191,298 results match your criteria studies flow

Trout-like multifunctional piezoelectric robotic fish and energy harvester.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Dr NW, Atlanta, Georgia, 30332, UNITED STATES.

This work presents our experimental studies on a trout-inspired multifunctional robotic fish as an underwater swimmer and energy harvester. Fiber-based flexible piezoelectric composites with interdigitated electrodes, specifically Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) structures, strike a balance between the deformation and actuation force capabilities to generate hydrodynamic propulsion without requiring additional mechanisms for motion amplification. A pair of MFC laminates bracketing a passive fin functions like artificial muscle when driven out of phase to expand and contract on each side to create bending. Read More

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Neuromodulation using electroosmosis.

J Neural Eng 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 842 W Taylor St, 2039 ERF, MC 251, USA, Chicago, Illinois, 60607, UNITED STATES.

Objective: Our laboratory has proposed chemical stimulation of retinal neurons using exogenous glutamate as a biomimetic strategy for treating vision loss caused by photoreceptor degenerative diseases. Although our previous in-vitro studies using pneumatic actuation indicate that chemical retinal stimulation is achievable, an actuation technology that is amenable to microfabrication, as needed for an in-vivo implantable device, has yet to be realized. In this study, we sought to evaluate electroosmotic flow (EOF) as a mechanism for delivering small quantities of glutamate to the retina. Read More

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Natalizumab differentially affects plasmablasts and B cells in multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 May 1;52:102987. Epub 2021 May 1.

Danish Multiple Sclerosis Center, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background: Natalizumab treatment increases the frequencies of B cells in blood but reduces IgG in blood and CSF. Plasmablasts are important in the production of IgG, and the development of plasmablasts is CD49d dependent.

Objective: We hypothesized that natalizumab treatment affects the development of plasmablasts. Read More

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Climate change impact on EU rivers' dilution capacity and ecological status.

Water Res 2021 Apr 22;199:117166. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA). Carrer Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona, Spain; University of Girona. Plaça de Sant Domènec 3, 17004 Girona, Spain. Electronic address:

Impacts from urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to receiving riverine surface water bodies (SWBs) depend on the load of contaminants discharged, as well as on their dilution capacity. Yet, climate change impacts on such dilution capacity and ultimately on the SWBs ecological status remain unclear. Here, we assess SWBs dilution capacity across the European continent to identify most vulnerable areas using information from centralized European databases. Read More

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Phylogenomic approach reveals strong signatures of introgression in the rapid diversification of Neotropical true fruit flies (Anastrepha: Tephritidae).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 May 10:107200. Epub 2021 May 10.

Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil.

New sequencing techniques have allowed us to explore the variation on thousands of genes and elucidate evolutionary relationships of lineages even in complex scenarios, such as when there is rapid diversification. That seems to be the case of species in the genus Anastrepha, which shows great species diversity that has been divided into 21 species groups, several of which show wide geographical distribution. The fraterculus group has several economically important species and it is also an outstanding model for speciation studies, since it includes several lineages that have diverged recently possibly in the presence of interspecific gene flow. Read More

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Diagnosis of Vertical Root Fractures by Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Root Filled Teeth with Confirmation by Direct Visualization- A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Endod 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Meenakshi Academy Of Higher Education, Chennai 600095, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Aim: The purpose of this review was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CBCT in detecting vertical root fracture in root filled teeth when compared to a reference standard (direct visualization).

Methods: Electronic searches were performed in Medline, Scopus, Cochrane and Grey Literature for English language articles till June 2020. Prospective and retrospective clinical studies using CBCT to diagnose VRF in root filled teeth were included. Read More

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A Novel Report on the Compassionate Use of Baricitinib in Treating a Pediatric Patient With Severe Symptoms of COVID-19 Infection.

J Med Cases 2021 Mar 19;12(3):94-98. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USA.

Since the outbreak of the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there has been an increasing need for treatment to decrease morbidity and mortality of patients presenting with severe disease symptoms. There has been increasing evidence to suggest that the pathophysiological basis is a severe inflammatory response that resembles the cytokine release syndrome. Current strategies to counteract this involve modifiers of the immune response such as interleukin (IL)-6 receptor blockers and Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors. Read More

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The natural sequence of events in larval settlement and metamorphosis of Hydroides elegans (Polychaeta; Serpulidae).

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0249692. Epub 2021 May 13.

Kewalo Marine Laboratory, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawai'i, United States of America.

The broadly distributed serpulid worm Hydroides elegans has become a model organism for studies of marine biofouling, development and the processes of larval settlement and metamorphosis induced by surface microbial films. Contrasting descriptions of the initial events of these recruitment processes, whether settlement is induced by (1) natural multi-species biofilms, (2) biofilms composed of single bacterial species known to induce settlement, or (3) a bacterial extract stimulated the research described here. We found that settlement induced by natural biofilms or biofilms formed by the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea is invariably initiated by attachment and secretion of an adherent and larva-enveloping primary tube, followed by loss of motile cilia and ciliated cells and morphogenesis. Read More

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Incorporating the speciation process into species delimitation.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 May 13;17(5):e1008924. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

The "multispecies" coalescent (MSC) model that underlies many genomic species-delimitation approaches is problematic because it does not distinguish between genetic structure associated with species versus that of populations within species. Consequently, as both the genomic and spatial resolution of data increases, a proliferation of artifactual species results as within-species population lineages, detected due to restrictions in gene flow, are identified as distinct species. The toll of this extends beyond systematic studies, getting magnified across the many disciplines that rely upon an accurate framework of identified species. Read More

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Log reduction of leukemic cells and minimal residual disease by flow cytometry represent effective predictors of clinical outcome in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Hematology and Stem Cell Transplant Unit, Fondazione IRCCS "Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza", San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.

Background: Nowadays minimal residual disease (MRD) and log-reduction of leukemic cells are poorly investigated in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with hypometilating agents (HMAs). Studies focusing on MRD in elderly AML patients who received HMAs are scant and devoid of rigorous criteria for both enrollment and monitoring. Log-reduction has never been investigated in these patients. Read More

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Long non‑coding RNA NEAT1 regulates glioma cell proliferation and apoptosis by competitively binding to microRNA‑324‑5p and upregulating KCTD20 expression.

Oncol Rep 2021 Jul 13;46(1). Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, P.R. China.

Previous studies have demonstrated that long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve a key role in the development and progression of several types of cancer, including glioma. The lncRNA nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) contributes to cancer growth through its effects on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and drug resistance. However, the exact regulatory mechanisms via which NEAT1 acts in glioma are unclear. Read More

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Long-term stability study and evaluation of intact steroid conjugate ratios after the administration of endogenous steroids.

Drug Test Anal 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Doping Control Laboratory (DoCoLab), Ghent University (UGent), Department Diagnostic Sciences, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, B-9000, Gent, Belgium.

The most frequently detected substances prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) belong to the anabolic steroids class. The most challenging compounds among this class are the endogenous anabolic steroids, which are detected by quantitative measurement of testosterone and its metabolites with a so-called 'steroid profiling' method. The current steroid profile is based on the concentrations and ratios of the sum of free and glucuronidated steroids. Read More

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3D Cell Culture Models: Drug Pharmacokinetics, Safety Assessment, and Regulatory Consideration.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, FDA, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Nonclinical testing has served as a foundation for evaluating potential risks and effectiveness of investigational new drugs in humans. However, the current two-dimensional (2D) in vitro cell culture systems cannot accurately depict and simulate the rich environment and complex processes observed in vivo, while animal studies present significant drawbacks with inherited species-specific differences and low throughput for increased demands. To improve the nonclinical prediction of drug safety and efficacy, researchers continue to develop novel models to evaluate and promote the use of improved cell- and organ-based assays for more accurate representation of human susceptibility to drug response. Read More

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Effects of two patient-specific dosing protocols on measurement of myocardial blood flow with 3D Rb cardiac PET.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Purpose: Clinical measurement of myocardial blood flow (MBF) has emerged as an important component of routine PET-CT assessment of myocardial perfusion in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Although multiple society guidelines recommend patient-specific dosing, there is a lack of studies evaluating the efficacy of patient-specific dosing for quantitative MBF accuracy.

Methods: Two patient-specific dosing protocols (weight- and BMI-adjusted) were retrospectively evaluated in 435 consecutive clinical patients referred for PET myocardial perfusion assessment. Read More

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let-7c-5p regulates CyclinD1 in fluoride-mediated osteoblast proliferation and activation.

Toxicol Sci 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Public Health, The Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Disease Control, Ministry of Education, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, 550025, China.

Endemic fluorosis is caused by the intake of high environmental fluoride levels, which causes dental and skeletal fluorosis. Osteoblast proliferation and activation is closely related to skeletal fluorosis and is tightly regulated by the cell cycle. Several biological processes, including bone metabolism and osteoblast proliferation and activation, are regulated by a type of non-coding RNA called microRNAs (miRNAs). Read More

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Depth estimates of anomalous subsurface sources using 2D/3D modeling of potential field data: implications for groundwater dynamics in the Ziway-Shala Lakes Basin, Central Main Ethiopian Rift.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 20;7(4):e06843. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Addis Ababa University Institute of Geophysics, Space Science and Astronomy (IGSSA), Ethiopia.

Quantitative analysis of potential field data are made in the Ziway-Shala lakes basin over an area bounded by 3800' E - 3930' E and 700' N - 830' N. Most previous geophysical studies in the region under consideration focus on mapping the deep crustal structures and undulation of the Moho depth. Only few studies are targeted at mapping the shallow subsurface structures. Read More

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Evidence that hematopoietic stem cells in human umbilical cord blood is infectable by dengue virus: proposing a vertical transmission candidate.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 20;7(4):e06785. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Background: Recent studies have shown that dengue virus (DENV) can efficiently infect bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as well as the placenta of pregnant women. Although mother-to-infant vertical transmission of DENV through the placenta has been well documented, the evidence of cell-associated vertical transmission is still unknown. Whether DENV can infect umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells before reaching the fetus remains to be explored. Read More

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Interleukin-17-Producing CD4 T Cells Promote Inflammatory Response and Foster Disease Progression in Hyperlipidemic Patients and Atherosclerotic Mice.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 26;8:667768. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

College of Pharmacy, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Interleukin-17-producing CD4 T cells (Th17 cells) play important roles in the progression of atherosclerosis. However, most of the studies were focused on the advanced stage of atherosclerosis. Read More

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Recurrent and Residual Aneurysms After Woven EndoBridge (WEB) Therapy: What's Next?

Cureus 2021 Apr 10;13(4):e14404. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Neurological Surgery, University of California Davis, Sacramento, USA.

The prevalence of recurrent and residual aneurysms following Woven EndoBridge (WEB) treatment is not insignificant. The goal of this systematic review was to evaluate retreatment methods for such aneurysms and their outcomes. PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases were systematically searched, and results were reported according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Read More

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Morphometric Gaussian Process for Landmarking on Grey Matter Tetrahedral Models.

Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 2020 Jan;11330

School of Computing, Informatics, and Decision Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, 699 S Mill Ave, Tempe, USA.

High-dimensional manifold modeling increases the precision and performance of cortical morphometry analysis by densely sampling on the grey matters. But this also brings redundant information and increased computational burden. Gaussian process regression has been used to tackle this problem by learning a mapping to a low-dimensional subspace. Read More

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January 2020

Forecasting the SARS COVID-19 pandemic and critical care resources threshold in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries: population analysis of aggregate data.

BMJ Open 2021 05 11;11(5):e044102. Epub 2021 May 11.

Social Statistics and Demography, and Centre for Global Health and Policy, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK

Objective: To generate cross-national forecasts of COVID-19 trajectories and quantify the associated impact on essential critical care resources for disease management in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries.

Design: Population-level aggregate analysis.

Setting: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Saudi Arabia. Read More

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False lumen pressure estimation in type B aortic dissection using 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance: comparisons with aortic growth.

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2021 May 13;23(1):51. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Chronic type B aortic dissection (TBAD) is associated with poor long-term outcome, and accurate risk stratification tools remain lacking. Pressurization of the false lumen (FL) has been recognized as central in promoting aortic growth. Several surrogate imaging-based metrics have been proposed to assess FL hemodynamics; however, their relationship to enlarging aortic dimensions remains unclear. Read More

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Anticancer effects of bifidobacteria on colon cancer cell lines.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 May 12;21(1):258. Epub 2021 May 12.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC), with a growing incidence trend worldwide, is resistant to apoptosis and has uncontrolled proliferation. It is recently reported that probiotic microorganisms exert anticancer effects. The genus Bifidobacterium, one of the dominant bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal tract, has received increasing attention because of widespread interest in using it as health-promoting microorganisms. Read More

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Design, synthesis and in vitro antitumor evaluation of novel pyrazole-benzimidazole derivatives.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 May 9:128097. Epub 2021 May 9.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Natural Products & Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry & Pharmacy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, PR China.

A series of novel pyrazole-benzimidazole derivatives (6-42) have been designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against the HCT116, MCF-7 and Huh-7 cell lines. Among them, compounds 17, 26 and 35 showed significant antiproliferative activity against HCT116 cell lines with the IC values of 4.33, 5. Read More

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Active Flow Control and Dynamic Analysis in Droplet Microfluidics.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, USA; email:

Droplet-based microfluidics has emerged as an important subfield within the microfluidic and general analytical communities. Indeed, several unique applications such as digital assay readout and single-cell sequencing now have commercial systems based on droplet microfluidics. Yet there remains room for this research area to grow. Read More

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The Mechanism of Macular Sparing.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Program in Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA; email:

Patients with homonymous hemianopia sometimes show preservation of the central visual fields, ranging up to 10°. This phenomenon, known as macular sparing, has sparked perpetual controversy. Two main theories have been offered to explain it. Read More

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In Situ Oil Separation and Collection from Water under Surface Wave Condition.

Langmuir 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer for Low Grade Energy Utilization, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China.

Removal of oil from water is strongly desired due to environmental pollution, and related studies are mainly limited to the material itself. Here, we propose an oil-water separation device, called a floating well, which includes a container for oil collection and a modified mesh screen for oil separation. The mesh screen is superhydrophilic to oil and superhydrophobic to water. Read More

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Microbial corrosion of DSS 2205 in an acidic chloride environment under continuous flow.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0251524. Epub 2021 May 12.

Energy and Resources Institute, College of Engineering, Information Technology and Environment, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.

Corrosion under flow conditions is a major problem in the transportation industry. Various studies have shown the direct impact of different flow rates on bacteria biofilm formation, mass transfer and resulting different corrosion behaviour of materials in neutral environments. However, little is understood on corrosion under acidic flow conditions. Read More

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Gastric Mucosal Immune Profiling and Dysregulation in Idiopathic Gastroparesis.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2021 May 12;12(5):e00349. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, USA.

Introduction: It is unclear how immune perturbations may influence the pathogenesis of idiopathic gastroparesis, a prevalent functional disorder of the stomach which lacks animal models. Several studies have noted altered immune characteristics in the deep gastric muscle layer associated with gastroparesis, but data are lacking for the mucosal layer, which is endoscopically accessible. We hypothesized that immune dysregulation is present in the gastroduodenal mucosa in idiopathic gastroparesis and that specific immune profiles are associated with gastroparesis clinical parameters. Read More

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Relationship Between Macular Vessel Density and Total Retinal Blood Flow in Primary Open-angle Glaucoma.

J Glaucoma 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Prcis: An association between macular vessel density and total retinal blood flow was demonstrated in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma and visual field loss.

Purpose: To report relationships of macular vessel density metrics and total retinal blood flow in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).

Materials And Methods: A total of 24 POAG and 19 healthy control subjects participated in the study. Read More

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