health Division, Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada, K1A 0H3.

Modern 21 century toxicity testing makes use of omics technologies to address critical questions in toxicology and chemical management. Of interest are questions relating to chemical mechanisms of toxicity, differences in species sensitivity, and translation of molecular effects to observable apical endpoints. Our study addressed these questions by comparing apical outcomes and multiple omics responses in early-life stage exposure studies with Japanese quail (JQ; Coturnix japonica) and double-crested cormorant (DCCO; Phalacrocorax auritus), representing a model and ecological species, respectively. Read More

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Role of Flow Cytometric Immunophenotyping for Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma in Small Biopsy and Cytology Specimens.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

From the Hematopathology (Chan, Gao, Sigler, Baik, Roshal, Lin), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Context.—: The diagnosis of classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) traditionally requires surgical tissue biopsy because of the paucity of diagnostic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. Diagnosis can be challenging in small core needle and cytologic biopsies, which are increasingly used because of reduced costs and minimal invasiveness. Read More

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Population-based utility scores for HPV infection and cervical squamous cell carcinoma among Australian Indigenous women.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254575. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Adelaide Dental School, Australian Research Centre for Population Oral Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

Objective: Working in partnership with Indigenous communities in South Australia, we aimed to develop, pilot test and estimate utility scores for health states relating to cervical cancer screening, precancer, and invasive cervical cancer and precancer/cancer treatment among Indigenous women.

Methods: Development and pilot testing of hypothetical cervical cancer health states, specifically through the lens of being an Indigenous Australian woman, was done with an Indigenous Reference Group in conjunction with five female Indigenous community members. Six health states were developed. Read More

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Risk of Late-Onset Breast Cancer in Genetically Predisposed Women.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 22:JCO2100531. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Purpose: The prevalence of germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in established breast cancer predisposition genes in women in the general population over age 65 years is not well-defined. However, testing guidelines suggest that women diagnosed with breast cancer over age 65 years might have < 2.5% likelihood of a PV in a high-penetrance gene. Read More

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Emerging Technologies for In Vitro Inhalation Toxicology.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Jul 22:e2100633. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Rayen School of Engineering, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH, 44555, USA.

Respiratory toxicology remains a major research area in the 21st century since current scenario of airborne viral infection transmission and pollutant inhalation is expected to raise the annual morbidity beyond 2 million. Clinical and epidemiological research connecting human exposure to air contaminants to understand adverse pulmonary health outcomes is, therefore, an immediate subject of human health assessment. Important observations in defining systemic effects of environmental contaminants on inhalation metabolic dysfunction, liver health, and gastrointestinal tract have been well explored with in vivo models. Read More

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Investigating Endocrine Disrupting Properties of Chemicals in Fish and Amphibians: Opportunities to Apply the 3Rs.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Shell Health, Shell International B.V., Carel van Bylandtlaan 16, 2596 HR, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Many regulations are beginning to explicitly require investigation of a chemical's endocrine disrupting properties as a part of the safety assessment process, for substances already on or about to be placed on the market. Different jurisdictions are applying distinct approaches. However, all share a common theme requiring testing for endocrine activity and adverse effects, typically involving in vitro and in vivo assays on selected endocrine pathways. Read More

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The emotion-elicited late positive potential is stable across five testing sessions.

Psychophysiology 2021 Jul 22:e13904. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Many studies have examined associations between neural and behavioral markers of attention to emotion and individual differences in affective functioning. However, the majority of these studies are cross-sectional, and examine associations between brain, behavior, and individual differences at one or two time-points, limiting our understanding of the extent to which these neural responses reflect trait-like patterns of attention. The present study used the Emotional Interrupt paradigm, and examined the stability and trajectory of behavioral (i. Read More

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Clinical Study on Plant Galactagogue Worldwide in Promoting Women's Lactation: a Scoping Review.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Medical Biotechnology Laboratory, Central Research Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Human milk is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the general well-being of infants. However, many mothers face an insufficient milk supply to breastfeed their children. Galactagogue, in particular, plant galactagogue, serves as a method to promote lactation. Read More

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Understanding Ethical Challenges in Medical Education Research.

Authors:
Robert Klitzman

Acad Med 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

R. Klitzman is professor of psychiatry and director, Masters of Bioethics Program, Columbia University, New York, New York.

Studies of rapidly advancing biomedical and electronic technologies, ongoing needs to address health disparities, and new online educational modalities are vital to ensure that medical education meets the changing needs of trainees and the public. As medical education continues to evolve, research is increasingly critical to help improve it, but medical education research can pose unique ethical challenges. As research participants, medical trainees may face several risks, and in many ways constitute a vulnerable group. Read More

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Isolating the Effect of Off-Road Glance Duration on Driving Performance: An Exemplar Study Comparing HDD and HUD in Different Driving Scenarios.

Hum Factors 2021 Jul 22:187208211031416. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

6123 The University of Nottingham, University Park, UK.

Objective: We controlled participants' glance behavior while using head-down displays (HDDs) and head-up displays (HUDs) to isolate driving behavioral changes due to use of different display types across different driving environments.

Background: Recently, HUD technology has been incorporated into vehicles, allowing drivers to, in theory, gather display information without moving their eyes away from the road. Previous studies comparing the impact of HUDs with traditional displays on human performance show differences in both drivers' visual attention and driving performance. Read More

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Testing potential mechanisms underlying test-potentiated new learning.

J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Psychology and Language Sciences.

An emerging body of studies demonstrates that practicing retrieval of studied information, by comparison with restudying or no treatment, can facilitate subsequent learning and retrieval of new information, a phenomenon termed the (FTE) or . Several theoretical explanations have been proposed to account for the FTE. A release-from-PI theory proposes that interpolated testing induces context changes and enhances event segregation, which in turn protect new learning from proactive interference (PI). Read More

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Diversity fatigue: A survey for measuring attitudes towards diversity enhancing efforts in academia.

Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Office of Research.

Objectives: Academia is grappling with how to address persistent underrepresentation and reduce inequities. With so many diversity-enhancing initiatives underway, some within the academic community might experience "diversity fatigue," a construct we use to understand majority groups' feelings of weariness toward diversity efforts.

Method: For our testing purposes, we focused on ethnic and minority underrepresentation, and collected data in four studies from 473 White American students and faculty. Read More

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Interventions for the treatment of persistent post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 07 22;7:CD013876. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Cochrane UK, Oxford, UK.

Background: Olfactory dysfunction is an early and sensitive marker of COVID-19 infection. Although self-limiting in the majority of cases, when hyposmia or anosmia persists it can have a profound effect on quality of life. Little guidance exists on the treatment of post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction, however several strategies have been proposed from the evidence relating to the treatment of post-viral anosmia (such as medication or olfactory training). Read More

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Feasibility and reliability of evaluate PD-L1 expression determination using small biopsy specimens in non-small cell lung cancer.

Thorac Cancer 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is a useful biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who would probably benefit from immunotherapy. In most patients with advanced stage NSCLC, only small biopsy specimens were available for the evaluation of PD-L1 expression. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and reliability of PD-L1 testing on small biopsy samples. Read More

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Liver microphysiological platforms for drug metabolism applications.

Cell Prolif 2021 Jul 22:e13099. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Sciences and Humanities, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.

Drug development is a costly and lengthy process with low success rates. To improve the efficiency of drug development, there has been an increasing need in developing alternative methods able to eliminate toxic compounds early in the drug development pipeline. Drug metabolism plays a key role in determining the efficacy of a drug and its potential side effects. Read More

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Cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonists alter aspects of risk/reward decision making independent of toluene-mediated effects.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, MSC 861, 30 Courtenay Drive, Charleston, SC, 29425-5712, USA.

Drugs of abuse including cannabis and inhalants impair risk/reward decision making. Cannabis use is often concurrent with inhalant intoxication; yet, preclinical studies investigating the role of endocannabinoids in inhalant misuse are limited. To address this gap in the literature, we used the well-validated probabilistic discounting task to assess risk/reward decision making in rodents following combinations of toluene vapor (a common inhalant) and manipulations of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) signaling. Read More

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Autosomal Dominant ANO5-Related Disorder Associated With Myopathy and Gnathodiaphyseal Dysplasia.

Neurol Genet 2021 Aug 16;7(4):e612. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Departments of Medicine, Nerve and Muscle Center of Texas (A.S.); Baylor College of Medicine (A.S.), Houston; Department of Neurology (S.K.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; and Division of Genetics and Genomic Medicine (M.S.), Department of Pediatrics, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, MO.

Objective: To investigate the molecular basis of muscle disease and gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD) in a large kindred with 11 (6 women and 5 men) affected family members.

Methods: We performed clinical assessment of 3 patients and collected detailed clinical and family history data on 8 additional patients. We conducted molecular genetic analyses on 5 patients using comprehensive neuromuscular disorder panels, exome sequencing (ES), and targeted testing for specific genetic variants. Read More

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Evaluation of Autologous Protein Solution Injection for Treatment of Superficial Digital Flexor Tendonitis in an Equine Model.

Front Vet Sci 2021 5;8:697551. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA, United States.

Autologous protein solution (APS) has been used anecdotally for intralesional treatment of tendon and ligament injuries, however, its use in these injuries has never been studied . Our objective was to evaluate the effect of APS on tendon healing in an equine superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendonitis model. We hypothesized intralesional injection of APS would result in superior structural and biomechanical healing. Read More

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Herpesviruses Serology Distinguishes Different Subgroups of Patients From the United Kingdom Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Biobank.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 5;8:686736. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

CEAUL-Centro de Estatística e Aplicações da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

The evidence of an association between Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) and chronic herpesviruses infections remains inconclusive. Two reasons for the lack of consistent evidence are the large heterogeneity of the patients' population with different disease triggers and the use of arbitrary cutoffs for defining seropositivity. In this work we re-analyzed previously published serological data related to 7 herpesvirus antigens. Read More

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Cervical Myelopathy and Peripheral Polyneuropathy in a 26-Year-Old Female Following Bariatric Surgery.

Cureus 2021 Jun 19;13(6):e15759. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Medical College of Wisconsin, Wauwatosa, USA.

The frequency, clinical course, and prognosis of the neurological sequelae following bariatric surgery remain obscure and continue to be a subject of medical research. We present the case of a 26-year-old female who underwent sleeve gastrectomy for the treatment of obesity and demonstrated progressive neurological deficits within months of her procedure. Extensive testing revealed very low thiamine and copper levels, peripheral polyneuropathy, and spinal cord lesions on imaging. Read More

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Recent Insights into the Management of Pleural Infection.

Int J Gen Med 2021 14;14:3415-3429. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Arnau de Vilanova University Hospital, Lleida, Spain.

Pleural infection in adults has considerable morbidity and continues to be a life-threatening condition. The term "pleural infection" encompasses complicated parapneumonic effusions and primary pleural infections, and includes but is not limited to empyema, which refers to collection of pus in the pleural cavity. The incidence of pleural infection in adults has been continuously increasing over the past two decades, particularly in older adults, and most of such patients have comorbidities. Read More

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Prevalence and predictors of germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among young patients with breast cancer in Jordan.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14906. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, King Hussein Cancer Center, Queen Rania Al Abdullah Street, P.O. Box: 1269, Amman, 11941, Jordan.

BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are not uncommon in breast cancer patients. Western studies show that such mutations are more prevalent among younger patients. This study evaluates the prevalence of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 among breast cancer patients diagnosed at age 40 or younger in Jordan. Read More

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On the robustness of inference of association with the gut microbiota in stool, rectal swab and mucosal tissue samples.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14828. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Bioinformatics and Genomics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9331 Robert D. Snyder Rd, Room 361, Charlotte, NC, 28223, USA.

The gut microbiota plays an important role in human health and disease. Stool, rectal swab and rectal mucosal tissue samples have been used in individual studies to survey the microbial community but the consequences of using these different sample types are not completely understood. In this study, we report differences in stool, rectal swab and rectal mucosal tissue microbial communities with shotgun metagenome sequencing of 1397 stool, swab and mucosal tissue samples from 240 participants. Read More

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